Uranium (pronEng|jʊˈreɪniəm) is a silvery-gray
metallic chemical elementin the actinideseries of the periodic tablethat has the symbol U and atomic number92. It has 92 protons and 92 electrons, 6 of them valence electrons. It can have between 141 and 146 neutrons, with 146 (U-238) and 143 in its most common isotopes. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements. Uranium is approximately 70% more dense than lead, but not as dense as goldor tungsten. It is weakly radioactive. It occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite(see uranium mining).
In nature, uranium atoms exist as
uranium-238(99.284%), uranium-235(0.711%), [cite web|url=http://www.afrri.usuhs.mil/www/outreach/pdf/mcclain_NATO_2005.pdf|title= Health Concerns about Military Use of Depleted Uranium|format=PDF] and a very small amount of uranium-234(0.0058%). Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle. The half-lifeof uranium-238 is about 4.47 billion years and that of uranium-235 is 704 millionyears, [cite web|url=http://ie.lbl.gov/toi/nucSearch.asp|title=WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes] making them useful in dating the age of the Earth(see uranium-thorium dating, uranium-lead datingand uranium-uranium dating).
Many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 has the distinction of being the only naturally occurring
fissile isotope. Uranium-238 is both fissionable by fast neutrons, and fertile (capable of being transmuted to fissile plutonium-239in a nuclear reactor). An artificial fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thoriumand is also important in nuclear technology. While uranium-238 has a small probability to fission spontaneously or when bombarded with fast neutrons, the much higher probability of uranium-235 and to a lesser degree uranium-233 to fission when bombarded with slow neutrons generates the heat in nuclear reactors used as a source of power, and provides the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Both uses rely on the ability of uranium to produce a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Depleted uranium(uranium-238) is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating.Emsley, "Nature's Building Blocks" (2001), page 479]
Uranium is used as a colorant in
uranium glass, producing orange-red to lemon yellow hues. It was also used for tinting and shading in early photography. The 1789 discovery of uranium in the mineral pitchblende is credited to Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who named the new element after the planet Uranus. Eugène-Melchior Péligotwas the first person to isolate the metal, and its radioactive properties were uncovered in 1896 by Antoine Becquerel. Research by Enrico Fermiand others starting in 1934 led to its use as a fuel in the nuclear power industry and in " Little Boy", the first nuclear weapon used in war. An ensuing arms raceduring the Cold Warbetween the United Statesand the Soviet Unionproduced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons that used enriched uraniumand uranium-derived plutonium. The security of those weapons and their fissile material following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 is a concern for public health and safety.
When refined, uranium is a silvery white, weakly radioactive
metal, which is slightly softer than steel,cite web|url=http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/92.html | title=Uranium | publisher=Los Alamos National Laboratory | accessdate=2007-01-14] strongly electropositive and a poor electrical conductor. It is malleable, ductile, and slightly paramagnetic. Uranium metal has very high density, being approximately 70% denser than lead, but slightly less dense than gold.
Uranium metal reacts with almost all nonmetallic elements and their compounds, with reactivity increasing with temperature.cite encyclopedia | title=uranium | encyclopedia=Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia | url=http://www.answers.com/uranium | publisher=Columbia University Press | edition=6th Edition] Hydrochloric and
nitric acids dissolve uranium, but nonoxidizing acids attack the element very slowly. When finely divided, it can react with cold water; in air, uranium metal becomes coated with a dark layer of uranium oxide. Uranium in ores is extracted chemically and converted into uranium dioxideor other chemical forms usable in industry.
Uranium was the first element that was found to be fissile. Upon bombardment with slow
neutrons, its uranium-235 isotopewill most of the time divide into two smaller nuclei, releasing nuclear binding energyand more neutrons. If these neutrons are absorbed by other uranium-235 nuclei, a nuclear chain reactionoccurs and, if there is nothing to absorb some neutrons and slow the reaction, the reaction is explosive. As little as 15 lb (7 kg) of uranium-235 can be used to make an atomic bomb.cite encyclopedia|encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security|publisher=The Gale Group, Inc.|title=uranium|url=http://www.answers.com/uranium] The first atomic bomb worked by this principle (nuclear fission).
The major application of uranium in the military sector is in high-density penetrators. This ammunition consists of
depleted uranium(DU) alloyed with 1–2% other elements. At high impact speed, the density, hardness, and flammability of the projectile enable destruction of heavily armored targets. Tank armor and the removable armor on combat vehicles are also hardened with depleted uranium (DU) plates. The use of DU became a contentious political-environmental issue after the use of DU munitions by the US, UK and other countries during wars in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans raised questions of uranium compounds left in the soil (see Gulf War Syndrome).
Depleted uranium is also used as a shielding material in some containers used to store and transport radioactive materials. Other uses of DU include counterweights for aircraft control surfaces, as ballast for missile re-entry vehicles and as a shielding material. Due to its high density, this material is found in inertial guidance devices and in gyroscopic
compasses. DU is preferred over similarly dense metals due to its ability to be easily machined and cast as well as its relatively low cost.Emsley, "Nature's Building Blocks" (2001), page 480] Counter to popular belief, the main risk of exposure to DU is chemical poisoning by uranium oxide rather than radioactivity (uranium being only a weak alpha emitter).
