Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake

Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake

The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. On 26 December 2004, the earthquake, which struck off the northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, generated a tsunami that wreaked havoc along much of the rim of the Indian Ocean. Particularly hard-hit were the countries of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Nearly 230,000 people were killed, tens of thousands more were injured, and 10 million became homeless and displaced.


Humanitarian situation

The tsunami exacted a light toll on coastal communities and especially fishermen and fishmongers in the region.[1] In India and Thailand, government and Civil Society Organizations were able to mobilize resources and responded as quickly as possible. India also provided some assistance to neighboring countries and was the first nation to respond by sending naval ships and personnel to the neighboring countries due to the proximity. The people and governments in the nations of Sri Lanka and Indonesia were to some extent overwhelmed by the enormity of the catastrophe, especially in inaccessible areas.

Indonesian refugees wait for a heli-drop of much needed supplies.

The first tasks of the governments and humanitarian aid agencies were to ensure access to food and clean water, and medical care for the injured. The World Health Organization warned that the number of deaths from preventable diseases such as cholera, diphtheria, dysentery and typhoid could rival the death toll from the disaster itself. These diseases are largely spread by loss of normal sanitary facilities, the shared use of inadequate facilities in makeshift refuges, and the lack of clean water.

Many usual sources of water were spoiled by salt water, broken by the force of the tsunami, or contaminated with bodies of dead people or livestock, requiring water purification equipment or trucking portable water into the affected region. Other high priorities were delivery of medical supplies and personnel to overwhelmed hospitals and clinics, tent shelters and clothing to people who have lost their houses and belongings, and food, especially baby food. Several governments appealed for body bags to assist in the safe disposal of corpses.

Information about the impact of the tsunami on individual countries is available for:

  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Myanmar
  • Somalia
  • Sri Lanka
  • Thailand

The Tsunami Evaluation Coalition has carried out a series of evaluations of the response and published an initial findings report in December 2005, currently hosted by ALNAP. This report found that while initial needs were broadly met, in part by local actors, there was room for improvement in the way that agencies were meeting ongoing needs. Key areas for improvement in the current agency responses were identified as:

  • their engagement with local actors;
  • transparency, communication with, and accountability to the affected populations;
  • transparency towards their donors.

Despite a number of unique factors, the well-funded tsunami response provides a significant opportunity for the aid community to learn how to improve its performance in future responses. The main report from the Tsunami Evaluation Coalition is expected in July 2006.

Contributing countries and supra-national organizations

Governments, humanitarian organisations, Asian expatriates and individuals around the world scrambled to offer aid and technical support. Such was the global scope of the disaster that the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was activated in quick succession by the French Civil Protection Agency,[2] the Indian space agency ISRO,[3] and by UNOOSA on behalf of UNOPS,[4] thus providing a wide variety of humanitarian satellite imagery to aid and rescue organisations. The World Bank initially estimated the amount of aid needed at USD 5 billion.[5] Although countries are providing relief funds, the UN had criticised both the US and Europe for allocating inadequate resources. By 1 January 2005 over USD1.8 bn (GBP1bn) had been pledged.

In wake of the disaster, Australia, India, Japan, United States formed a coalition to co-ordinate aid efforts to streamline immediate assistance. However, at the Jakarta Summit on 6 January, the coalition transferred responsibilities to the United Nations.

Criticism of donor response

Sailors of USS Abraham Lincoln prepare for aerial resupply drops by US helicopters.

On 27 December UN Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Jan Egeland reportedly categorised charitable contributions of rich countries as "stingy",[6] but was widely misinterpreted in the press as categorising the response to the tsunami in this manner.[7] Speaking at a press conference later, Mr. Egeland stated, "It has nothing to do with any particular country or the response to this emergency. We are in early days and the response has so far been overwhelmingly positive".[8]

The U.S. government, led by President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell, added another USD 20 million on 28 December to their original pledge of USD 15 million, bringing the total up to USD 35 million, not including direct aid to be rendered by naval vessels dispatched to the region.[9]

Initially, the U.S. Navy dispatched P-3C Orion patrol aircraft and an aircraft carrier to assist with relief operations. The P-3C surveillance aircraft conducted survey operations, including search-and-rescue efforts, and cargo planes shuttled supplies to shelter the living and dry ice to preserve the dead from Bangkok to affected areas.[10]

On 31 December the US pledge was increased tenfold to USD 350 million,[11] with President Bush saying that that amount will probably increase. President Bush also signed a decree ordering flags to be flown at half-mast during the first week of the new year.

Serious concern has been raised that the international relief effort may falter if nations do not honour their pledges. On 3 January, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan urged the donor nations to ensure that their pledges will be fully honoured, pointing to previous cases where "we got lots of pledges, but we did not receive all the money".[12]

On 5 January 2005, as countries jockeyed to make large donations, Jan Egeland said, "I'd rather see competitive compassion than no compassion", adding that too many countries were making pledges that may never arrive.[13] Following the previous year's Bam, Iran earthquake, which killed 26,000 people, Iranian officials claim to have received just USD 17.5 million of the USD 1 billion originally pledged.[13] In mid-March, the Asian Development Bank reported that over USD 4 billion in aid promised by governments was behind schedule. Sri Lanka criticised the nations and organisations that clamoured to pledge donations, "Not a penny had come through yet. We are doing the relief work with our government money. Sri Lanka is still waiting for the money pledged by the donors. Money pledged by the people has been pledged to the NGOs."[14]

Sri Lanka's Foreign Minister, Laxman Kadirgamar, stated in a BBC interview, "A lot of aid which has been coming in latterly[15] is I'm afraid – I'm sorry to say – not very useful. For instance there was a container full of teddy bears. They're obviously given with good will, nobody says no to that." The patience of tsunami affected nations are being stretched, "Now the government had worked out a scheme that until 26 April everything that has come, everything that will be on the seas will be admitted tax free. After that, no!". Kadiragamar went on to say, "For instance we do not need rice, we are expecting a bumper harvest, anyone who sends rice is wasting their time and money."[14]

Many commentators claim excessive and competitive donor responses threaten less dramatic but equally important relief efforts elsewhere. "While everyone opens up their coffers for these disasters, the ongoing toll from malaria, AIDS and tuberculosis is much larger than these one-time events", said Enriqueta Bond, president of the US Burroughs Wellcome Fund. "We would do more good to invest in prevention and good public-health measures such as clean water". Tony Blair, the UK prime minister, also expressed concern that tsunami aid could detract from other pressing development needs. He pointed out that there was a disaster comparable to a "preventable tsunami every week in Africa", where 10,000 people die daily from AIDS and malaria alone.[16]

Criticism of recipient response

In the early stages, before the extent of the disaster was clear, Sri Lanka refused Israel's offers of aid, objecting to the inclusion of 60 Israeli soldiers in the 150-person mission planned by Israel's army, to set up field hospitals, including internal medicine and paediatric clinics, an Israeli army spokesman reported to BBC. Later, the Israeli humanitarian organization sent a jumbo jet carrying 18 tonnes of supplies to Colombo, however, and a rescue-and-recovery team from the Jewish ultra-Orthodox organization ZAKA arrived in Colombo with equipment used for identifying bodies, as well as body bags.[17] Corruption, bureaucracy and nationalism hampered the humanitarian response in Indonesia.[18] The Indonesia government is reported to have flown Muslim militants into Aceh to help the relief effort.[citation needed] On 12 January, the Indonesian government put restrictions on the movement of journalists and aid workers, ostensibly for their protection from Acehnese insurgents. However, there were concerns that this was a clumsy attempt by the government to gather control over, and credit for, relief efforts in an attempt to gain an edge over the rebels.

In Sri Lanka, only 30% of those eligible affected by the tsunami as of 10 February had received any aid, and there are allegations of local officials giving aid only to their supporters, some of whom were not victims of the tsunami. The Sri Lankan government has set up a "Special Complaint Unit" for citizens to record grievances.

List of donors

The following table is a partial listing of cash commitments from various governments and nongovernmental organisations, taken from[19][20] and other sources:[21][22]

Note: Exchange rates were taken on 8 January 2005, when EUR 1 = USD 1.30585; GBP 1 = USD 1.87110; CAD 1 = USD 0.811853; AUD 1 = USD 0.757346; HKD 1 = USD 0.1282; 1 INR= USD 0.0228102; 1 CNY= 0.120831; 1 NOK = USD 0.158526; 1 DKK = 0.175711; 1 SEK = USD 0.144363; and 1 CHF = USD 0.844131.

