Taiga (pronEng|ˈtaɪgə, from Turkic ["taiga." "Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)". Random House, Inc. 12 Mar. 2008. [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/taiga "web link"] ] or Mongolian) is a
biomecharacterized by coniferous forests. Covering most of inland Alaska, Canada, Sweden, Finland, inland Norwayand Russia(especially Siberia), as well as parts of the extreme northern continental United States(Northern Minnesota, Michigan, Upstate New York, New Hampshire, and Maine), northern Kazakhstanand Japan( Hokkaidō), the taiga is the world's largest terrestrial biome. Boreal forest is the term used to refer to the southern part of this biome, while "taiga" is used to describe the more barren northern areas of the Arctic tree line.
North America, Europeand Asiawere recently connected by the Bering land bridge, a number of animal and plant species(more animals than plants) were able to colonize both continents and are distributed throughout the taiga biome (see Circumboreal Region). Others differ regionally, typically with each genushaving several distinct species, each occupying different regions of the taiga. Taigas also have some small-leaved deciduoustrees like birch, alder, willow, and aspen; mostly in areas escaping the most extreme winter cold. However, the deciduous larchis coping with the coldest winters on the northern hemisphere in eastern Siberia. The southernmost part of the taiga also has trees like oak, maple, and elmscattered among the conifers.
Climate and geography
Taiga, the world's largest biome, has a harsh continental
climatewith a very large temperature range between summer and winter, classified as in the Köppen climate classificationscheme. Aside from the tundraand permanent ice caps, it is the coldest biome on Earth. High latitudes mean that for much of the year the sundoes not rise far above the horizon. Winters last at least 5-6 months, with average temperatures below freezing. Temperatures vary from −50 °C to 30 °C (-58°F to 86°F) throughout the whole year, with eight or more months of temperatures averaging below 10 °C (50°F). The summers, while short, are generally warm and humid. In general, taiga grows to the south of the 10 °C July isotherm, but occasionally as far north as the 9 °C July isotherm. [Arno & Hammerly 1984, Arno "et al." 1995] The southern limit is more variable, depending on rainfall; taiga may be replaced by open steppewoodland south of the 15 °C July isotherm where rainfall is very low, but more typically extends south to the 18 °C July isotherm, and locally where rainfall is higher (notably in eastern Siberiaand adjacent northern Manchuria) south to the 20 °C July isotherm. In these warmer areas, the taiga has higher species diversity with more warmth-loving species such as Korean Pine, Jezo Spruceand Manchurian Fir, and merges gradually into mixed temperate forest, or more locally (on the Pacific Oceancoasts of North America and Asia) into coniferous temperate rainforests.
The taiga experiences relatively low precipitation throughout the year (200–750 mm annually), primarily as rain during the summer months, but also as fog and snow; as evaporation is also low for most of the year, precipitation exceeds evaporation and is sufficient for the dense vegetation growth. Snow may remain on the ground for as long as nine months in the northernmost extensions of the taiga ecozone. [A.P. Sayre, "Taiga", (New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1994) 16.]
Much of the area currently classified as taiga was recently glaciated. As the glaciers receded, they left depressions in the topography that have since filled with water, creating lakes and bogs (especially
muskegsoil), found throughout the Taiga.
soiltends to be young and nutrient-poor; it lacks the deep, organically-enriched profile present in temperate deciduous forests.Sayre, 19.] The thinness of the soil is due largely to the cold, which hinders the development of soil and the ease with which plants can use its nutrients. Fallen leaves and mosscan remain on the forest floor for a long time in the cool, moist climate, which limits their organic contribution to the soil; acids from evergreenneedles further leach the soil, creating spodosol. [Sayre, 19-20.] Since the soil is acidic due to the falling pine needles, the forest floor has only lichensand some mosses growing on it.
There are two major types of taiga, closed forest, consisting of many closely-spaced trees with mossy ground cover, and lichen woodland, with trees that are farther-spaced and
lichenground cover; the latter is more common in the northernmost taiga. [Sayre, 12-3.]
The forests of the taiga are largely coniferous, dominated by
larch, spruce, fir, and pine. Evergreenspecies in the taiga (spruce, fir, and pine) have a number of adaptations specifically for survival in harsh taiga winters, though larch, the most cold-tolerant of all trees, is deciduous. Taiga trees tend to have shallow roots to take advantage of the thin soils, while many of them seasonally alter their biochemistryto make them more resistant to freezing, called "hardening".Sayre, 23.] The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping limbs, also help them shed snow.
Because the sun is low in the horizon for most of the year, it is difficult for plants to generate energy from
photosynthesis. Pine and spruce do not lose their leaves seasonally and are able to photosynthesize with their older leaves in late winter and spring when light is good but temperatures are still too low for new growth to commence. The adaptation of evergreen needles limits the water lost due to transpirationand their dark green color increases their absorption of sunlight. Although precipitation is not a limiting factor, the ground freezes during the winter months and plant roots are unable to absorb water, so desiccation can be a severe problem in late winter for evergreens.
Although the taiga is dominated by coniferous forests, some broadleaf trees also occur, notably
birch, aspen, willow, and rowan. Many smaller herbaceousplants grow closer to the ground. Periodic stand-replacing wildfires (with return times of between 20-200 years) clear out the tree canopies, allowing sunlight to invigorate new growth on the forest floor. For some species, wildfires are a necessary part of the life cycle in the taiga; some, e.g. Jack Pinehave cones which only open to release their seed after a fire, dispersing their seeds onto the newly cleared ground. Grasses grow wherever they can find a patch of sun, and mosses and lichens thrive on the damp ground and on the sides of tree trunks. In comparison with other biomes, however, the taiga has a low biological diversity.