During the later stages of
World War II, the entire Cold War, and to a lesser extent afterwards, uranium has been used as the fissile explosive material to produce nuclear weapons. Two major types of fission bombs were built: a relatively simple device that uses uranium-235and a more complicated mechanism that uses uranium-238-derived plutonium-239. Later, a much more complicated and far more powerful fusion bomb that uses a plutonium-based device in a uranium casing to cause a mixture of tritiumand deuteriumto undergo nuclear fusionwas built. [cite web|url=http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/design.htm|title=Nuclear Weapon Design|publisher=Federation of American Scientists|year=1998|accessdate=2007-02-19]
The main use of uranium in the civilian sector is to fuel commercial
nuclear power plants; by the time it is completely fissioned, one kilogram of uranium-235 can theoretically produce about 20 trillion joules of energy (2e|13 joules); as much electricityas 1500 tonnes of coal.
nuclear powerplants use fuel that is typically enriched to around 3% uranium-235. The CANDU reactoris the only commercial reactor capable of using unenriched uranium fuel. Fuel used for United States Navyreactors is typically highly enriched in uranium-235 (the exact values are classified). In a breeder reactor, uranium-238 can also be converted into plutoniumthrough the following reaction: 238U (n, gamma) → 239U -(beta) → 239Np -(beta) → 239Pu.
Prior to the discovery of
radiation, uranium was primarily used in small amounts for yellow glass and pottery glazes (such as uranium glassand in Fiestaware).
Marie Curiediscovered radiumin uranium ore, a huge industry developed to mine uranium so as to extract the radium, which was used to make glow-in-the-dark paints for clock and aircraft dials. [cite web|url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15520902.900-dial-r-for-radioactive.html |title=Dial R for radioactive - 12 July 1997 - New Scientist |publisher=Newscientist.com |date= |accessdate=2008-09-12] This left a prodigious quantity of uranium as a 'waste product', since it takes three metric tons of uranium to extract one gramof radium. This 'waste product' was diverted to the glazing industry, making uranium glazes very inexpensive and abundant. In addition to the pottery glazes, uranium tileglazes accounted for the bulk of the use, including common bathroom and kitchen tiles which can be colored green, yellow, mauve, black, blue, red and other colors with uranium.
Uranium was also used in photographic chemicals (esp.
uranium nitrateas a toner), in lamp filaments, to improve the appearance of dentures, and in the leather and wood industries for stains and dyes. Uranium salts are mordants of silk or wool. Uranyl acetate and uranyl formate are used as electron-dense "stains" in transmission electron microscopy, to increase the contrast of biological specimens in ultrathin sections and in negative stainingof viruses, isolated cell organelles and macromolecules.
The discovery of the radioactivity of uranium ushered in additional scientific and practical uses of the element. The long
half-lifeof the isotope uranium-238 (4.51e|9 years) makes it well-suited for use in estimating the age of the earliest igneous rocks and for other types of radiometric dating(including uranium-thorium datingand uranium-lead dating). Uranium metal is used for X-raytargets in the making of high-energy X-rays.
The use of uranium in its natural
oxideform dates back to at least the year 79, when it was used to add a yellow color to ceramicglazes. Yellow glass with 1% uranium oxide was found in a Roman villa on Cape Posillipoin the Bay of Naples, Italyby R. T. Gunther of the University of Oxfordin 1912.Emsley, "Nature's Building Blocks" (2001), page 482] Starting in the late Middle Ages, pitchblende was extracted from the Habsburgsilver mines in Joachimsthal, Bohemia(now Jáchymov in the Czech Republic) and was used as a coloring agent in the local glassmaking industry. In the early 19th century, the world's only known source of uranium ores were these old mines.
The discovery of the element is credited to the German chemist
Martin Heinrich Klaproth. While he was working in his experimental laboratory in Berlinin 1789, Klaproth was able to precipitate a yellow compound (likely sodium diuranate) by dissolving pitchblendein nitric acidand neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide.Emsley, "Nature's Building Blocks" (2001), page 477] Klaproth mistakenly assumed the yellow substance was the oxide of a yet-undiscovered element and heated it with charcoalto obtain a black powder, which he thought was the newly discovered metal itself (in fact, that powder was an oxide of uranium). [cite journal
title = Chemische Untersuchung des Uranits, einer neuentdeckten metallischen Substanz
author = M. H. Klaproth
journal = Chemische Annalen
volume = 2
year = 1789
pages = 387–403] He named the newly discovered element after the planet
Uranus, which had been discovered eight years earlier by William Herschel. [cite encyclopedia | edition = 4th edition | title =Uranium | encyclopedia =The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language | publisher =Houghton Mifflin Company | url=http://www.answers.com/uranium]
Eugène-Melchior Péligot, who was Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers(Central School of Arts and Manufactures) in Paris, isolated the first sample of uranium metal by heating uranium tetrachloridewith potassium. [cite journal
title = Recherches Sur L'Uranium
author = E.-M. Péligot
journal = Annales de chimie et de physique
volume = 5
issue = 5
year = 1842
pages = 5–47
url =http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k34746s/f4.table] Uranium was not seen as being particularly dangerous during much of the 19th century, leading to the development of various uses for the element. One such use for the oxide was the aforementioned but no longer secret coloring of pottery and glass.
Antoine Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity by using uranium in 1896. Becquerel made the discovery in Paris by leaving a sample of a uranium salt on top of an unexposed
photographic platein a drawer and noting that the plate had become 'fogged'. He determined that a form of invisible light or rays emitted by uranium had exposed the plate.