Country Government Permille of GNP NGOs & Public
(Excludes corporate
donations – see below)
Permille of GNP Total
(in USD
Permille of GNP[23]
Australia AUD 1.377bn (see below) (USD 1.099bn)[24] 2.03 AUD 280M (USD 223.4M)[25] 0.41 1,322 2.44
Austria EUR 50M (USD 65.30M)[26][27] 0.26 EUR 20M (USD 26.12M)[28] 0.10 91.42 0.36
Belgium EUR 12M (USD 15.67M) 0.05 EUR 38.05M (USD 49.70M)[29] 0.17 65.37 0.22
Bosnia USD 67,000[30]
Cambodia USD 40,000[30]
Canada Federal CAD 425M (USD 414M)[31][32] Provincial CAD 18.5M (USD 15.02M)[33] 0.70 Public CAD 230 (USD 185.8M),[32] BusinessCAD 36.3M (USD 29.47M) 0.28 743.68 0.98
China (PRC) CNY 522M (USD 63.07M)[34] plus USD 20M[35] 0.035 CNY about 500M(USD 60M)[36](USD) 146M[37]
Croatia USD 917,000[30]
Cyprus USD 1.3M[30]
Czech Republic CZK 200M (USD 9M) 0.10 CZK 230M (USD 10M) 0.12 19 0.22
Denmark DKK 420M (USD 74M)[38] 0.44 DKK 200M (USD 36M)[39] 0.21 110 0.65
Equatorial Guinea USD 200,000[30]
Estonia USD 390,000[30]
European Union USD 615M n/a n/a n/a 615 n/a
Finland EUR 50M (USD 65.3M)[40] 0.40 EUR 18.5M (USD 24.2M)[41] 0.15 89.5 0.55
France EUR 250M (USD 302.84M) 0.18  ?  ? > 302.84 > 0.18
Germany EUR 500M (USD 653M)[42] + EUR 20M (USD 26M) for immediate aid 0.27 EUR 450M (USD 580M)[43] 0.22 > 1,300 > 0.50
Greece EUR 1.3M (USD 1.7M) 0.01 EUR 19M (USD 24.8M)[44] 0.14 26.5 0.15
Hong Kong HKD 50M (USD 6.41M) 0.04 HKD 620M (USD 79.48M)[45] 0.5 85.89 0.54[46]
Hungary USD 1.2M[30]
India INR 8 billion (USD 183M) 0.3  ?  ? > 183 > 0.3
Ireland EUR 20M (USD 26.12M) 0.15 EUR 75M (USD 97.94M) (Source: Irish Times 18/3/05) 0.92 117.94 1.09
Iran USD 627,000[30]
Italy EUR 70M (USD 91.4M)[47]   EUR 42M (USD 57.3M)[48]   > 120.13 > 0.085
Japan USD 500M[49] 0.115  ?  ? > 500 > 0.115
Kuwait USD 100M[50]  ?  ? > 100
Latvia USD 185,000[30]
Lithuania USD 295,000[30]
Luxembourg USD 6.9M[30]
Macedonia EUR 1.5M (USD 1.9M)[51] 0.03
Madagascar USD 100,000[30]
Monaco USD 133,000[30]
Netherlands EUR 230M (USD 300.5M) 0.58 > EUR 160.5M (USD 208.6M)[52] > 0.41 > 509.1 > 0.99
New Zealand NZ 68M (USD 47.2M)[53] > NZ 19M (USD 13.1M) > 60.4
North Korea USD 150,000[30]
Norway NOK 1.1 billion (USD 175.3M)[54] NOK 564M (USD 89.8M)[55] 265.1 1.19
Poland USD 1.6M[30]
Portugal EUR 8M (USD 10.45M) 0.07  ?  ? 10.45 0.07
Qatar USD 25M[56] 1.43  ?  ? > 25 > 1.43
Romania USD 240,000[30]
Russia USD 2.0M[30]
Spain EUR 56M (USD 73.13M) 0.087  ?  ? > 73.13 > 0.087
Saudi Arabia USD 30M[57] 67.4M, USD[58] > 367.4 >
Senegal USD 200,000[30]
Slovakia USD 360,000[30]
Slovenia USD 110,000[30]
Sweden SEK 500M (USD 72.2M)[59] SEK 1100M (USD 159M)[60] 177.2 0.5
Switzerland CHF 27M (USD 22.8M) CHF 211.1M (USD 178.2M)[61] as of 11 February 2005 200.9 0.64
Taiwan USD 50.0M[62] USD 60M 110 0.34
Turkey TRY 28.9M[63]  ?  ? 37.6
United Arab Emirates USD 20M  ?  ? 20
United Kingdom GBP 75M (USD 145M)[64] 0.083 GBP 350M (USD 655M)[65] as of 26 February 2005 0.38 2,058 0.47
United States USD 950M[66] 0.086 USD 1875M[67] 0.17 2,825 0.26
World Bank USD 1000M[30] n/a n/a 250 n/a
Zimbabwe USD 3.2M[30]
Total >USD 10bn

Pledged amounts as percentages of GDP

The table below examines the amounts pledged for humanitarian efforts in light of rough national economic power, which is arguably a more useful measures. There are a number of caveats that should be kept in mind while reading the table:

  1. The figures do not include the cost of operating military resources deployed to provide aid, and it is unclear how this should be quantified. While some would argue that military resources are already paid for and that the relief effort can be regarded as a logistics training exercise, the increased operational costs are an unbudgeted expenditure. Others would argue that the military resources provide the only infrastructure that will deliver aid in a timely manner to save lives to the hardest hit and neediest areas, and without this quickly deployable infrastructure the other contributions, no matter how large would be useless or arrive too late.
  2. The figures do not tell anything about the rate in which the money will be spent. How much of the money is going to be spent this year and how much is reserved for long-term reconstructions efforts is not reflected by this table.
  3. Use of Gross Domestic Product (or Gross National Product) should be treated with caution as this does not accurately measure a country's ability to provide aid. Similarly, whether to use 'nominal' or 'real' GNP/GDPs can be argued. Some GDP/GNP figures are also out of date e.g. for the year 2002, or even 2001, so comparisons between countries may not be for the same time period. A better comparison might be used by examining Purchasing Power Parity-adjusted GDP/GNP figures (as used in the CIA factbook).
  4. It can be argued, the quality of aid differs as "aid" is an ambiguous term that may cover a wide variety of methods, including 'soft' loans (where the money has to be repaid with interest albeit at below market rates), and 'tied aid' (where the money has to be spent buying goods and services from the donating country). The terms by which the aid is accepted play a large role in determining how useful it is and also affect the relative cost to the donating country.
  5. This is aid for one particular disaster. Without knowing how much aid the various countries and their people donate to other disasters, one cannot draw conclusions on their overall level of generosity.
  6. The numbers below are the pledged contributions. Arguably, only funds that are actually transferred should be counted. For example, after the Bam earthquake in December 2003, the Iranian government received only USD 17.5 million from the USD one billion of international donations that had been promised.[68]
  7. The amounts pledged by individual sovereign nations within the European Union should be increased by amounts pledged by the European Union itself.

With all the caveats in mind, the following table lists some countries in order of nominal aid donated divided by GDP.

Country GDP (2003 or earlier)
(USD billions) See
[69] Aid (total)
(US$ millions)
 % of GDP Aid by government
(US$ millions)
 % of GDP Aid by public
(US$ millions)
 % of GDP
Australia 518.4 1,322 0.255 1,099 0.212 227.6 0.043
Liechtenstein 0.825 1.2 0.145 ? ? ? ?
Qatar 17.47 25 0.140 ? ? ? ?
Norway 221.6 265.1 0.119 175.3 0.079 89.8 0.040
Netherlands 512 509.1 0.0994 300.5 0.0587 208.6 0.0407
Canada 834.4 743.68 0.089 531.2 0.064 212.48 0.025
Ireland 148.6 117.94 0.079 20 0.0135 97.94 0.0659
Sweden 300.8 230.9 0.077 71.9 0.024 159 0.053
Finland 162 89.5 0.055
Hong Kong 158.6 85.89 0.054 6.41 0.004 79.48 0.05
Saudi Arabia 188.5 97.5 0.052
Switzerland 309.5 157.9 0.051
Denmark 212.4 100.9 0.1475
Germany 2400 1,071 0.0446
United Kingdom 1795 795.2 0.0443 140.3 0.0078 654.9 0.036
Taiwan 293.2[70] 110 0.038 50 0.017 60 0.021
United Arab Emirates 70.96 25 0.035
United States 10,880 2,875 0.026
Czech Republic 85 19 0.0224
Belgium 302 65.37 0.0216
Singapore 91.34 15 0.016
Greece 173 21.3 0.0123
Japan 4326 580 0.013 500 0.012 80 0.0018
Spain 836.1 3.713 0.00007
Italy 1466 120.13 0.0082
Iceland 10.5 2.5[71] 0.0238
Portugal 149 10.45 0.0070
Mainland China 1410 95.07 0.0067
India 599 183 0.0031
France 1748 54.84 0.0031

Pledged amounts on a per capita basis

- Another way of looking at the figures.

