tin ← antimony → tellurium As
Appearance silvery lustrous gray
General properties Name, symbol, number antimony, Sb, 51 Pronunciation //
Element category metalloid Group, period, block 15, 5, p Standard atomic weight 121.760(1) Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 5 (Image) Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r.t.) 6.697 g·cm−3 Liquid density at m.p. 6.53 g·cm−3 Melting point 903.78 K, 630.63 °C, 1167.13 °F Boiling point 1860 K, 1587 °C, 2889 °F Heat of fusion 19.79 kJ·mol−1 Heat of vaporization 193.43 kJ·mol−1 Molar heat capacity 25.23 J·mol−1·K−1 Vapor pressure P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k at T (K) 807 876 1011 1219 1491 1858 Atomic properties Oxidation states 5, 3, -3 Electronegativity 2.05 (Pauling scale) Ionization energies
1st: 834 kJ·mol−1 2nd: 1594.9 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 2440 kJ·mol−1 Atomic radius 140 pm Covalent radius 139±5 pm Van der Waals radius 206 pm Miscellanea Crystal structure trigonal Magnetic ordering diamagnetic Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 417 nΩ·m Thermal conductivity 24.4 W·m−1·K−1 Thermal expansion (25 °C) 11 µm·m−1·K−1 Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3420 m·s−1 Young's modulus 55 GPa Shear modulus 20 GPa Bulk modulus 42 GPa Mohs hardness 3.0 Brinell hardness 294 MPa CAS registry number 7440-36-0 Most stable isotopes Main article: Isotopes of antimony iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP 121Sb 57.36% 121Sb is stable with 70 neutrons 123Sb 42.64% 123Sb is stable with 72 neutrons 125Sb syn 2.7582 y β− 0.767 125Te
Antimony ( // or /ˈæntəˌmoʊni/;[note 2] Latin: stibium) is a toxic chemical element with the symbol Sb and an atomic number of 51. A lustrous grey metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Although the use of antimony is limited by its toxicity, its compounds have been of fundamental value in chemistry – a prominent example being the development of superacids derived from antimony pentafluoride. Antimony compounds are prominent fire retardants found in many commercial and domestic products. Certain alloys are valuable for use in solders and ball bearings. An emerging application is the use of antimony in microelectronics.
- 1 History
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Production
- 4 Compounds
- 5 Applications
- 6 Precautions
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Antimony's sulfide compound, antimony(III) sulfide, Sb2S3 was recognized in antiquity, at least as early as 3000 BC.
An artifact, said to be part of a vase, made of antimony dating to about 3000 BC was found at Tello, Chaldea (part of present-day Iraq), and a copper object plated with antimony dating between 2500 BC and 2200 BC has been found in Egypt. One contemporary (Austen, at a lecture by Herbert Gladstone, published in 1892) was reported to comment that "we only know of antimony at the present day as a highly brittle and crystalline metal, which could hardly be fashioned into a useful vase, and therefore this remarkable 'find' must represent the lost art of rendering antimony malleable." However, Moorey was unconvinced that the artefact was indeed a vase, mentioning that Selimkhanov, after his analysis of the Telloh object (published in 1975), "attempted to relate the metal to Transcaucasian natural antimony" (i.e. native metal) and that "the antimony objects from Transcaucasia are all small personal ornaments." This weakens the evidence for a lost art "of rendering antimony malleable."
The first European description of a procedure for isolating antimony is in the book De la pirotechnia of 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio. This book predates the more famous 1556 book by Agricola, De re metallica, even though Agricola has been often incorrectly credited with the discovery of metallic antimony. A text describing the preparation of metallic antimony that was published in Germany in 1604 purported to date from the early fifteenth century, and if authentic it would predate Biringuccio. The book, written in Latin, was called "Currus Triumphalis Antimonii" (The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony), and its putative author was a certain Benedictine monk, writing under the name Basilius Valentinus. An English translation of the "Currus Triumphalis" appeared in English in 1660, under the title The Triumphant Chariot of Antimony. The work remains of great interest, chiefly because it documents how followers of the renegade German physician, Philippus Theophrastus Paracelsus von Hohenheim (of whom Thölde was one), came to associate the practice of alchemy with the preparation of chemical medicines.