A team led by
Enrico Fermiin 1934 observed that bombarding uranium with neutrons produces the emission of beta rays ( electrons or positrons; see beta particle). The fission products were at first mistaken for new elements of atomic numbers 93 and 94, which the Dean of the Faculty of Rome, Orso Mario Corbino, christened " ausonium" and " hesperium", respectively. [Fermi, E.; [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1938/fermi-lecture.pdf "Artifical radioactivity produced by neutron bombardment"] , Nobel prize address, 12 December 1938] [De Gregorio, A. [http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0309046 "A Historical Note About How the Property was Discovered that Hydrogenated Substances Increase the Radioactivity Induced by Neutrons"] (2003)] [Nigro, M,; [http://www.brera.unimi.it/SISFA/atti/2003/312-321NigroBari.pdf "Hahn, Meitner e la teoria della fissione"] (2004)] [Peter van der Krogt, [http://www.vanderkrogt.net/elements/elem/pu.html Elementymology & Elements Multidict] ] The experiments leading to the discovery of uranium's ability to fission (break apart) into lighter elements and release binding energywere conducted by Otto Hahnand Fritz StrassmannSeaborg, "Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements" (1968), page 773] in Hahn's laboratory in Berlin. Lise Meitnerand her nephew, physicist Otto Robert Frisch, published the physical explanation in February 1939 and named the process ' nuclear fission'. [cite journal
title = Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: a New Type of Nuclear Reaction
author = L. Meitner, O. Frisch
journal = Nature
volume = 143
year = 1939
pages = 239–240
doi = 10.1038/224466a0
url = http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Chem-History/Meitner-Fission-1939.html] Soon after, Fermi hypothesized that the fission of uranium might release enough neutrons to sustain a fission reaction. Confirmation of this hypothesis came in 1939, and later work found that on average about 2 1/2 neutrons are released by each fission of the rare uranium isotope
uranium-235. Further work found that the far more common uranium-238isotope can be transmuted into plutonium, which, like uranium-235, is also fissionable by thermal neutrons.
On 2 December 1942, another team led by Enrico Fermi was able to initiate the first artificial
nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1. Working in a lab below the stands of Stagg Fieldat the University of Chicago, the team created the conditions needed for such a reaction by piling together 400 tons (360 tonnes) of graphite, 58 tons (53 tonnes) of uranium oxide, and six tons (five and a half tonnes) of uranium metal. Later researchers found that such a chain reaction could either be controlled to produce usable energy or could be allowed to go out of control to produce an explosion more violent than anything possible using chemical explosives.
Two major types of atomic bomb were developed in the
Manhattan Projectduring World War II: a plutonium-based device (see Trinity testand ' Fat Man') whose plutonium was derived from uranium-238, and a uranium-based device (codenamed ' Little Boy') whose fissile material was highly enriched uranium. The uranium-based Little Boy device became the first nuclear weapon used in war when it was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshimaon 6 August 1945. Exploding with a yield equivalent to 12,500 tonnes of TNT, the blast and thermal wave of the bomb destroyed nearly 50,000 buildings and killed approximately 75,000 people (see Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki).
nuclear reactor, EBR-I (1951)] Experimental Breeder Reactor Iat the Idaho National Laboratory(INL) near Arco, Idahobecame the first functioning artificial nuclear reactor on 20 December 1951. Initially, four 150-watt light bulbs were lit by the reactor, but improvements eventually enabled it to power the whole facility (later, the whole town of Arco became the first in the world to have all its electricitycome from nuclear power). [cite web|url=http://web.em.doe.gov/tie/history.html|title=History and Success of Argonne National Laboratory: Part 1|publisher=U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory|year=1998|accessdate=2007-01-28] The world's first commercial scale nuclear power station, Obninsk in the Soviet Union, began generation with its reactor AM-1 on 27 June 1954. Other early nuclear power plants were Calder Hall in Englandwhich began generation on 17 October 1956cite web|title=1956:Queen switches on nuclear power|work= BBC news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/17/newsid_3147000/3147145.stm|accessdate=June 28|accessyear=2006] and the Shippingport Atomic Power Stationin Pennsylvaniawhich began on 26 May 1958. Nuclear power was used for the first time for propulsion by a submarine, the USS "Nautilus", in 1954.
Naturally Occurring Nuclear Fission
Fifteen ancient and no longer active
natural nuclear fission reactors were found in three separate ore deposits at the Oklomine in Gabon, West Africain 1972. Discovered by French physicist Francis Perrin, they are collectively known as the Oklo Fossil Reactors. The ore they exist in is 1.7 billion years old; at that time, uranium-235 constituted about three percent of the total uranium on Earth.cite web|title=Oklo: Natural Nuclear Reactors|work=Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management|url=http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov/factsheets/doeymp0010.shtml|accessdate=June 28|accessyear=2006] This is high enough to permit a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction to occur, providing other conditions are right. The ability of the surrounding sediment to contain the nuclear wasteproducts in less than ideal conditions has been cited by the U.S. federal government as evidence of their claim that the Yucca Mountainfacility could safely be a repository of waste for the nuclear powerindustry.
Cold War legacy and waste
Cold Warbetween the Soviet Union and the United States, huge stockpiles of uranium were amassed and tens of thousands of nuclear weapons were created using enriched uranium and plutonium made from uranium.