Country Population (July 2004 or earlier)
[72] Aid (total)
(USD millions)
per capita (USD) Aid by government
(USD millions)
per capita (USD) Aid by public
(USD millions)
per capita (USD)
Australia 19,913,144 1,322 66.38 1,099 55.19 223.4 11.22
Norway 4,574,560 265.1 57.95 175.3 38.32 89.8 19.63
Kuwait 2,257,549 100 44.3
Liechtenstein 32,528 1.2 36.89
Netherlands 16,318,199 509.1 31.20 300.5 18.42 208.6 12.78
Ireland 3,939,558 117.94 29.94 20 5.08 97.94 24.86
Qatar 840,290 20 23.80
Canada 32,507,874 743.68 22.88 531.2 16.34 212.48 6.54
Switzerland 7,450,867 157.9 21.19
Sweden 9,010,627 230.9 25.63 71.9 7.97 159 17.64
Finland 5,214,512 89.5 17.16
Denmark 5,413,392 87.5 16.16
United Kingdom 60,270,708 795.7 13.20 140.3 2.33 654.9 10.87
Hong Kong 6,855,125 85.89 12.529 6.41 0.935 79.48 11.594
Germany 82,424,609 992 12.04
United States 293,027,571 2,875 9.81
Iceland 293,966 2.5 8.50
United Arab Emirates 2,523,915 20 7.92
Taiwan (ROC) 22,191,087 110 4.96 50 2.25 60 2.71
Japan 127,333,002 580 4.55 500 3.93 80 0.63
Singapore 4,353,893 15 3.45
Belgium 10,348,276 24.9 2.41
Italy 58,057,477 125 2.15
Greece 10,647,529 21.6 2.03
Czech Republic 10,246,178 19 1.85
Spain 40,280,780 73.1 1.81
Saudi Arabia 25,795,938 30 1.16
Portugal 10,524,145 10.9 1.04
France 60,424,213 57 0.94
Mainland China 1,298,847,624 63 0.05
India 1,065,070,607 23 0.02

Asia and Oceania

  • Federal Government — After committing and distributing to international aid an initial AUD 10 million pledge (USD 7.7 million), the government of Australia announced on 29 December and 31 December that two additional disbursements of AUD 25 million (USD 18.1 million) each would be committed:[73] AUD 10 million to aid organizations, AUD 10 million to Indonesia, and AUD 5 million (USD 3.6 million) to Sri Lanka. Foreign Affairs Minister Alexander Downer has indicated Australia will offer further aid as needed. On 5 January in Jarkarta, Prime Minister John Howard announced an Australian aid package of AUD 1 billion[74] for Indonesia (USD 766.89m), significantly exceeding the half billion expected.[75] The bilateral aid package[76] consists equally of grant assistance and highly concessional funding. On 11 January, AUD 500,000 aid was announced for the Seychelles, taking total federal government monetary assistance to AUD 1,060,500,000.
  • State governments — The governments of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia have all pledged monetary assistance to a combined total of AUD 17.45 million (USD 13.6 million).
  • Military/Professional — As part of Australia's aid-assistance, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is working extensively in the region, alongside American forces. Upwards on 900 unarmed personnel are working in Indonesia, including 15 air-traffic controllers managing the massive aid effort in Aceh. Eight Royal Australian Air Force C-130 Hercules are currently assisting in the massive clean-up in Indonesia. Four Hercules are moving stores within Indonesia, while another four planes are establishing an air bridge to move material and personnel from Australia. At the outbreak of the disaster, three were immediately dispatched, laden with essentials such as medical supplies, water purification units, blankets and bottled water. Also, a Royal Australian Navy amphibious transport ship HMAS Kanimbla was dispatched from Sydney on New Year's Eve, to arrive in Indonesia on 13 January, with two H-3 Sea King helicopters on board. Furthermore, four Australian Army UH-1 Iroquois helicopters are working in Aceh, where the ADF has established a field hospital and water plant. The Australian Federal Police (AFP) also has teams on the ground, particularly in Thailand, including body identification teams. Teams of medical and emergency professionals were sent with the call going out for volunteers ready and willing to fly to the affected areas to further assist with the relief and rebuilding operation. In response to a request from the Maldivian Government, Australia has sent ecological experts to repair coral reefs - the life-blood of Maldivian tourism - and teachers to restore schooling. The estimated cost of this additional support is above AUD 60 million (USD 46.5m), and is being managed by Emergency Management Australia (EMA).
  • Public/Corporate — Australia's three major commercial television networks, the Seven Network, the Nine Network and Network Ten took the unprecedented step of pooling resources to organise a special concert telethon which aired on 8 January. Simultaneously broadcast on all three networks and in most capitals on the Triple M radio network, the telethon was an extraordinary display of solidarity and co-operation in the usually fiercely competitive commercial television and radio markets (see Australia Unites: Reach Out To Asia). As of end of broadcast, the figure raised/pledged was AUD 15,198,349.53, however phone lines remained open and the final tally totalled at over AUD 20 million. Overall corporate response has been criticised as inadequate, particularly considering bumper profits. The Australian public has raised over AUD 190 million (USD 143.37 million) so far. As a sign of respect to the victims of the disaster, New Year's Eve celebrations around the country were either toned down or cancelled. Most of those celebrations that did proceed organised collections for charities in an attempt to avoid criticism. Australia's largest New Year's celebration, in Sydney, alone raised over AUD 1.1 million for.[77]
 Cambodia The Royal Cambodian Government has donated USD 40,000 total: USD 10,000 each to India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. See[78]
 People's Republic of China (PRC) The PRC government will send RMB 521.63 million (USD 63 million) to South and Southeast Asia. The overall donations from the Chinese public up to now are over 500 million RMB.
 Hong Kong, SAR (PRC) As of 7 January 2005, citizens of Hong Kong have donated a total of HKD 560 million (USD 71.8 million) (CRHK, HKET).

Hutchison Whampoa Limited and Li Ka Shing Foundation of Hong Kong announced on 28 December 2004 that they would donate HKD 24 million (USD 3.08 million) for the relief fund. Performer Karen Joy Morris (aka. Karen Man Wai Mok) pledged to donate HKD 200 thousand (Ming Pao). Performers of EEG also pledged to donate a total sum of HKD 630 thousand. Sir Run Run Shaw has donated HKD 10 m.

Hong Kong Jockey Club has donated HKD 10 m, and will donate HKD 1 for each dollar it received from donors (target at a minimum HKD 10 m). MTR donated HKD 0.5 for each passenger trip on 2 January 2005, with a total sum at HKD 1 m. KCR donated all the fares collected in the four-hour extension of train services on 1 January 2005.

Hong Kong Red Cross has collected HKD 100 m (global target USD 46 m / HKD 360 m). MSF has stopped collected donations for the tsunami, and requested donors to donate to its other programmes. World Vision Hong Kong has collected HKD 50 m.

A variety show TV programme on TVB and RTHK on 2 January 2005 has collected HKD 40 m (HKET).

Various NGOs, companies and individuals have set off to the affected countries to offer assistance.

The government of Hong Kong has sent 120 personnel to help Hong Kong residents and search for missing people. Police and medical teams are stand-by to offer assistance.

Update: At 3 December 2005, Red Cross Hong Kong has already collected HK$620m.[45]

 Macau, SAR (PRC) Macau Red Cross has collected MOP 35 m.
  • Government of India — The federal government has pledged INR 1 billion (USD 23 million) to Sri Lanka and Maldives in addition to warships and aircraft to distribute relief supplies. A federal budgetary allocation of INR 7 billion (USD 160 million) has been earmarked for immediate distribution to affected Indian provinces.
  • Military — As part of India's rescue and aid-assistance,[79] the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard deployed 32 Naval ships, seven aircraft and 20 helicopter in the Indian ocean region. This was the part of various operations like Operation Madad (in Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu coasts), Operation Sea Waves (in Indian territory of Andaman & Nicobar Islands), 'Operation Castor' (in Maldives), 'Operation Rainbow' (on Sri Lanka) and 'Operation Gambhir' (in Indonesia).[80] Also Indian Naval group was able to start the rescue operations in neighbouring countries within 12 hours from the time of the Tsunami and the first foreign navy to reach them.[81]
  • Public — The citizens of India and various NGO's have actively participated in providing relief materials and charity to the Tsunami striken people.
 Japan The Japanese government will provide USD 500 million in aid to affected countries. Emergency medical teams were sent to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives.