Coniferous trees are the dominant plants of the taiga biome. A very few species in four main genera are found: the evergreen spruce, fir, and pine, and the deciduous larch or tamarack. In North America, one or two species of fir and one or two species of spruce are dominant. Across Scandinavia and western Russia the Scots pine is a common component of the taiga.
The taiga is home to a number of large herbivorous
mammals and smaller rodents. These animals have also adapted to survive the harsh climate. Some of the larger mammals, such as bears, eat during the summer in order to gain weight and then go into hibernationduring the winter. Other animals have adapted layers of fur or feathers to insulate them from the cold.
A number of wildlife species threatened or endangered with extinction can be found in the Canadian Boreal forest including
woodland caribou, grizzly bearand wolverine. Habitat loss due to destructive development, mostly in the form of logging, is the main cause of decline for these species.
Due to the climate, carnivorous diets are an inefficient means of obtaining energy; energy is limited, and most energy is lost between
trophic levels. However, predatory birds ( owls and eagles) and other smaller carnivores, including foxes and weasels, feed on the rodents. Larger carnivores, such as lynxes and wolves, prey on the larger animals. Omnivores, such as bears and raccoons are fairly common, sometimes picking through human garbage.
A considerable number of
birds such as Siberian Thrush, White-throated Sparrowand Black-throated Green Warbler, migrate to this habitat to take advantage of the long summer days and abundance of insects found around the numerous bogs and lakes. Of the perhaps 300 species of birds that summer in the taiga, only 30 stay for the winter. [Sayre, 28.] These are either carrion-feeding or large raptors that can take live mammal prey, including Golden Eagle, Rough-legged Buzzard, and Raven, or else seed-eating birds, including several species of grouseand crossbills.
In Canada, less than 8% of the Boreal forest is protected from development and more than 50% has been allocated to logging companies for cutting. [Global Forest Watch Canada 2000. Canada’s Forests At A Crossroads — An Assessment in the Year 2000] The main form of forestry in the Boreal forest in Canada is clearcutting, where most if not all trees are removed from an area of forest. Clearcut upwards of 110 km² have been recorded in the Canadian Boreal forest. Some of the products from logged Boreal forests include
toilet paper, copy paper, newsprint and lumber. More than 80% of Boreal forest products from Canada are exported for consumption and processing in the United States.
Most companies that harvest in Canadian forests are certified by an independent third party agency such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Sustainable Forests Initiative (SFI), or the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). While the certification process differs between these various groups, all of them include forest stewardship, respect for aboriginal peoples, compliance with local, provincial and/or national environmental laws, forest worker safety, education and training, and other environmental, business and social requirements. The prompt renewal of all harvest sites by planting or natural renewal is also required.
Recent years have seen outbreaks of insect pests in forest-destroying plagues: the
spruce- bark beetle(Dendroctonus rufipennis) in the Yukon Territory, Canada, and Alaska; [http://www.colorado.edu/INSTAAR/AW2004/get_abstr.html?id=88 A New Method to Reconstruct Bark Beetle Outbreaks] the aspen-leaf miner; the larch sawfly; the spruce budworm(Choristoneura fumiferana); [ [http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/subsite/budworm Spruce budworm and sustainable management of the boreal forest ] ] the spruce coneworm. [http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2006_chapin001.pdf]
Boreal Forest Conservation Framework
Success of fire suppression in northern forests
Birds of North American boreal forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga
*Arno, S. F. & Hammerly, R. P. 1984. "Timberline. Mountain and Arctic Forest Frontiers." The Mountaineers, Seattle. ISBN 0-89886-085-7
*Arno, S. F., Worral, J., & Carlson, C. E. (1995). Larix lyallii: Colonist of tree line and talus sites. Pp. 72-78 in Schmidt, W. C. & McDonald, K. J., eds., "Ecology and Management of Larix Forests: A Look Ahead". USDA Forest Service General Technical Report GTR-INT-319.
*Sayre, A. P. (1994). "Taiga." New York: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-8050-2830-7
* [http://www.barrameda.com.ar/ecology/the-tundra-and-taiga.htm Tundra and Taiga]
* [http://www.greenpeace.org/canada/en/campaigns/boreal Threats to Boreal Forests (Greenpeace)]
*Rainforest Action Network runs a [http://ran.org/what_we_do/old_growth/campaigns/wake_up_weyerhaeuser/ campaign against lumber giant Weyerhaeuser's logging practices in the Canadian boreal forest]
* [http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/about/habitat_types/selecting_terrestrial_ecoregions/habitat06.cfm Boreal Forests/Taiga (WWF)]
* [http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/atlas/themes.aspx?id=artic&lang= Arctic and Taiga (Canadian Geographic)]
* [http://taiga.terraformers.ca/ Terraformers Canadian Taiga Conservation Foundation]
*Coniferous Forest. Earth Observatory. NASA. [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Laboratory/Biome/bioconiferous.html] .
* [http://www.taigarescue.org Taiga Rescue Network (TRN)] A network of NGOs, indigenous peoples or individuals that works to protect the boreal forests.
* [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoframe-list.htm Index of Boreal Forests/Taiga ecoregions at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu]
*The Nature Conservancy and its partners work to protect [http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/canada/work/art12507.html the Canadian Boreal Forest]
* [http://www.ups.edu/x6111.xml Slater museum of natural history: Taiga]
*Dr. William (Bill) Pruitt, Jr., University of Manitoba, founded [http://www.wilds.mb.ca/taiga/index.html Taiga Biological Station]
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