Pure antimony was well known to Jābir ibn Hayyān, sometimes called "the Father of Chemistry", in the 8th century. Here there is still an open controversy: Marcellin Berthelot, who translated a number of Jābir's books, stated that antimony is never mentioned in them, but other authors claim that Berthelot translated only some of the less important books, while the more interesting ones (some of which might describe antimony) are not yet translated, and their content is completely unknown.
The first natural occurrence of pure antimony ('native antimony') in the Earth's crust was described by the Swedish scientist and local mine district engineer Anton von Swab in 1783. The type-sample was collected from the Sala Silver Mine in the Bergslagen mining district of Sala, Västmanland, Sweden.
The ancient words for antimony mostly have, as their chief meaning, kohl, the sulfide of antimony. Pliny the Elder, however, distinguishes between male and female forms of antimony; his male form is probably the sulfide, while the female form, which is superior, heavier, and less friable, is probably native metallic antimony.
The Egyptians called antimony mśdmt; in hieroglyphs, the vowels are uncertain, but there is an Arabic tradition that the word is ميسديميت mesdemet. The Greek word, στίμμι stimmi, is probably a loan word from Arabic or Egyptian sdm
, and is used by the Attic tragic poets of the 5th century BC; later Greeks also used στἰβι stibi, as did Celsus and Pliny, writing in Latin, in the first century AD. Pliny also gives the names stimi [sic], larbaris, alabaster, and the "very common" platyophthalmos, "wide-eye" (from the effect of the cosmetic). Later Latin authors adapted the word to Latin as stibium. The Arabic word for the substance, as opposed to the cosmetic, can appear as تحميض، ثمود، وثمود، وثمود ithmid, athmoud, othmod, or uthmod. Littré suggests the first form, which is the earliest, derives from stimmida, (one) accusative for stimmi.
The use of Sb as the standard chemical symbol for antimony is due to the 18th century chemical pioneer, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who used this abbreviation of the name stibium. The medieval Latin form, from which the modern languages and late Byzantine Greek, take their names, is antimonium. The origin of this is uncertain; all suggestions have some difficulty either of form or interpretation. The popular etymology, from ἀντίμοναχός anti-monachos or French antimoine, still has adherents; this would mean "monk-killer", and is explained by many early alchemists being monks, and antimony being poisonous.[note 3] So does the hypothetical Greek word ἀντίμόνος antimonos, "against one", explained as "not found as metal", or "not found unalloyed". Lippmann conjectured a Greek word, ανθήμόνιον anthemonion, which would mean "floret", and he cites several examples of related Greek words (but not that one) which describe chemical or biological efflorescence.
The early uses of antimonium include the translations, in 1050–1100, by Constantine the African of Arabic medical treatises. Several authorities believe that antimonium is a scribal corruption of some Arabic form; Meyerhof derives it from ithmid; other possibilities include Athimar, the Arabic name of the metal, and a hypothetical as-stimmi, derived from or parallel to the Greek.
Antimony is in the nitrogen group (group 15) and has an electronegativity of 2.05. As expected by periodic trends, it is more electronegative than tin or bismuth, and less electronegative than tellurium or arsenic.
Antimony is a silvery, lustrous gray metal that has a Mohs scale hardness of 3. Therefore, antimony by itself is not used to make hard objects: coins made of antimony were issued in China's Guizhou province in 1931, but because of their rapid wear their minting was discontinued. Antimony is resistant to attack by acids.