Japan, which is the world's second largest donor of Official Development Assistance (known as ODA), is also dispatching Japan Self-Defense Forces vessels off Northern Sumatra to supply aid. Land, Air, and Maritime Forces were already ordered preparation.

 Malaysia Malaysia has also sent rescue teams abroad to as local damage were minimal and this freed the Special Malaysian Rescue Team (SMART) to fly to Indonesia. The team 73-member combination unit from SMART,[82] and the Fire and Rescue Department were sent to medan with food supply, medicine and clothing for about 2,000 victims. An additional military doctors team in a CN 235 aircraft and a[83] were also sent to Aceh. Further aid are being sent using C-130 Hercules transport aircraft,[84] a volunteer body for humanitarian relief consisting of doctors and nurses have also flown to Sri Lanka. Currently, it has two teams based in Kesdam Military Hospital, one of the two surviving hospitals in Banda Aceh. Malaysia also has opened its airspace and two airports, Subang Airport and Langkawi International Airport to relief operations and acts as a staging base to forward relief supplies to Aceh.
 New Zealand
  • Government — The New Zealand government announced it will donate NZD10 million (USD7.2 million). On 18 January, the New Zealand Government announced an increase in aid to a total of NZD68 million (USD47.2 million), including its initial NZD10 million commitment. The government's response includes NZD20 million (A$18.4 million) for United Nations relief efforts, NZD20 million (A$18.4 million) for work in Aceh and other parts of Sumatra through a bilateral aid program in Indonesia and a NZD19 million (A$17.5 million) dollar-for-dollar matching of public donations by New Zealanders.
  • Military — Also, an airforce (RNZAF) C-130 Hercules, working in unison with the Royal Australian Air Force, has been sent for evacuation and transport of relief supplies. . New Zealand has also sent an RNZAF 757 aircraft to the Thai city of Phuket with a specialist victim identification team on board. The 38-year old aircraft have, unfortunately, been plagued with severe technical difficulties, and on several occasions, been forced to halt aid efforts.
  • Public — The New Zealand government also announced that it would match, dollar for dollar, the amount pledged by its citizens to various charities. As of 18 January, this equates to a further NZD 19 million.[85]
 North Korea The government of North Korea has pledged USD 150,000.[68]
  • Government of Pakistan has announced a PKR 10 million (USD 0.2 million) relief package for the earthquake victims of Sri Lanka. This consists of goods such as tents, medicines, drinking water and food items.
  • Military Pakistan plans to send 500 military personnel in medical and engineering teams to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.
    • Aeroplanes2 C-130 aeroplanes with relief goods and 250 doctors and engineers left forIndonesia and Sri Lanka each.[86] Six more C-130 will fly to Indonesia in a week to help in the relief work. and also two Seaking helicopters onboard PNS (Pakistan Navy Ship) Moawin are in Sri Lanka to provide logistics support.[87]
    • Navy ships Ships Khyber and Mua'awan are being sent to Sri Lanka. On board, these ships have three helicopters, a marine Expeditionary Force, doctors, and paramedics. Besides, relief goods - medicines, medical equipment, food supplies, tents, blankets- are being sent in huge quantities. Pakistan Navy ships, Tariq and Nasr, on a good will visit to the Maldives, saved 367 foreign tourists, representing 17 nationalities conducted aerial surveys to judge the extent of damage, distributed food and medicines, and provided medical assistance.[88] Pakistan Navy Task Force arrived at Colombo port to provide humanitarian assistance and relief goods to the government of Sri Lanka. An ISPR (Navy) statement here on Tuesday said that the commander of the Task Force is Commodore Ehsan Saeed and it comprises Pakistan Navy ship Moawin, a Logistic support ship having two Seaking helicopters onboard and PNS Khaibar, a guided missile destroyer carrying one Aloutte helicopter. On arrival, officials from Pakistan Mission at Colombo and local Navy officials of Sri Lanka received the ships.[87]

Upon arrival, a co-ordination meeting was held onboard PNS Moawin between Sri Lanka Navy officials, Pakistan High Commissioner to Sri Lanka and Pakistan Navy Mission Commander Commodore Ehsan Saeed to discuss the modus operandi of the relief operat

 Singapore The Singapore government has pledged SGD 5m to relief efforts initially, including SGD 1m in cash to the[89] (SRCS). As of 8 January, SRCS has collected more than SGD 27m. At an emergency disaster summit in Jakarta, the government has pledged an additional USD 10m to help victims of the tsunami disaster. A government-linked investment company, Temasek Holdings, has earmarked USD 10m for relief work. The government has also offered the use of its air and naval bases as a staging area to the United Nations and other relief agencies as well as to other countries, including the US, Australia, France and Japan. The United Nations has also accepted Singapore's offer to set up a UN Regional Coordination Centre to coordinate relief efforts to stricken areas.[90]

The Singaporean humanitarian relief operation involves more than 1200 military and civil defence personnel - of whom 900 are in Aceh, Indonesia. The humanitarian assistance provided by its military, medical and rescue teams is estimated to cost SGD 20m. Singapore has also offered to rebuild hospitals and clinics in Aceh.

The Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) has deployed three Endurance class landing platform dock ships - RSS Endurance, RSS Persistence and RSS Endeavour - off the coast of Meulaboh, one of the worst hit areas where all road access was cut off. Onboard these ships were medical and engineering teams and volunteers with NGOs. The ships were also loaded with medical supplies and heavy equipment to help clear roads and debris. It has also dispatched six Chinook helicopters and two Super Puma helicopters to Aceh, two Chinook helicopters and two Super Puma helicopters to Phuket, Thailand. C130s were also dispatched to ferry relief supplies to tsunami-hit areas.[91]

 South Korea The South Korean Government has pledged an additional USD 1.4m on 28 December in addition to an earlier offer of support of USD 600,000. A 20-person emergency aid team consisting of 5 medical specialists, nurses and administrative staff has been dispatched to Sri Lanka by The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare and a medical aid group. On 29 December a shipment with medicine and medical supplies worth SKW 200m (USD 192,000) followed the team.
 Republic of China, Taiwan (ROC) The ROC government has pledged USD 50.0m in aid to affected countries. If private philanthropic donations are calculated, relief aid from Taiwan would be expected to reach USD 60m. Other forms of humanitarian aid include over 30,000 tons in emergency supplies and 50 medical teams to be dispatched to affected areas.[62]
 Tonga The government of Tonga has pledged USD 65,000 and the Tongan public has donated TOP 22,887.[92]
  • Government — The Government of Vanuatu has contributed VUV 5,000,000 (USD 47,300) to relief efforts.
  • Public — A benefit concert was held 8 January, which raised VUV 200,000 (USD 1,800) for the Vanuatu Red Cross Society (both.[93]


 Austria The government will give aid worth EUR 50m (USD 65.30m).[27]
 Belgium Belgian government has sent EUR 12m (USD16.4m). Various organisations such as Artsen zonder Grenzen are sending medical teams. During the charity show on 14 January, public and private media in Belgium have more than EUR 38m collected.
 Bulgaria The Bulgarian Military Academy of Medicine has allocated BGN 200,000 (EUR 100,000) worth of aid to Indonesia and Sri Lanka in the form of medicines and emergency equipment. The Bulgarian Red Cross and the national emergency agency have sent emergency equipment, drugs and shelters.
 Croatia The Croatian government has decided to allocate HRK 4m (EUR 520,000) for aid to the stricken region (the amount shall be split equally between India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand). Croatian Red Cross will contribute with HRK 4.8m (EUR 630,000) from public donations.
 Czech Republic The Czech government will give aid worth CZK 200m (EUR 6.5m or USD 8.7m), in various forms.[94] Public donations add more than CZK 230m, about USD 10m. The total makes the country a leading donor from the former Eastern bloc.
 Denmark The Danish government will give aid worth DKR 300 m (EUR 40.38m).

Danish PM Anders Fogh Rasmussen said that Denmark will increase this amount if it is deemed necessary by the UN or emergency relief organisations.