Since the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, an estimated 600 tons (540 tonnes) of highly enriched weapons grade uranium (enough to make 40,000 nuclear warheads) have been stored in often inadequately guarded facilities in the Russian Federation and several other former Soviet states. Police in
Asia, Europe, and South Americaon at least 16 occasions from 1993 to 2005 have intercepted shipments of smuggled bomb-grade uranium or plutonium, most of which was from ex-Soviet sources. From 1993 to 2005 the Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program, operated by the federal government of the United States, spent approximately US $550 million to help safeguard uranium and plutonium stockpiles in Russia. The improvements made provided repairs and security enhancements at research and storage facilities. "Scientific American" reported in February 2006 that some of the facilities had been protected only by chain link fences which were in severe states of disrepair. According to an interview from the article, one facility had been storing samples of enriched (weapons grade) uranium in a broom closet prior to the improvement project; another had been keeping track of its stock of nuclear warheads using index cards kept in a shoe box. Glaser, Alexander and von Hippel, Frank N. "Thwarting Nuclear Terrorism" Scientific American Magazine, February 2006]
Above-ground nuclear tests by the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s and by
Franceinto the 1970s and 1980s spread a significant amount of fallout from uranium daughter isotopes around the world. [cite journal
author = T. Warneke, I. W. Croudace, P. E. Warwick, R. N. Taylor
title = A new ground-level fallout record of uranium and plutonium isotopes for northern temperate latitudes
journal = Earth and Planetary Science Letters
year = 2002
volume = 203
issue = 3–4
pages = 1047–1057
doi = 10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00930-5
url = ] Additional fallout and pollution occurred from several nuclear accidents.
Windscale fireat the Sellafieldnuclear plant in 1957 spread iodine-131, a short lived radioactive isotope, over much of Northern England.
In 1979, the
Three Mile Island accidentreleased a small amount of iodine-131. The amounts released by the partial meltdown of the Three Mile Island power plant were minimal, and an environmental survey only found trace amounts in a few field mice dwelling nearby. As I-131 has a half life of slightly more than eight days, any danger posed by the radioactive material has long since passed for both of these incidents.
Chernobyl disasterin 1986 was a complete core breach meltdown and partial detonation of the reactor, which ejected iodine-131 and strontium-90over a large area of Europe. The 28 year half-life of strontium-90 means that only recently has some of the surrounding countryside around the reactor been deemed safe enough to be habitable. Since this is less than one half life after the accident, more than half the original release of strontium-90 will still be present. Many other radio active elements with half lives of many thousands of years were also released so use of the term "safe" is curious.
Biotic and abiotic
Uranium is a naturally occurring element that can be found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. Uranium is also the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on earth and is always found combined with other elements. Along with all elements having
atomic weights higher than that of iron, it is only naturally formed in supernovaexplosions. [cite web|url=http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/supernova_worldbook_prt.htm|title=WorldBook@NASA: Supernova|publisher=NASA|accessdate=2007-02-19] The decay of uranium, thorium, and potassium-40 in the Earth's mantle is thought to be the main source of heat [cite journal|url=http://www.newscientist.com/channel/earth/mg18725103.700 | title=First measurements of Earth's core radioactivity | publisher=New Scientist |author=Biever, Celeste | date=27 July 2005] [cite web|url=http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/7/5/4/1 | title=Potassium-40 heats up Earth's core | publisher=physicsweb | date=7 May 2003 | accessdate=2007-01-14] that keeps the outer core liquid and drives mantle convection, which in turn drives plate tectonics.
Its average concentration in the
Earth's crust is (depending on the reference) 2 to 4 parts per million,cite encyclopedia | edition = 5th edition | title =Uranium | encyclopedia =The McGraw-Hill Science and Technology Encyclopedia | publisher =The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. | url=http://www.answers.com/uranium] or about 40 times as abundant as silver. The Earth's crust from the surface to 25 km (15 mi) down is calculated to contain 1017 kg (2e|17 lb) of uranium while the oceans may contain 1013 kg (2e|13 lb). The concentration of uranium in soil ranges from 0.7 to 11 parts per million (up to 15 parts per million in farmland soil due to use of phosphate fertilizers), and 3 parts per billion of sea water is composed of the element.
It is more plentiful than
antimony, tin, cadmium, mercury, or silver, and it is about as abundant as arsenicor molybdenum. It is found in hundreds of minerals including uraninite(the most common uranium ore), autunite, uranophane, torbernite, and coffinite. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as phosphaterock deposits, and minerals such as lignite, and monazitesands in uranium-rich ores (it is recovered commercially from these sources with as little as 0.1% uranium).
Some organisms, such as the lichen "
Trapelia involuta" or microorganisms such as the bacterium" Citrobacter", can absorb concentrations of uranium that are up to 300 times higher than in their environment. [Emsley, "Nature's Building Blocks" (2001), pages 476 and 482] "Citrobacter" species absorb uranylions when given glycerol phosphate(or other similar organic phosphates). After one day, one gram of bacteria will encrust themselves with nine grams of uranyl phosphate crystals; this creates the possibility that these organisms could be used in bioremediationto decontaminate uranium-polluted water. [cite journal
title = Uranium bioaccumulation by a Citrobacter sp. as a result of enzymically mediated growth of polycrystalline chem|HUO|2|PO|4
author = L. E. Macaskie, R. M. Empson, A. K. Cheetham, C. P. Grey, A. J. Skarnulis
journal = Science
volume = 257
year = 1992
pages = 782–784
doi = 10.1126/science.1496397
pmid = 1496397]
Plants absorb some uranium from the soil they are rooted in. Dry weight concentrations of uranium in plants range from 5 to 60 parts per billion, and ash from burnt wood can have concentrations up to 4 parts per million. Dry weight concentrations of uranium in foodplants are typically lower with one to two micrograms per day ingested through the food people eat.
Production and mining
The worldwide production of uranium in 2003 amounted to 41 429
tonnes, of which 25% was mined in Canada. Other important uranium mining countries are Australia, Russia, Niger, Namibia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, South Africa, USAand Portugal.