Four allotropes of antimony are known: a stable metallic form, and three metastable forms: explosive, black and yellow. Metallic antimony is a brittle, silver-white shiny metal. When molten antimony is slowly cooled, metallic antimony crystallizes in an hexagonal cell, isomorphic with that of the grey allotrope of arsenic. A rare explosive form of antimony can be formed from the electrolysis of antimony(III) trichloride. When scratched with a sharp implement, an exothermic reaction occurs and white fumes given off as metallic antimony is formed; alternatively, when rubbed with a pestle in a mortar, a strong detonation occurs. Black antimony is formed upon rapid cooling of gaseous metallic antimony. It has the same crystal structure as red phosphorus and black arsenic, it oxidizes in air and may ignite spontaneously. At 100 °C, it gradually transforms into the stable form. The yellow allotrope of antimony is the most unstable. It has only been generated by oxidation of stibine (SbH3) at −90 °C. Above this temperature and in ambient light, this meta stable allotrope transforms into the more stable black allotrope.
Metallic antimony adopts a double-layered structure (space group R3m No. 166) consisting of many interlocked ruffled six-membered rings. Nearest and next-nearest neighbors form a distorted octahedral complex, with the three atoms in the same double-layer being slightly closer than the three atoms in the next. This relatively close packing leads to a high density of 6.697 g/cm3 whereas the low hardness and brittleness of antimony originate from the weak bonding among the layers.:758
Antimony exists as two stable isotopes, 121Sb with a natural abundance of 57.36% and 123Sb with a natural abundance of 42.64%. It also has 35 radioisotopes, of which the longest-lived is 125Sb with a half-life of 2.75 years. In addition, 29 metastable states have been characterised.
The abundance of antimony in the Earth's crust is estimated at 0.2 to 0.5 parts per million, comparable to thallium at 0.5 parts per million and silver at 0.07 ppm. Even though this element is not abundant, it is found in over 100 mineral species. Antimony is sometimes found native, but more frequently it is found in the sulfide stibnite (Sb2S3) which is the predominant ore mineral. Commercial forms of antimony are generally ingots, broken pieces, granules, and cast cake. Other forms are powder, shot, and single crystals.
In 2005, the People's Republic of China was the top producer of antimony with about 84% world share followed at a distance by South Africa, Bolivia and Tajikistan, reports the British Geological Survey. The mine with the largest deposits in China is Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan province with a estimated deposit of 2.1 million metric tons. In October 2011 a deposit of antimony was found in a shallow seabed about 50 km off Amami-Oshima Island in Kagoshima Prefecture. The discovery was the first time that antimony had been found at such shallow depths(480 meters), with this type of mineral deposit only ever having been found in depths in excess of 1000 meters.
The extraction of antimony from ores depends on the quality of the ore, which is usually a sulfide. The sulfide is converted to an oxide and advantage is often taken of the volatility of antimony(III) oxide, which is recovered from roasting. This material is often used directly for the main applications, impurities being arsenic and sulfide. Antimony can be isolated from its ore by a reduction with scrap iron:
- Sb2S3 + 3 Fe → 2 Sb + 3 FeS
Isolating antimony from its oxide is performed by a carbothermal reduction:
- 2 Sb2O3 + 3 C → 4 Sb + 3 CO2
Antimony production in 2010 Country Tonnes % of total People's Republic of China 120,000 88.9 South Africa 3,000 2.2 Bolivia 3,000 2.2 Russia 3,000 2.2 Tajikistan 2,000 1.5 Top 5 131,000 97.0 Total world 135,000 100.0
Antimony compounds are often classified into those of Sb(III) and Sb(V). Relative to its neighboring element As, the 5+ oxidaton state is more stable.
Oxides and hydroxides
Antimony trioxide (Sb4O6) is formed when antimony is burnt in air. In the gas phase, this compound exists as Sb4O6, but it polymerises upon condensing. Antimony pentoxide, (Sb4O10) can only be formed by oxidation by concentrated nitric acid. Antimony also forms a mixed-valence oxide, antimony tetroxide (Sb2O4), which features both Sb(III) and Sb(V). Unlike phosphorus and arsenic, these various oxides are amphoteric and do not form well-defined oxoacids and react with acids to form antimony salts.