 Finland The Finnish government has already delivered EUR 4.5m to help the victims of the tsunami, EUR 5.5m will be given to helping aid organisations when requested. In addition, EUR 75,000 and a field hospital from the Finnish Red Cross and EUR 25,000 from Save the Children Finland will be sent.
 France The Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced on 29 December that EUR 22.16m is being pledged. EUR 15m has been allocated to the UN's agencies and Red Cross, while EUR 1.56m should be used for the immediate assistancy. Another EUR 5.6m part of this sum is the first French participation to the European aid. EUR 20m has been pledged on 30 December, mostly for clean water installations. EUR 100,000 has been given by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 27 December, and a plane with 100 rescue personnel and 800 kg of medical supplies was sent.
 Germany The German government has initially allocated EUR 20m (USD 26m) for immediate aid. Fast-response teams of the governmental technical relief organisation (THW) were sent to Thailand and Sri Lanka for rescue purposes on 28 December, together with drinking water purification equipment to be installed in Galle (Sri Lanka). Additional water purification equipment was sent to the Maldives and Indonesia on first days of this year. During the last weeks, several medical and supporting units of the German armed forces have been sent to the region, including a supporting frigate and medevac airlifts. Australian and German forces have joined to build a large-scale field hospital at the scene. The German Chancellor has proposed to release the most affected countries from their debts and to create a scheme under which every EU nation "adopts" (where one has to note that the German word for adoption or godparenthood has a less demeaning undertone than the English one) one of the most severely affected countries and ensures long-lasting aid. German charities (TV shows, private donations) top as of 5 January 2005 more than USD 400m. Additionally, the German government will give EUR 500m; in a period of 3 to 5 years for long-term-help.
 Greece Greece allocated EUR 0.3m (USD 0.4m) to the Maldives and Sri Lanka, and two planes will carry to those countries over 6 tonnes of humanitarian materials.

The Greek people raised over EUR 15m (USD 19.9m) through private donations made during a TV charity marathon which included the auction of articles such as commemorative items from the Athens Olympic Games and the Euro 2004 event, as well as the fountain pen of the retreating President of the Hellenic Republic. The Greek Government added EUR 1m (USD 1.3m) to the initial amount.[95]

 Hungary Hungary sent a medical and rescue team of 10 as well as two containers and ten pallets of emergency goods to Thailand and Sri Lanka.
 Iceland The Icelandic government has pledged ISK 5m (USD 70,000) to the Icelandic Red Cross[96] which will "make sure the money gets into the right hands". An aeroplane from Loftleiðir Icelandic (a subsidiary of Flugleiðir) Phuket island departed from Iceland on 28 December 2004 to pick up Swedish survivors. A little under 10 tonnes of Iceland Spring Water manufactured by Ölgerðin Egill Skallagrímsson were also sent.[97] On 7 January. the Icelandic government announced that the total contribution to the earthquake disaster in Asia will be ISK 150m (USD 2.5m).[71]
 Ireland The Irish government has pledged EUR 20m (USD 26.12m) in response to the earthquake-caused disaster in South Asia[98] - the majority of the money will be given to Irish Aid organisations and the UN. In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, the Irish public quickly started collecting money, on the streets, in churches, schools, in shopping centres and many other initiatives such as the Work a Day for Free, where many workers throughout the country donated a days wages to the disaster relief fund. An estimated EUR 1m was raised also by pubs and hotels in collections. Hundreds of other events took place throughout the country. The various Irish charities raised over €75m from the public in response to the disaster with the Irish Red Cross, Concern, and Goal all raiseing several million each. The church based charity Trócaire alone raised €27m over just one weeklend Source: Irish Times 18/3/05'
 Italy The CEI (Italian Conference of Bishops) has already sent 100,000 euros (part of a donation of USD 1.7m from Caritas Internationalis) and is collecting national donations.[99] Private moneyraising efforts coordinated by newspapers and telephony companies have collected more than EUR 12.6m.[100] The government has pledged EUR 3m (USD 3.9m). As of 31 December 5 Italian flights have arrived Sri Lanka carrying an advanced team of 8 experts of the Italian Civil Protection Department with 50 tonnes of equipment and goods (2 field hospitals, 20 doctors and medical staff, medical kits, field kitchens, water pumps, water storages, etc.)
 Luxembourg Luxembourg has announced it will donate at least EUR 5m (USD 6.5 million) as humanitarian aid.
 Netherlands The Dutch government has reserved EUR 227m (USD 295m) for aid to the affected area. A KDC-10 aircraft of the Dutch Airforce has flown several missions to the affected areas, providing emergency supplies and a mobile hospital unit. Military air-traffic-controllers have been sent to Banda Aceh to help dealing with the stream of relief flights. Also, a specialized forensic identification team has helped to find the identities of dozens of Tsunami victims in Thailand. The Dutch Red Cross has dedicated EUR 100,000 (USD 0.13 million) for emergency aid. Several private initiatives have started, which vary from calls to give money to Samenwerkende Hulporganisaties (Giro 555) to collecting food and other supplies for the affected areas. These initiatives have so far raised EUR 160.5m (USD 208.6m).
 Norway The Norwegian government has allocated NOK 1.1bn (USD 180m) to be distributed to the UN, the Red Cross and other aid organisations. The prime minister has also pledged to provide more funds as needed in aid relief coordinated by the United Nations. The Royal Norwegian Air Force and Scandinavian Airlines have established airlift shuttles in order to provide emergency transport services between Thailand and Scandinavia for as long as is necessary. An ongoing appeal[101] is trying to convince the government to provide a total amount of NOK 10 billion (USD 1.64bn) from The Petroleum Fund of Norway[102] to this and future disasters.
 Poland The Polish government will donate PLN 1m (USD 0.3m) to Polish aid non-governmental organisations.
 Portugal The Portuguese government has approved EUR 8m (USD 10,9m) in aid to victims of the tragedy. The country has already sent a plane with relief supplies to Sri Lanka, and the Government has announced that a second plane with humanitarian aid would be sent in next days, this time to Indonesia.
 Romania The Romanian government has approved EUR 150,000 worth of medical aid, tents and beds to South Asia. Additionally, EUR 395,000 was raised by the public in a telethon, bringing the total to EUR 545,500. See[103]
 Russia Two transport planes of the Russian Ministry for Emergency Situations landed on Sri Lanka on 27 December carrying humanitarian aid. The planes were carrying 110 tents and 2200 blankets with a total weight of 25 tonnes, Russia also sent a rescue helicopter Bo-105, on board of which rescuers flew over the area of the calamity and searched for and evacuated people. One more plane was sent on 30 December with tents, drinking water, water cleaning stations and other humanitarian aid.[104] The town of Beslan, scene of the 2004 school hostage crisis, donated RUB 1m (USD 36,000) from the fund set up after the mass hostage-taking.[105] On 11 January Russia sent field hospital equipment to Indonesia. Nearly 150 tons of humanitarian aid were flown to Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia from 27 December to 10 January. The humanitarian cargoes, part of them supplied by Belarus, include tents, blankets, bedding, water purification installations and flour.[106]
 Serbia The Serbian government has approved immediate delivery of 40 tonnes of humanitarian aid worth EUR 150,000. Two Aviogenex airplanes were provided for the delivery. The Exit Music Festival has collected 317,000 L of water from sponsors. Serbian Red Cross has started the action of collecting money.
 Slovenia The Slovenian government has approved SIT 44m (EUR 185,500) for immediate delivery.
  • Central Government The Spanish Cabinet has approved an aid package totalling EUR 54m (USD 70.5m): EUR 4m (USD 5.2m) for immediate delivery, allocated to the relief shipments conducted by the Spanish Agency of International Cooperation (AECI) and NGOs; and EUR 50m Development Aid Fund (FAD) loan, with favourable terms that include long periods of repayment and low interest, aimed to support the reconstruction efforts in all countries affected by the quake. Two cargo planes with humanitarian aid took off on 28 December to Sri Lanka and another three, of the AECI and the Red Cross, were dispatched on 31 December to Sumatra in Indonesia and Thailand. The Government has also announced a debt moratorium for affected countries.
  • Military On 8 January Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero announced the immediate deployment of a military force to assist in humanitarian tasks, comprising 650 troops, 5 planes with humanitarian aid, 2 helicopters and a hospital-ship. The military mission will last two months, it will be focused on Sumatra and it cost will be EUR 6,5m.
  • Regional and local Governments Several Governments of the Autonomous communities have approved their particular aid packages for urgent delivery: Galicia (EUR 500,000), Madrid (EUR 300,000), Basque Country, (EUR 150,000), Andalusia (EUR 150,000), Land of Valencia (EUR 150,000), Balearic Islands (EUR 150,000), Castile-La Mancha (EUR 140,000), Catalonia (EUR 130,000) and La Rioja (EUR 66,000). The donations of regional governments and local councils amount EUR 2m.
 Sweden SEK 500m (USD 75m) will be distributed through SIDA, the Swedish International Development Agency. An extensive relief effort on behalf of the government has been engaged including military personnel, forensic teams, search and rescue teams as Sweden is probably the nation not directly affected by the tsunami to be hardest hit. The Swedish public are also supplying Ngos with money in a never before seen extent (about SEK 500m (or USD 75m)), as well as materials such as clothes and other equipment. Swedish media has still criticised the government for not doing enough for their nationals and for others as the government took days to grasp the severity of the situation.
 Switzerland The Swiss government has allocated CHF 27m (USD 23.8m). Four teams of the Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit[107] have been deployed in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Another team of SHA and WHO doctors and logisticians is on the Maldives. 3 "Super Puma" helicopters and 50 personnel were sent to Sumatra under the guidance of the UNHCR. Various relief organisations contributed CHF 1m. The ongoing appeal for donations organised by[108] has resulted in CHF 160m being collected (as of 15 January 2005).
 United Kingdom
  • Government — The UK government announced an increase in its aid to GBP 75m on 10 January 2005, up from the GBP 50m (USD 96m) pledged on 30 December 2004, and the initial pledge of GBP 15m of aid in the early stages. The government has also promised to match the public donation. As president of the G8, the UK government and former Chancellor now Prime Minister Gordon Brown pushed for the suspension of debt repayments to the industrialised nations.
  • Public — By the end of 6 January 2005 the total from UK citizens stood at GBP 100m (USD 190m)[109] who responded by donating at a rate of up to GBP 1m per hour in the first week. — On 26 February 2005, it was announced that the Disasters Emergency Committee (an umbrella organisation of 12 aid agencies) were closing their appeal after raising a total of GBP 300m in the two months since the disaster struck. Other British charities raised a total of GBP 50m.[65]
  • Corporate/Notable — Large donations were also made by HM The Queen, and other notable celebrities and wealthy individuals. Half of the FTSE 100 companies had announced sizeable donations of money/resources, with many other companies donating their services and resources at no cost.
 Vatican City The Pope has authorised the immediate release of USD 6m, which are to be delivered to the International Red Cross, for use in the humanitarian relief effort.