Uranium ore is mined in several ways: by open pit, underground, in-situ
leaching, and borehole mining(see uranium mining). Low-grade uranium ore typically contains 0.1 to 0.25% of actual uranium oxides, so extensive measures must be employed to extract the metal from its ore.Seaborg, "Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements" (1968), page 774] High-grade ores found in Athabasca Basindeposits in Saskatchewan, Canada can contain up to 70% uranium oxides, and therefore must be diluted with waste rock prior to milling, as the undilute stockpiled ore could become critical and start a nuclear reaction. Uranium ore is crushed and rendered into a fine powder and then leached with either an acidor alkali. The leachate is then subjected to one of several sequences of precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The resulting mixture, called yellowcake, contains at least 75% uranium oxides. Yellowcake is then calcinedto remove impurities from the milling process prior to refining and conversion.
Commercial-grade uranium can be produced through the reduction of uranium
halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals. Uranium metal can also be made through electrolysisof chem|KU|5 or
chem|UF|4, dissolved in a molten
calcium chloride(chem|CaCl|2) and sodium chloride(NaCl) solution. Very pure uranium can be produced through the thermal decompositionof uranium halides on a hot filament.
Resources and reserves
Current economic uranium resources will last for over 100 years at current consumption rates, while it is expected there is twice that amount awaiting discovery. With reprocessing and recycling, the reserves are good for thousands of years.cite web|url=http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/ENF_Exploration_drives_uranium_resources_up_17_0206082.html |title=Exploration drives uranium resources up 17%<!- Bot generated title -> |publisher=World-nuclear-news.org |date= |accessdate=2008-09-12] . It is estimated that 5.5 million tonnes of uranium ore reserves are economically viable, while 35 million tonnes are classed as mineral resources (reasonable prospects for eventual economicextraction). An additional 4.6 billion tonnes of uranium are estimated to be in
sea water( Japanese scientists in the 1980s showed that extraction of uranium from sea water using ion exchangers was feasible).cite web| title=Uranium recovery from Seawater | url=http://www.jaea.go.jp/jaeri/english/ff/ff43/topics.html | accessdate=2008-09-03 | publisher=Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute | date=1999-08-23] cite web| title=How long will nuclear energy last? | url=http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/cohen.html | accessdate=2007-03-29 | date=1996-02-12]
Exploration for uranium is continuing to increase with US$200 million being spent world wide in 2005, a 54% increase on the previous year..This trend has continued through 2006, when expenditure on exploration rocketed to total over $774 million, an increase of over 250% compared to 2004. The
OECD Nuclear Energy Agencysaid exploration figures for 2007 would likely match those for 2006.
Australia has 40% of the world's uranium ore reserves [cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2006/s1723255.htm |title=The World Today - NT Opposition in favour of uranium enrichment<!- Bot generated title -> |publisher=Abc.net.au |date= |accessdate=2008-09-12] and the world's largest single uranium deposit, located at the Olympic Dam Mine in
South Australia. [cite web| title=Uranium Mining and Processing in South Australia | url=http://www.uraniumsa.org/processing/processing.htm | accessdate=2007-01-14 | publisher=South Australian Chamber of Mines and Energy | year=2002] Almost all of the uranium production is exported, under strict International Atomic Energy Agencysafeguards against use in nuclear weapons.
In 2005, seventeen countries produced concentrated uranium oxides, with
Canada(27.9% of world production) and Australia(22.8%) being the largest producers and Kazakhstan(10.5%), Russia(8.0%), Namibia(7.5%), Niger(7.4%), Uzbekistan(5.5%), the United States(2.5%), Ukraine(1.9%) and China (1.7%) also producing significant amounts. [cite web|url=http://www.uxc.com/fuelcycle/uranium/production-uranium.html|title=World Uranium Production|publisher=UxC Consulting Company, LLC|accessdate=2007-02-11] Kazakhstan continues to increase production and may become the world's largest producer of uranium by the year 2009 with an expected production of 12 826 tonnes, compared to Canada with 11 100 tonnes and Australia with 9 430 tonnes. [cite web|url=http://mithridates.blogspot.com/2008/07/kazakhstan-to-surpass-canada-as-worlds.html |title=Page F30: Kazakhstan to surpass Canada as the world's largest producer of uranium by next year (2009)<!- Bot generated title -> |publisher=Mithridates.blogspot.com |author=Posted by Mithridates |date= July 24, 2008 |accessdate=2008-09-12] [cite web|url=http://www.zaman.com.tr/haber.do?haberno=717292 |title=ZAMAN GAZETESİ [İnternetin İlk Türk Gazetesi - Kazakistan uranyum üretimini artıracak<!- Bot generated title -> |language=tr |publisher=Zaman.com.tr |date= |accessdate=2008-09-12] The ultimate supply of uranium is believed to be very large and sufficient for at least the next 85 yearscite web| title=Global Uranium Resources to Meet Projected Demand | url=http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/News/2006/uranium_resources.html | accessdate=2007-03-29 | publisher=International Atomic Energy Agency | year=2006] although some studies indicate underinvestment in the late twentieth century may produce supply problems in the 21st century.cite web| title=Lack of fuel may limit U.S. nuclear power expansion | url=http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/fuel-supply.html | accessdate=2007-03-29 | publisher=Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Date=2007-03-21]
Some claim that production of uranium will peak similar to
peak oil. Kenneth S. Deffeyes and Ian D. MacGregor point out that uranium deposits seem to be log-normal distributed. There is a 300-fold increase in the amount of uranium recoverable for each tenfold decrease in ore grade." [cite web
title=World Uranium Resources
author=Kenneth S. Deffeyes and Ian D. MacGregor
accessdate=2008-04-21] In other words, there is very little high grade ore and proportionately much more low grade ore.