Antimonous acid Sb(OH)3 is unknown but the conjugate base sodium antimonite ([Na3SbO3]4) forms upon fusing sodium oxide and Sb4O6.:763 Transition metal antimonites are also known.:122 Antimonic acid exists only as the hydrate HSb(OH)6, forming salts containing the antimonate anion Sb(OH)−
6. Dehydrating metal salts containing this anion yields mixed oxides.:143
Many antimony ores are sulfides, including stibnite (Sb2S3), pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3), zinkenite, jamesonite, and boulangerite.:757 Antimony pentasulfide is non-stoichiometric and features antimony in the +3 oxidation state and S-S bonds. Several thioantimonides are known such as [Sb6S10]2− and [Sb8S13]2−.
Antimony forms two series of halides, SbX3 and SbX5. The trihalides SbF3, SbCl3, SbBr3, and SbI3 are all molecular compounds having trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry. The trifluoride SbF3 is prepared by the reaction of Sb2O3 with HF::761–762
- Sb2O3 + 6 HF → 2 SbF3 + 3 H2O
It is Lewis acidic and readily accepts fluoride ions to form the complex anions SbF−
4 and SbF2−
5. Molten SbF3 is a weak electrical conductor. The trichloride SbCl3 is prepared by dissolving Sb2S3 in hydrochloric acid:
- Sb2S3 + 6 HCl → 2 SbCl3 + 3 H2S
The pentahalides SbF5 and SbCl5 have trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry in the gas phase, but in the liquid phase, SbF5 is polymeric, whereas SbCl5 is monomeric.:761 SbF5 is a powerful Lewis acid used to make the superacid fluoroantimonic acid ("HSbF6").
Oxyhalides are more common for antimony than arsenic and phosphorus. Antimony trioxide dissolves in concentrated acid to form antimony oxo- (antimonyl) compounds such as SbOCl and (SbO)2SO4.:764
Antimonides, hydrides, and organoantimony compounds
Compounds in this class generally are described as derivatives of Sb3-. Antimony forms antimonides with metals, such as indium antimonide (InSb), and silver antimonide (Ag3Sb).:760 The alkali metal and zinc antimonides, e.g. Na3Sb and Zn3Sb2, are more reactive. Treating these antimonides with acid produces the unstable gas stibine, SbH3:
- Sb3− + 3 H+ → SbH3
Stibine can also be produced by treating Sb3+ salts with hydride reagents such as sodium borohydride. Stibine decomposes spontaneously at room temperature. Because stibine is thermodynamically unstable (positive heat of formation), antimony does not react with hydrogen directly.
Organoantimony compounds are typically prepared by alkylation of antimony halides with Grignard reagents. A large variety of compounds are known with both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers including mixed chloro-organic derivatives, anions, and cations. Examples include Sb(C6H5)3 (triphenylstibine), Sb2(C6H5)4 (with an Sb-Sb bond), and cyclic [Sb(C6H5)]n. Pentacoordinated organoantimony compounds are common, examples being Sb(C6H5)5 and several related halides.
The main use of antimony is in the form of antimony trioxide is used in the making of flame-proofing compounds. Markets for these flame-retardant applications include children's clothing, toys, aircraft and automobile seat covers. It is also used in the fiberglass composites industry as an additive to polyester resins for such items as light aircraft engine covers. The resin will burn while a flame is held to it but will extinguish itself as soon as the flame is removed. Fireproofing consumes about half of the annual production of antimony.
Antimony forms a highly useful alloy with lead, increasing its hardness and mechanical strength. The Sb–Pb alloy is used in lead–acid batteries. It is used in antifriction alloys, such as Babbitt metal. It is used as an alloy in bullets and lead shot, cable sheathing, type metal (e.g. for linotype printing machines), solder – some "lead-free" solders contain 5% Sb, in pewter, and in hardening alloys with low tin content in the manufacturing of organ pipes.
The second main application is as a catalyst for the production of the polymer polyethyleneterephthalate. It is an additive in some glasses. In the latter application, antimony oxides serve as fining agents, aiding in the removal of microscopic bubbles. This application is mainly used for TV screens.
In tiny amounts, antimony is increasingly being used in the semiconductor industry as a dopant for ultra-high conductivity n-type silicon wafers in the production of diodes, infrared detectors, and Hall-effect devices.
Few biological or medical applications exist for antimony. Treatments principally containing antimony are known as antimonials and are used as emetics.