Middle East and Africa

 Iran Iran has sent 221 tonnes of relief supplies consisting of medicine, tents, blankets, }}clothes and foodstuff to Indonesia as well as donating USD 675,000 through the Red Crescent.
 Israel The Israeli government has sent supplies worth USD 100,000 to each affected country. In addition, an Israeli medical team was dispatched to Sri Lanka, and 150 IDF doctors and rescue and relief teams were mobilised for the region with 82-tonnes of aid including 9 tonnes of medicine, nearly 4,000 L of mineral water, 12 tonnes of food, over 17 tonnes of baby food, 10,000 blankets, tents, sheeting, as well as power generators. An additional offer of assistance to India in the form of search and rescue teams from their Home Front Command as well as food and medicine has also been extended, and the Israeli Ministry of Health has been dispatched to Thailand on medical mission. Bodies identifiers from ZAKA and the Israeli police were also sent.[110][111][112]
 Kuwait The Kuwaiti government has donated KWD 3m (USD 10m) as humanitarian aid.
 Morocco The Moroccan Foreign Ministry has said that aid, consisting of medical supply, vaccines and blankets, will be dispatched to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Maldives.
 Mozambique The Mozambique government has given a "symbolic"[113] USD 100,000 to an aid appeal, and is encouraging businesses and individuals to donate to accounts set up by the local Red Cross.
 Oman Oman is sending relief goods worth USD 3m for the victims of tsunami in Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia. Ali Ibrahim Shanoon Al-Raisi, executive director of Oman Charitable Organization (OCC), the country's Red Crescent, said four consignments carrying 300 tonnes of goods each have already been flown to Sri Lanka and Maldives in the past three days.[114]
 Qatar Qatar has offered USD 25m, plus food, medical and logistical supplies.[115]
 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia has pledged a USD 30m aid package consisting of USD 5m worth of food, tents and medicine, to be transported and distributed via the Saudi Red Crescent and another USD 5 million in funds which will be given to several international aid groups such as the Red Cross and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
 Tunisia The Tunisian government sent 2 C-130s to Indonesia full of relief supplies.
 South Africa The South African government's official financial contribution to tsunami relief consists of coordinated aid to the Maldives. This includes the sending of a freighter with South African helicopters and crew, as well as emergency supplies. The Maldives was selected because, according to Sydney Mufamadi, on behalf of the South African government, 'it was impossible to confirm the full extent of the damage as hardly any emergency rescue effort had taken place on the islands'.[116] South Africans themselves have donated an amount of USD 2.6 million in cash and more than 280 tons of food to tsunami relief efforts.[117] Most of these donations have been channeled via the International Red Cross. Updated / checked: 23 February 2005
 Syria A Syrian aeroplane loaded with 40 tonnes of medical and food aid took off from Damascus Airport to Indonesia Thursday . The Syrian government newspaper Al-Thawra quoted Syria's Health Minister, Maher al-Hussami, as saying that the load included 20 tonnes of medicine, food and drinking water, as well as 880 blankets
 Turkey Turkey has donated TRY 28.9M[63] (USD 37.6m) so far, which will be used in reconstruction projects and be allocated to Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Maldives.
 UAE USD 20m and 30 tonnes of food and medicine in the care of the Red Crescent, which is to deliver them to India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka.[118]


 Brazil The Brazilian government is awaiting a UN decision on joint humanitarian aid. In the meantime, initial emergency aid of 10 tonnes of food and 8 tonnes of medicine were delivered to Thailand and India by the Brazilian Air Force. In the country, private citizens and small businesses organised a national effort to collect food, medicine and clothes for the populations affected. In Rio de Janeiro, 70 tonnes donated in the city alone by locals, were delivered on 2 January to the Consul of Sri Lanka. Many more tonnes were handed to the local embassies and consulates of the countries affected.
  • Federal Government: The Canadian government has pledged, as of 10 January 2005, CAD 425m (USD 344.96m),[31] an increase to the original figure of CAD 4m offered by the federal government, which had previously been revised to 40m and then to 80m, as an immediate contribution toward the aid effort and will also be providing blankets, water purification devices, and generators through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).
  • The Canadian government will also match private donations received by 11 January 2005; according to CIDA, this represents an additional CAD 200M.[32]
    • The Canadian federal government has also announced a debt moratorium for the countries most severely affected by the tsunami.[119] Also, Canada has announced it will send its DART (Disaster Assistance Response Team) to Ampara in Sri Lanka.[120]
  • Provincial Governments: In addition to the federal funds, the provincial government of British Columbia has given CAD 8m (USD 6.6m) to the Canadian Red Cross, the provincial governments of Ontario and Alberta have each pledged CAD 5m (USD 4.1m), the provincial governments of Quebec, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia have each given CAD 100,000 (USD 82,000), and the provincial governments of the Northwest Territories and Prince Edward Island have pledged CAD 25,000 and 20,000 respectively.
  • Private Sector: Measuring the extent of individual and corporate philanthropy is more difficult, although the government estimates that donations to tsunami victims have reached more than CAD 230M, with 200M of this available for matching. The federal government created incentives for private donations: it announced that it would match donations dollar-for-dollar and decided to bend the rules by allowing tsunami-related donations made before 11 January 2005 to be claimed on 2004 income-tax returns.
  • Military Canada's Canadian Forces Disaster Assistance Response Team was sent to Sri Lanka.
 Chile The Chilean government sent a group of four doctors, one engineer and one architect to Indonesia on 1 January 2005 and will remain there for twenty days. In addition, it has opened a special bank account for public donations.
 Mexico The Mexican federal government has pledged an aid package of USD 1,100,000 (MXN 12,000,000). Search teams, known as Topos, were dispatched by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (SRE); these teams are experienced in earthquake rescue operations and could be helpful in the rescue of trapped and buried victims. The Mexican armed forces sent a hospital ship, other vessels, and helicopters. The Mexican Red Cross also invited Mexican citizens to give aid which was distributed amongst local agencies.
 United States
  • Federal Government: The United States government has allocated USD 400,000 (GBP 200,000, EUR 300,000) to India, Indonesia, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Officials are currently working on a USD 4m (GBP 2m) aid package to help the Red Cross. Also, the United States has dispatched disaster teams to aid the nations affected. The United States is also preparing an initial USD 15 million (GBP 8m) aid package for affected nations. An additional USD 20m (GBP 11m) has been offered as an emergency line of credit. On 31 December the aid was raised to USD 350m (GBP 190m, EUR 260m).
  • Military: The United States has dispatched numerous C-5 Galaxy and C-17 Globemaster III strategic airlifters and ten C-130 Hercules tactical airlifters containing disaster supplies, nine P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft for search and rescue support, and several teams from the Departments of State and Defense to coordinate additional assistance. They are using Utapao Naval Air Base in Thailand as their regional hub.
    • Additionally, the United States has offered assistance from its troops stationed in Japan. USS Abraham Lincoln aircraft carrier battle group, which was in port in Hong Kong, was dispatched to the coast of Sumatra to provide support to the Indonesian province of Aceh. In addition, an Expeditionary Strike Group led by USS Bonhomme Richard, scheduled for a port call in Guam, were dispatched to render assistance.
    • A total of 48 Navy and Marine Corps helicopters are involved. Each ship can produce around 90,000 US gallons (340,000 L) of fresh water per day. The US Navy has also deployed the USNS Mercy, a 1,000-bed hospital ship (to be initially staffed to support 250 patient beds).[122] More than 12,600 Department of Defense personnel are involved in the relief effort, Operation Unified Assistance.[123]
  • Private Sector: As of 10 January 2005 US based relief groups and non-governmental organisations reported having raised over USD 515m. One charity said online pledges were arriving at a rate of USD 100,000 an hour. Notable donors include American corporations; among them the Coca-Cola Company (USD 10m), Dow Chemical Company (USD 5m), The New York Stock Exchange Foundation (USD 1m), Microsoft Corporation (USD 3m), and Dell (USD 3m initial, up to USD 5m through employee fundraising).
    • Pharmaceutical companies such as Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb have provided medical supplies and drugs in addition to monetary assistance. Hollywood celebrities have also donated, including Steven Spielberg (USD 1.5m) and Sandra Bullock (USD 1m). Private citizens, communities and schools have also begun fundraising efforts and have contributed.
    • US President George W. Bush donated USD 16,000 from his personal funds; the city of Fargo, North Dakota gave USD 10,000 of taxpayer money; and motorists in Chattanooga, Tennessee have been allowed to donate money to the relief effort in place of paying for traffic citations.[124] President Bush also called for a nationwide fundraising drive, headed by former US Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, and ordered American flags to fly at half-staff "as a mark of respect for the victims of the Indian Ocean Earthquake and the resulting Tsunamis".[125]