Oxidation states and oxides
Calcined uranium yellowcake as produced in many large mills contains a distribution of uranium oxidation species in various forms ranging from most oxidized to least oxidized. Particles with short residence times in a calciner will generally be less oxidized than particles that have long retention times or are recovered in the stack scrubber. While uranium content is referred to for chem|U|3|O|8 content, to do so is inaccurate and dates to the days of the
Manhattan projectwhen chem|U|3|O|8 was used as an analytical chemistry reporting standard.
Phase relationships in the uranium-oxygen system are highly complex. The most important oxidation states of uranium are uranium(IV) and uranium(VI), and their two corresponding
oxides are, respectively, uranium dioxide(chem|UO|2) and uranium trioxide(chem|UO|3).Seaborg, "Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements" (1968), page 779] Other uranium oxides such as uranium monoxide (UO), diuranium pentoxide (chem|U|2|O|5), and uranium peroxide (chem|UO|4|•2H|2|O) are also known to exist.
The most common forms of uranium oxide are
triuranium octaoxide(chem|U|3|O|8) and the aforementioned chem|UO|2.cite web|url=http://web.ead.anl.gov/uranium/guide/ucompound/forms/index.cfm |title=Chemical Forms of Uranium|accessdate=2007-02-18|publisher=Argonne National Laboratory] Both oxide forms are solids that have low solubility in water and are relatively stable over a wide range of environmental conditions. Triuranium octaoxide is (depending on conditions) the most stable compound of uranium and is the form most commonly found in nature. Uranium dioxide is the form in which uranium is most commonly used as a nuclear reactor fuel. At ambient temperatures, chem|UO|2 will gradually convert to chem|U|3|O|8. Because of their stability, uranium oxides are generally considered the preferred chemical form for storage or disposal.
Ions that represent the four different oxidation states of uranium are soluble and therefore can be studied in aqueous solutions. They are: U3+ (red), U4+ (green), chem|UO|2|+ (unstable), and chem|UO|2|2+ (yellow).Seaborg, "Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements" (1968), page 778] A few solidand semi-metallic compounds such as UO and US exist for the formal oxidation state uranium(II), but no simple ions are known to exist in solution for that state. Ions of U3+ liberate hydrogenfrom waterand are therefore considered to be highly unstable. The chem|UO|2|2+ ion represents the uranium(VI) state and is known to form compounds such as the carbonate, chloride and sulfate. chem|UO|2|2+ also forms complexes with various organic chelating agents, the most commonly encountered of which is uranyl acetate.
The interactions of carbonate anions with uranium(VI) cause the
Pourbaix diagramto change greatly when the medium is changed from water to a carbonate containing solution. It is interesting to note that while the vast majority of carbonates are insoluble in water (students are often taught that all carbonates other than those of alkali metals are insoluble in water), uranium carbonates are often soluble in water. This is due to the fact that a U(VI) cation is able to bind two terminal oxides and three or more carbonates to form anionic complexes.
The effect of pH
The uranium fraction diagrams in the presence of carbonate illustrate this further: it may be seen that when the pH of a uranium(VI) solution is increased that the uranium is converted to a hydrated uranium oxide hydroxide and then at high pHs to an anionic hydroxide complex.
On addition of carbonate to the system the uranium is converted to a series of carbonate complexes when the pH is increased, one important overall effect of these reactions is to increase the solubility of the uranium in the range pH 6 to 8. This is important when considering the long term stability of used uranium dioxide nuclear fuels.
Hydrides, carbides and nitrides
Uranium metal heated to 250 to 300 °C (482 to 572 °F) reacts with
hydrogento form uranium hydride. Even higher temperatures will reversibly remove the hydrogen. This property makes uranium hydrides convenient starting materials to create reactive uranium powder along with various uranium carbide, nitride, and halidecompounds.Seaborg, "Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements" (1968), page 782] Two crystal modifications of uranium hydride exist: an α form that is obtained at low temperatures and a β form that is created when the formation temperature is above 250 °C. Uranium carbides and uranium nitrides are both relatively inert semimetallic compounds that are minimally soluble in acids, react with water, and can ignite in airto form chem|U|3|O|8. Carbides of uranium include uranium monocarbide (UC), uranium dicarbide (chem|UC|2), and diuranium tricarbide (chem|U|2|C|3). Both UC and chem|UC|2 are formed by adding carbon to molten uranium or by exposing the metal to carbon monoxideat high temperatures. Stable below 1800 °C, chem|U|2|C|3 is prepared by subjecting a heated mixture of UC and chem|UC|2 to mechanical stress.Seaborg, "Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements" (1968), page 780] Uranium nitrides obtained by direct exposure of the metal to nitrogeninclude uranium mononitride (UN), uranium dinitride (chem|UN|2), and diuranium trinitride (chem|U|2|N|3).
All uranium fluorides are created using
uranium tetrafluoride(chem|UF|4); chem|UF|4 itself is prepared by hydrofluorination of uranium dioxide. Reduction of chem|UF|4 with hydrogen at 1000 °C produces uranium trifluoride (chem|UF|3). Under the right conditions of temperature and pressure, the reaction of solid chem|UF|4 with gaseous uranium hexafluoride(chem|UF|6) can form the intermediate fluorides of chem|U|2|F|9, chem|U|4|F|17, and chem|UF|5.