Antimony and its compounds are used in several veterinary preparations like anthiomaline or lithium antimony thiomalate, which is used as a skin conditioner in ruminants.
Antimony has a nourishing or conditioning effect on keratinized tissues, at least in animals. Antimony-based drugs, such as meglumine antimoniate, are also considered the drugs of choice for treatment of leishmaniasis in domestic animals. Unfortunately, as well as having low therapeutic indices, the drugs are poor at penetrating the bone marrow, where some of the Leishmania amastigotes reside, and so cure of the disease – especially the visceral form – is very difficult.
Elemental antimony as an antimony pill was once used as a medicine. It could be reused by others after ingestion.
Antimony sulfides have been shown to help stabilize the friction coefficient in automotive brake pad materials. Antimony also is used in the making of bullets and bullet tracers. This element is also used in cosmetics and event paint and glass art crafts.
Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic, and the effects of antimony poisoning are similar to arsenic poisoning. Inhalation of antimony dust is harmful and in certain cases may be fatal; in small doses, antimony causes headaches, dizziness, and depression. Larger doses such as prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis; otherwise it can damage the kidneys and the liver, causing violent and frequent vomiting, and will lead to death in a few days.
Antimony is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, halogen acids, chlorine, or fluorine. It should be kept away from heat.
Antimony leaches from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into liquids. While levels observed for bottled water are below drinking water guidelines, fruit juice concentrates (for which no guidelines are established) produced in the UK were found to contain up to 44.7 µg/L of antimony, well above the EU limits for tap water of 5 µg/L. The guidelines are:
- World Health Organization: 20 µg/L
- Japan: 15 µg/L
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Environment: 6 µg/L
- German Federal Ministry of Environment: 5 µg/L
- ^ In the UK, the variable vowel /ɵ/ is usually pronounced as a schwa [ə]; in the US, it is generally a full [oʊ].
- ^ In the UK, the variable vowel /ɵ/ is usually pronounced as a schwa [ə]; in the US, it is generally a full [oʊ].
- ^ The use of a symbol resembling an upside down "female" symbol for antimony could also hint at a satirical pun in this origin
- ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
- ^ a b c d Sabina C. Grund, Kunibert Hanusch, Hans J. Breunig, Hans Uwe Wolf “Antimony and Antimony Compounds” in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi: 10.1002/14356007.a03_055.pub2
- ^ a b Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 5th ed. 2004. Entry for antimony.
- ^ a b c Moorey, P. R. S. (1994). Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: the Archaeological Evidence. New York: Clarendon Press. p. 241. ISBN 9781575060422. http://books.google.com/?id=P_Ixuott4doC&pg=PA241.
- ^ Already in 1710 Wilhelm Gottlob Freiherr von Leibniz, after careful inquiry, concluded that the work was spurious, that there was no monk named Basilius Valentinus, and the book's author was its ostensible editor, Johann Thölde (ca. 1565-ca. 1624). There is now agreement among professional historians that the Currus Triumphalis... was written after the middle of the sixteenth century and that Thölde was likely its author.Priesner, Claus and Figala, Karin, ed (1998) (in German). Alchemie. Lexikon einer hermetischen Wissenschaft. München: C.H. Beck.
- ^ s.v. "Basilius Valentinus." Harold Jantz was perhaps the only modern scholar to deny Thölde's authorship, but he too agrees that the work dates from after 1550: see his catalogue of German Baroque literature.
- ^ Dampier, William Cecil (1961). A history of science and its relations with philosophy & religion.. London: Cambridge U.P.. p. 73. ISBN 9780521093668. http://books.google.com/?id=6kM4AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA73.
- ^ "Native antimony". Mindat.org. http://www.mindat.org/min-262.html.
- ^ Pliny, Natural history, 33.33; W.H.S. Jones, the Loeb Classical Library translator, supplies a note suggesting the identifications.
- ^ Albright, W. F. (1918). "Notes on Egypto-Semitic Etymology. II". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 34 (4): 215–255. doi:10.1086/369866. JSTOR 528157.