Contributing non-governmental organisations (NGOs)

The income of non-governmental organisations and multilateral organisations is derived from governments and individuals. For example, the African Union's contribution is financed by its member states. The following "contributions" may be viewed as either a diversion of funds originally earmarked for other purposes or increased donations to the contributing organisation.

ADRA Silver Spring, Maryland—The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) is continuing its response in India, Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Andaman Islands to assist those affected by last Sunday's quake and tsunami.

ADRA has set up a crisis command center in Bangkok, Thailand to coordinate its network-wide response.

ADRA International is urgently soliciting emergency donations for this response. To rapidly respond to this disaster only monetary donations are being accepted at this time. Donations can be made to the Asia Tsunami Crisis Fund online[126] or by calling 800-424-ADRA (2372). See more information at.[127]

Flag African Union.svg African Union The African Union Commission Chairman Alpha Oumar Konaré has announced that the organisation will put forward USD 100,000 towards disaster relief.[128]
American Friends Service Committee Building on AFSC programmes and contacts in Asia, AFSC is providing relief and planning longer-term recovery, particularly to those who might be overlooked by other agencies or relief programmes.
American Jewish Committee The AJC established a Tsunami Relief Fund, and initially allocated USD 60,000 out of its own account. It has subsequently raised an additional USD 450,000. AJC chapters around the United States have reached out to South Asian religious and ethnic organisations in their communities to help organise memorial services, fundraising events, and public expressions of solidarity. And AJC's office in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) has been working tirelessly to assist in the relief efforts in India, aided by Dr David Elcott of AJC's New York staff. David Elcott and his wife, Rabbi Shira Milgrom were in India at the time of the tsunami visiting their daughter, Liore Milgrom-Elcott, who was volunteering nearby through AJWS.[130]
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) has collected more than USD 2m in individual contributions to the organisation's non-sectarian South Asia Tsunami Relief mailbox.[131][132]
American Jewish World Service With USD 3.25 million raised, The American Jewish World Service is particularly focusing efforts on providing direct material relief to the poorest families in affected areas, including providing food, water storage containers, cooking supplies, blankets and temporary shelters and partnering with Direct Relief International to provide immediate shipments of basic medical supplies, water purification materials and oral rehydration therapies to the heavily affected communities in India and Sri Lanka.[133][134]
Buddhist Tzu-Chi Foundation of Toronto The Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu-Chi Foundation of Toronto, has number of ongoing fundraising events throughout the city. Volunteers are focusing on the Asian communities in the Greater Toronto Area. All money raised will be 100% donate to the affected area without administration fee.[135]
Catholic Relief Services CRS mounted one of the largest responses in its history — a $190-million, five-year relief and reconstruction effort that will help more than 600,000 people. CRS has more than 350 employees working in the hardest-hit areas in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka.[136]
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) Providing various forms of assistance.[137] Providing 31.1M (USD) in cash and materials[138]
Direct Relief International Direct Relief had supplied 4.6 million courses of treatment of specifically requested medicines, supplies, and medical equipment (wholesale value: $45.5 million) provided through 68 shipments to India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Somalia. Additionally, the organization has furnished $11.8 million in cash grants to locally-based clinics and hospitals.[139]
Médecins Sans Frontières Dispatching 32 tonnes of relief supplies to Sumatra. Medical and assessment teams have been sent to many of the affected areas.[140][141]
Emergency Architects Foundation Architects, engineers and planners provided professional expertise to the affected populations in Indonesia and Sri Lanka, particularly assisting in the reconstruction of schools.[142]
 European Union The EU is providing immediate emergency aid of EUR 3m (USD 4.1m) for victims to meet "initial vital needs", with more substantial aid (EUR 30m) to be provided later. This is separate from contributions by individual member countries.
FIRST The Fast Israeli Rescue and Search Team is heading a search and rescue mission to Tamil Nadu, India.[111]
FOCUS Focus Humanitarian Assistance (FOCUS), an agency affiliated with the Aga Khan Development Network, mobilised staff, volunteers and resources in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. FOCUS supplemented aid provided by the Government and other organizations through the distribution of food kits comprising rice, lentils, oil and other nutrients. In addition, non-food items such as blankets, tarpaulins, bed sheets, ground sheets, towels, kitchen utensils and clothing were distributed to just under 4000 people. FOCUS also donated 170 tents, 200 torches, 800 battery cells, 220 blankets and 20,000 litres of drinking water to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[143]
Hadassah The Women's Zionist Organization of America has announced mobilising of its medical staff from the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem to provide aid and forensic services in Sri Lanka.[132]
Humanity First Humanity First quickly raised over £1.5m and set up food distribution points and medical centres in India, Sri Lanka, and the Banda Aceh province of Indonesia, which had been the nearest and worst hit. HF established a camp at Lamno, in Banda Aceh province immediately helped 3,000 people. A combination of medical treatment and the provision of safe water got these people out of danger. Mandays of initial response lasted over 15,000 days and initial response itself lasted for 5 months and long term development projects were established.[144]
Emblem of the IFRC.svg International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies In Geneva the IFRCS appealed for CHF 7.5m (about USD 6.6m) for "immediate support" to an estimated 500,000 survivors.
IRW Islamic Relief Worldwide has increased its emergency appeal to USD 5m. This includes an initial USD 270,650 for relief and rehabilitation intervention in the region, and USD 27,000 to meet the immediate needs of victims in Sri Lanka.[145]
Kindhearts Kindhearts for Charitable Humanitarian Development has representatives in the region providing various forms of assistance. Kindhearts is currently collecting donations for its Indonesian relief operations.[146]
Latet The non-governmental Israeli Humanitarian Aid organisation, Latet ("to give"), has dispatched a jumbo plane to Sri Lanka with 18 tonnes of equipment and is sending an aid delegation to Thailand.[111]
Lions Clubs International An initial USD 170,000 from the Lions Clubs International Foundation was distributed through Lions clubs in the affected areas in the first days of the disaster. A further 50,000 in emergency grants and 250,000 for longer term aid has since been distributed. LCIF has since allocated 10 million dollars towards the relief efforts. Other pledges of support have been received including USD 120,000 from the Lions of Sweden and 200,000 from the Lions of Korea.