At room temperatures, chem|UF|6 has a high
vapor pressure, making it useful in the gaseous diffusionprocess to separate highly valuable uranium-235 from the far more common uranium-238 isotope. This compound can be prepared from uranium dioxide and uranium hydride by the following process:
chem|UO|2| + 4HF + heat (500 °C) → UF|4| + 2H|2|OThe resulting chem|UF|6 white solid is highly reactive (by fluorination), easily sublimes (emitting a nearly perfect gas vapor), and is the most volatile compound of uranium known to exist.
One method of preparing
uranium tetrachloride(chem|UCl|4) is to directly combine chlorinewith either uranium metal or uranium hydride. The reduction of chem|UCl|4 by hydrogen produces uranium trichloride (chem|UCl|3) while the higher chlorides of uranium are prepared by reaction with additional chlorine. All uranium chlorides react with water and air. Bromides and iodides of uranium are formed by direct reaction of, respectively, bromineand iodinewith uranium or by adding chem|UH|3 to those element's acids. Known examples include: chem|UBr|3, chem|UBr|4, chem|UI|3, and chem|UI|4. Uranium oxyhalides are water-soluble and include chem|UO|2|F|2, chem|UOCl|2, chem|UO|2|Cl|2, and chem|UO|2|Br|2. Stability of the oxyhalides decrease as the atomic weightof the component halide increases.
Naturally occurring uranium is composed of three major
isotopes, uranium-238(99.28% natural abundance), uranium-235(0.71%), and uranium-234(0.0054%). All three isotopes are radioactive, creating radioisotopes, with the most abundant and stable being uranium-238 with a half-lifeof 4.51e|9 years (close to the age of the Earth), uranium-235 with a half-life of 7.13e|8 years, and uranium-234 with a half-life of 2.48e|5 years.Seaborg, "Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements" (1968), page 777]
Uranium-238 is an α emitter, decaying through the 18-member uranium natural
decay seriesinto lead-206. The decay series of uranium-235 (also called actino-uranium) has 15 members that ends in lead-207. The constant rates of decay in these series makes comparison of the ratios of parent to daughter elements useful in radiometric dating. Uranium-234 decays to lead-206 through a series of short-lived intermediaries. Uranium-233 is made from thorium-232 by neutronbombardment; its decay series ends with thallium-205.
The isotope uranium-235 is important for both
nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons because it is the only isotope existing in nature to any appreciable extent that is fissile, that is, can be broken apart by thermal neutrons. The isotope uranium-238 is also important because it absorbs neutrons to produce a radioactive isotope that subsequently decays to the isotope plutonium-239, which also is fissile.
Enrichment of uranium ore through
isotope separationto concentrate the fissionable uranium-235 is needed for use in nuclear weapons and most nuclear power plants with the exception of gas cooled reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors. A majority of neutrons released by a fissioning atom of uranium-235 must impact other uranium-235 atoms to sustain the nuclear chain reactionneeded for these applications. The concentration and amount of uranium-235 needed to achieve this is called a 'critical mass.'
To be considered 'enriched', the uranium-235 fraction has to be increased to significantly greater than its concentration in naturally occurring uranium. Enriched uranium typically has a uranium-235 concentration of between 3 and 5%. [cite web|url=http://web.ead.anl.gov/uranium/guide/depletedu/enrich/index.cfm |title=Uranium Enrichment|accessdate=2007-02-11|publisher=Argonne National Laboratory] The process produces huge quantities of uranium that is depleted of uranium-235 and with a correspondingly increased fraction of uranium-238, called
depleted uraniumor 'DU'. To be considered 'depleted', the uranium-235 isotope concentration has to have been decreased to significantly less than its natural concentration. Typically the amount of uranium-235 left in depleted uranium is 0.2% to 0.3%.cite web|url=http://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070723/NEWS01/707230416/1008 |title=Lawmakers back plan for Paducah plant work |accessdate=2007-07-23|publisher=Louisville Courier-Journal] As the price of uranium has risen since 2001, some enrichment tailings containing more than 0.35% uranium-235 are being considered for re-enrichment, driving the price of these depleted uranium hexafluoride stores above $130 per kilogram in July, 2007 from just $5 in 2001.dummytext]
gas centrifugeprocess, where gaseous uranium hexafluoride(chem|UF|6) is separated by the difference in molecular weight between 235UF6 and 238UF6 using high-speed centrifuges, has become the cheapest and leading enrichment process (lighter chem|UF|6 concentrates in the center of the centrifuge).Emsley, "Nature's Building Blocks" (2001), page 478] The gaseous diffusionprocess was the previous leading method for enrichment and the one used in the Manhattan Project. In this process, uranium hexafluoride is repeatedly diffused through a silver- zincmembrane, and the different isotopes of uranium are separated by diffusion rate (uranium 238 is heavier and thus diffuses slightly slower than uranium-235). The molecular laser isotope separationmethod employs a laserbeam of precise energy to sever the bond between uranium-235 and fluorine. This leaves uranium-238 bonded to fluorine and allows uranium-235 metal to precipitate from the solution. Another method is called liquid thermal diffusion.
A person can be exposed to uranium (or its radioactive daughters such as
radon) by inhaling dust in air or by ingesting contaminated water and food. The amount of uranium in air is usually very small; however, people who work in factories that process phosphate fertilizers, live near government facilities that made or tested nuclear weapons, live or work near a modern battlefield where depleted uranium weaponshave been used, or live or work near a coal-fired power plant, facilities that mine or process uranium ore, or enrich uranium for reactor fuel, may have increased exposure to uranium.cite web|url=http://www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/uranium.htm|accessdate=2007-02-18|title=Radiation Information for Uranium|publisher=U.S. Environmental Protection Agency] cite web|url=http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts150.html|title=ToxFAQ for Uranium|publisher=Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|month=September | year=1999|accessdate=2007-02-18] Houses or structures that are over uranium deposits (either natural or man-made slag deposits) may have an increased incidence of exposure to radon gas.