- ^ Sarton, George (1935). "Review of Al-morchid fi'l-kohhl, ou Le guide d'oculistique, translated by Max Meyerhof" (in French). Isis 22 (2): 539–542. doi:10.1086/346926. JSTOR 225136. quotes Meyerhof, the translator of the book he is reviewing.
- ^ LSJ, s.v., vocalisation, spelling, and declension vary; Endlich, p. 28; Celsus, 6.6.6 ff; Pliny Natural History 33.33; Lewis and Short: Latin Dictionary. OED, s. "antimony".
- ^ In his long article on chemical reactions and nomenclature – Jöns Jacob Berzelius, "Essay on the cause of chemical proportions, and on some circumstances relating to them: together with a short and easy method of expressing them," Annals of Philosophy, vol. 2, pages 443–454 (1813) and vol. 3, pages 51–62, 93–106, 244–255, 353–364 (1814) – on page 52, Berzelius lists the symbol for antimony as "St" ; however, starting on page 248, Berzelius subsequently uses the symbol "Sb" for antimony.
- ^ Fernando, Diana (1998). Alchemy : an illustrated A to Z. Blandford. Fernando even derives it from the story of how "Basil Valentine" and his fellow monastic alchemists poisoned themselves by working with antimony; antimonium is found two centuries before his time. "Popular etymology" from OED; as for antimonos, the pure negative would be more naturally expressed by a- "not".
- ^ Lippman, pp. 643–5
- ^ Lippman, p. 642, writing in 1919, says "zuerst".
- ^ Meyerhof as quoted in Sarton, asserts that ithmid or athmoud became corrupted in the medieval "traductions barbaro-latines".; the OED asserts that some Arabic form is the origin, and if ithmid is the root, posits athimodium, atimodium, atimonium, as intermediate forms.
- ^ Endlich, p. 28; one of the advantages of as-stimmi would be that it has a whole syllable in common with antimonium.
- ^ "Metals Used in Coins and Medals". ukcoinpics.co.uk. http://www.ukcoinpics.co.uk/metal.html.
- ^ Wang, Chung Wu (1919). "The Chemistry of Antimony". Antimony: Its History, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geology, Metallurgy, Uses, Preparation, Analysis, Production and Valuation with Complete Bibliographies. London, United Kingdom: Charles Geiffin and Co. Ltd. pp. 6–33. http://library.sciencemadness.org/library/books/antimony.pdf.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils and Holleman, Arnold Frederick (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. ISBN 0123526515.
- ^ a b "Antimony Statistics and Information". United States Geological Survey. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/antimony/.
- ^ Peng, J; Hu, R.-Z.; Burnard, P.G. (2003). "Samarium–neodymium isotope systematics of hydrothermal calcites from the Xikuangshan antimony deposit (Hunan, China): the potential of calcite as a geochronometer". Chemical Geology 200: 129. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(03)00187-6.
- ^ "Surprise antimony deposit turns up in shallower seabed off Kagoshima". Kyodo News. The Japan Times. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20111023a3.html. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ "WebElements: Antimony: Essential Information". Webelements.com. http://www.webelements.com/antimony/. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- ^ a b Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.
- ^ Daniel L. Reger; Scott R. Goode; David W. Ball (2009). Chemistry: Principles and Practice (3rd ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 883.
- ^ a b James E. House (2008). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 502.
- ^ a b S. M. Godfrey; C. A. McAuliffe; A. G. Mackie; R. G. Pritchard (1998). Nicholas C. Norman. ed. Chemistry of arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. Springer. ISBN 075140389X.
- ^ Long, G (1969). "The oxidation number of antimony in antimony pentasulfide". Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry Letters 5: 21. doi:10.1016/0020-1650(69)80231-X.
- ^ Lees, R; Powell, A; Chippindale, A (2007). "The synthesis and characterisation of four new antimony sulphides incorporating transition-metal complexes". Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 68 (5–6): 1215. Bibcode 2007JPCS...68.1215L. doi:10.1016/j.jpcs.2006.12.010.
- ^ Louis Kahlenberg (2008). Outlines of Chemistry – A Textbook for College Students. READ BOOKS. pp. 324–325. ISBN 140976995X.
- ^ Elschenbroich, C. ”Organometallics” (2006) Wiley-VCH: Weinheim. ISBN 978-3-29390-6
- ^ Kiehne, Heinz Albert (2003). "Types of Alloys". Battery technology handbook. CRC Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9780824742492. http://books.google.com/?id=1HSsx9fPAKkC&pg=PA60.
- ^ Williams, Robert S. (2007). Principles of Metallography. Read books. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9781406746716. http://books.google.com/?id=KR82QRlAgUwC&pg=PA46.
- ^ Holmyard, E. J. (2008). Inorganic Chemistry – A Textbooks for Colleges and Schools. pp. 399–400. ISBN 9781443722537. http://books.google.com/?id=IYZezyEvZ78C&pg=PA399.
- ^ Ipser, H.; Flandorfer, H.; Luef, Ch.; Schmetterer, C.; Saeed, U. (2007). "Thermodynamics and phase diagrams of lead-free solder materials". Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 18 (1–3): 3–17. doi:10.1007/s10854-006-9009-3.
- ^ Hull, Charles (1992). Pewter. Osprey Publishing. pp. 1–5. ISBN 9780747801528. http://books.google.com/?id=3_zyycVRw18C.
- ^ Bernard H.W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten "Glass" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a12_365
- ^ O'Mara, William C.; Herring, Robert B.; Hunt, Lee Philip (1990). Handbook of semiconductor silicon technology. William Andrew. p. 473. ISBN 9780815512370. http://books.google.com/?id=COcVgAtqeKkC&pg=PA473.
- ^ Maiti,, C. K. (2008). Selected Works of Professor Herbert Kroemer. World Scientific, 2008. p. 101. ISBN 9789812709011. http://books.google.com/?id=_7fOlKRDcCkC&pg=PA101.
- ^ National Research Council (1970). Trends in usage of antimony: report. National Academies. p. 50. http://books.google.com/?id=TyQrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA50.
- ^ Jang, H and Kim, S. (2000). The effects of antimony trisulfide Sb S and zirconium silicate in the automotive brake friction material on friction. Journal of Wear.
- ^ Antimony MSDS. Baker
- ^ Westerhoff, P; Prapaipong, P; Shock, E; Hillaireau, A (2008). "Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water". Water research 42 (3): 551–6. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2007.07.048. PMID 17707454.
- ^ a b Shotyk, W.; Krachler, M.; Chen, B. (2006). "Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers". Journal of Environmental Monitoring 8 (2): 288–92. doi:10.1039/b517844b. PMID 16470261.
- ^ Hansen, Claus; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Bak, Søren Alex; Pergantis, Spiros A.; Stürup, Stefan; Gammelgaard, Bente; Hansen, Helle Rüsz (17 February 2010). "Elevated antimony concentrations in commercial juices". Journal of Environmental Monitoring 12 (4): 822–4. doi:10.1039/b926551a. PMID 20383361.
- ^ Borland, Sophie (1. March 2010). "Fruit juice cancer warning as scientists find harmful chemical in 16 drinks". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1254534/Fruit-juice-cancer-warning-scientists-harmful-chemical-16-drinks.html.
- ^ Wakayama, Hiroshi, "Revision of Drinking Water Standards in Japan", Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Japan), 2003; Table 2, p. 84
- Endlich, F.M. (1888). "On Some Interesting Derivations of Mineral Names". The American Naturalist 22 (253): 21–32. doi:10.1086/274630. JSTOR 2451020.
- Edmund Oscar von Lippmann (1919) Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie, teil 1. Berlin: Julius Springer (in German).
- Public Health Statement for Antimony
- National Pollutant Inventory – Antimony and compounds
- WebElements.com – Antimony
- Chemistry in its element podcast (MP3) from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World: Antimony
Periodic table H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Lanthanides Actinides Transition metals Other metals Metalloids Other nonmetals Halogens Noble gases Unknown chem. properties Large version Antimony compounds
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.