Almost all uranium that is ingested is excreted during
digestion, but up to 5% is absorbed by the body when the soluble uranylion is ingested while only 0.5% is absorbed when insoluble forms of uranium, such as its oxide, are ingested. However, soluble uranium compounds tend to quickly pass through the body whereas insoluble uranium compounds, especially when ingested via dust into the lungs, pose a more serious exposure hazard. After entering the bloodstream, the absorbed uranium tends to bioaccumulate and stay for many years in bonetissue because of uranium's affinity for phosphates. Uranium is not absorbed through the skin, and alpha particles released by uranium cannot penetrate the skin.
One health risk from large intakes of uranium is toxic damage to the
kidneys, because, in addition to being weakly radioactive, uranium is a toxic metal. [cite journal
title = Depleted and natural uranium: chemistry and toxicological effects
author = E. S. Craft, A. W. Abu-Qare, M. M. Flaherty, M. C. Garofolo, H. L. Rincavage, M. B. Abou-Donia
journal = Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B: Critical Reviews
year = 2004
volume = 7
issue = 4
pages = 297–317
doi = 10.1080/10937400490452714] cite web|title=Toxicological Profile for Uranium | url=http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp150-c2.pdf | publisher=Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) | location=Atlanta, GA| id=CAS# 7440-61-1 month=September | year=1999|format=PDF] Uranium is also a reproductive toxicant.Hindin, et al. (2005) [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1242351 "Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective,"] "Environ Health," vol. 4, pp. 17] [cite journal
author = Arfsten, D.P.; K.R. Still; G.D. Ritchie
year = 2001
title = A review of the effects of uranium and depleted uranium exposure on reproduction and fetal development
journal = Toxicology and Industrial Health
volume = 17
pages = 180–91
doi = 10.1191/0748233701th111oa
issue = 5–10
pmid = 12539863] Radiological effects are generally local because this is the nature of alpha radiation, the primary form from U-238 decay.
Uranyl(chem|UO|2|su|p=+) ions, such as from uranium trioxideor uranyl nitrate and other hexavalent uranium compounds, have been shown to cause birth defects and immune system damage in laboratory animals. [Domingo, J. (2001) "Reproductive and developmental toxicity of natural and depleted uranium: a review," "Reproductive Toxicology," vol. 15, pp. 603–609, doi: 10.1016/S0890-6238(01)00181-2 PMID 2711400] No human cancerhas been seen as a result of exposure to natural or depleted uranium,cite web|url=http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs150.html|title=Public Health Statement for Uranium|publisher=CDC|accessdate=2007-02-15] but exposure to some of its decay products, especially radon, does pose a significant health threat. Exposure to strontium-90, iodine-131, and other fission products is unrelated to uranium exposure, but may result from medical procedures or exposure to spent reactor fuel or fallout from nuclear weapons. [ Chart of the Nuclides, US Atomic Energy Commission 1968] Although accidental inhalation exposure to a high concentration of uranium hexafluoridehasresulted in human fatalities, those deaths were not associated with uranium itself. [Kathren and Moore 1986; Moore and Kathren 1985; USNRC 1986] Finely divided uranium metal presents a fire hazard because uranium is pyrophoric, so small grains will ignite spontaneously in air at room temperature.
Nuclear fuel cycle
List of uranium mines
Isotopes of uranium
"Full reference information for multi-page works cited"
*cite book | year =2001 | chapter=Uranium | title=Nature's Building Blocks: An A to Z Guide to the Elements | publisher =
Oxford University Press| location = Oxford| isbn=0-19-850340-7 |author= John Emsley|pages=476–82
*cite book |title="The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements"|chapter=Uranium |year=1968 |author=
Glenn T. Seaborg|publisher= Reinhold Book Corporation|location= Skokie, Illinois|pages=773–86|id=LCCCN 68-29938
*cite web|url=http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs150.html|title=Public Health Statement for Uranium|publisher=CDC
* [http://www.lbst.de/publications/studies__e/2006/EWG-paper_1-06_Uranium-Resources-Nuclear-Energy_03DEC2006.pdf Uranium Resources and Nuclear Energy]
* [http://www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/uranium.htm U.S. EPA: Radiation Information for Uranium]
* [http://www.uic.com.au/uran.htm "What is Uranium?" from Uranium Information Centre, Australia]
* [http://www.eia.doe.gov/fuelnuclear.html Nuclear fuel data and analysis from the U.S. Energy Information Administration]
* [http://www.uic.com.au Australia's Uranium Information Centre]
* [http://www.uxc.com Current market price of uranium]
* [http://www.antenna.nl/wise/uranium/umaps.html World Uranium deposit maps]
* [http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=science/Uranium Annotated bibliography for uranium from the Alsos Digital Library]
* [http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@na+@rel+uranium,+radioactive NLM Hazardous Substances Databank — Uranium, Radioactive]
* [http://environment.newscientist.com/article/mg19726396.200-pacman-molecule-chews-up-uranium-contamination.html 'Pac-Man' molecule chews up uranium contamination - earth - 17 January 2008 - New Scientist Environment]
* [http://viewer.zmags.com/showmag.php?mid=pfgsh#/page34/ Mining Uranium at Namibia's Langer Heinrich Mine]
* [http://www.nymex.com/UX_pre_agree.aspx Uranium futures market]
*World Nuclear News [http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/]
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