All money raised by Lions is being distributed without any administration costs taken out.[147]

Magen David Adom The Israeli "Red Cross" dispatched over 4,000 much-needed vials of Albumin by air on 29 December, in order to relieve the casualties of a devastated Sri Lanka.[148]
Mennonite Central Committee Responded with more than US $15 million in immediate and long term assistance[149] They completed their disaster response in Indonesia in July 2008 after spending US $10 million for recovery in Aceh [150]
Medical Institute of Tamils Providing urgent medical assistance.[151]
Oxfam In India, Oxfam is directing its aid to four regions including the communities of Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Kanyakumari, and along the southwest coast of Kerala. The agency has put together a USD 13.3m plan to provide immediate relief for people in those regions as well as offer them longer-term assistance to help rebuild their lives and livelihoods. The plan includes digging latrines, repairing water sources, and providing temporary shelter for up to 60,000 people, as well as distributing essential household items such as soap, buckets, and coconut oil. In Sri Lanka, Oxfam has been appointed as a key organisation to provide clean water and sanitation facilities in the northern part of the country. Staff members in four field offices in Trincomalee, Vavuniya, Batticaloa, and Kilinochchi have been offering immediate help to the communities around them including providing medical and rescue assistance, shelter materials, food, and water tanks. With its partners, Oxfam is undertaking detailed assessments of the needs in northern, eastern, and southern districts of the country. Additionally, the agency is establishing a new base in the south—in Matara. In Indonesia, Oxfam and UNICEF have been appointed the lead providers of clean water in Banda Aceh and its surrounding district. A provincial capital located on the northern tip of Sumatra, Banda Aceh was one of the areas hardest hit by the tsunami and is now emerging as a coordination centre.[152]
The Peace Fund (P.E.A.C.E.) The organization established The Phi Phi Island Tsunami Relief Fund (PPITRF) which provides aid to the entire Phi Phi Island; and The Krabi Relief Fund which cares for the orphans of the disaster.[153][154]
Save the Children USA Along with nearly USD 25m dollars raised thus far, Save the Children USA has focused on protecting the most vulnerable disaster victims, children, who face risks in locations where bonded labour, forced military recruitment and sexual exploitation of them take place. By setting up safe areas consisting of necessities and recreation in Sri Lanka and Indonesia, Save the Children USA is working to interview, identify, register, and reunite children who have been separated from their parents.[155][156]
United Jewish Communities, Toronto Just 24 hours after UJA Federation of Greater Toronto opened its Tsunami Relief Fund, the fund had raised more than CAD 150,000 from over 500 donors. Now, surpassing CAD 500,000, the UJC of Toronto is focusing their efforts on the International Rescue Committee for the ongoing delivery of relief supplied for the Aceh province of Indonesia, the Disaster Mitigation Institute and Carita, Catholic Relief, for delivery of food, clothes and shelter in Chennai, India, the coordination from their Mumbai office to work with the local Jewish community with field activities, and the Chabad Lubavitch Organization to provide medical help, meals and clothing in Thailand and the Chabad volunteer campaign in the region's hospitals.[157][157]
United Jewish Association, Federation of New York In addition to helping fund the JDC collection, the UJA of New York commission two quarter-page ads in the New York Times, so far raising USD 500,000 in support of South Asian Tsunami victims.
UNHCR.svg UNHCR The UNHCR in Sri Lanka is opening up its local relief stockpiles to deliver immediate emergency assistance.[158]
WFPlogo130.svg UN World Food Programme Emergency food rations delivered to over one million survivors in first 20 days of crisis, including 750,000 people in Sri Lanka.
Using every possible means of transport, from landing craft to trucks, WFP has moved a total 10,000 metric tons of food to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, Somalia and Thailand.[159]
Flag of UNICEF.svgUNICEF Clothing and more than 30,000 blankets and sleeping mats to Sri Lanka
1,600 water tanks, 30,000 blankets, medical supplies and hundreds of thousands of water purification pills to India
Similar supplies to Indonesia and the Maldives.[118]
Logo UNDP.gif United Nations Development Programme USD 100,000 each to Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, the Maldives and Thailand to help them assess and coordinate emergency needs.[118]
United Nations Joint Logistics Centre The UNJLC complements and co-ordinate logistics capacities of co-operating humanitarian agencies during large-scale and complex emergencies. UNJLC has been activated for the Tsunami crisis with the main office in Bangkok, a back-stop office in Rome, an air hub (staging head) in Malaysia and UNJLC cells covering the crisis region, and also based in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.[160]
United Nations Population Fund Up to USD 1m and extra staff to help ensure that the special health needs of pregnant and nursing women were met.[118]
Ve'ahavta The Canadian Jewish Humanitarian and Relief Commission, Ve'ahavta ("You Shall Love"), is collecting donations which will be used to send more search and rescue personnel and logisticians, facilitate emergency feeding stations, and assist in the financing of other necessary relief items.[161]
World Jewish Aid The aim of the aid given by World Jewish Aid is to help people survive. As the situation deteriorates water contamination and disease threaten the lives of the survivors. The UK group, initially providing GBP 25,000, is working with partners on the ground in India, Indonesia and other affected areas so to realise where their aid should be directed best.[162]
World Vision

World Vision is completing the final stage of its three-year Asia Tsunami Response (Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand). The USD 346.5 million-organization's largest relief effort-program encompassed emergency relief, community rehabilitation (including child-focused programs), livelihood recovery, and infrastructure rehabilitation. Gender, protection, conflict sensitivity, HIV/AIDS and advocacy were cross-cutting components of World Vision’s response.[163]

Contributing corporations

A much more complete list of American corporate donations may be found at [3].

Pfizer USD 35m (USD 10m cash; USD 25m medicines)[164]
Deutsche Bank EUR 10m (USD 13m)[165]
Coca-Cola USD 10m[166]
Bristol-Myers Squibb USD 5m (USD 1m cash; USD 4m medicines)[167]
Exxon Mobil USD 5m[168]
Abbott Laboratories USD 4m (USD 2m cash; USD 2m medicine)[169]
Microsoft USD 3.5m[170]
BP USD 3m[171]
Citigroup USD 3m[172]
JP Morgan Chase USD 3m[173]
Shell USD 3m[174]
UBS USD 3m[175]
Cisco Systems USD 2.5m[176]
AIG/The Starr Foundation USD 2.5m[177]
Wal-Mart Stores USD 2m[178]
DaimlerChrysler USD 2m[179]
Johnson & Johnson USD 2m + medicines[180]
Vodafone GBP 1m (USD 1.95m)
Tetra Laval Group USD 1.5m (including provision of liquid foods)[181]
Bank of America USD 1.5m[182]
Deutsche Telekom EUR 1m (USD 1.4m)[183]
Siemens EUR 1m[184]
Allianz EUR 1m[185]
BASF EUR 1m[186]
AXA Group EUR 1m[187]
ChevronTexaco USD 1.24m[188]
Infosys INR 50m (USD 1.1m)[189]
Altana EUR 750,000 (USD 1m)[190]
Boeing USD 1m[191]
ConocoPhillips USD 1m[192]
IBM USD 1m[193]
Nike USD 1m[194]
Pepsi USD 1m + soft drinks + water[195]
Merrill Lynch USD 1m[196]
American Express USD 1m[197]
The Walt Disney Company USD 1m[198]
General Electric USD 1m[199]
First Data Corporation (parent company of Western Union Money Transfer) $1m[200]
General Motors USD 1m[201]
HSBC USD 1m[202]
Verizon Communications USD 1m[203]
ING USD 1m[204]
Qantas AUD 1m + flights[205] page detailing the response by Qantas.
Cable & Wireless USD 1m[206] page detailing the response by Cable & Wireless.
Dhiraagu (The Maldives' national telecommunications company) USD 1m[207] (also noted on page detailing the response by Cable & Wireless.)
Bayer EUR 500,000 (USD 700,000)[208]
Tesco GBP310,000 (USD 604,500) plus GBP2.8m (USD 5.46m) in customer and staff donations and food, water and shelter materials[209]
Nestlé CHF640,000 (USD 560,000)[210]
The Home Depot USD 500,000[211]
Texas Instruments USD 500,000[212]
Carrefour EUR 300,000 (USD 420,000)[213]
Hitachi JPY 20m (USD 200,000)[214]
Hewitt Associates USD 200,000[215]
Altria USD 150,000[216]
Independent News & Media EUR 100,000[217]
MTR Corporation Limited HKD 0.5 per passenger trip on 2 January 2005[218]
Projected goal: HKD 1m (roughly USD 128,000).[219]
Marubeni America Corporation USD 10,000[220]
KCR Corporation All fares collected during the 4-hour extension service on 1 January 2005 morning.
Fonterra Milk powder and infant formula throughout the region
Wing On Travel Tour guides set off to affected areas to offer assistance and translation services.
National Hockey League USD 100,000+.
Bell Canada CDN 175,000 + 1:1 matching donation against employees donations.[221]
Tim Hortons CDN 1 million through customer donations to UNICEF.[222]

Fundraising events

There were numerous large-scale fundraising events with hundreds of participants around the world.

World Cricket Tsunami Appeal

Two of the nations most affected by the tsunami, India and Sri Lanka, are leading cricket-playing nations. The International Cricket Council has launched the World Cricket Tsunami Appeal to raise funds for the humanitarian effort. The highlight of this was a two-match One Day International series between a World XI and an Asian XI.

It has been reported on Cricinfo that the first of these matches raised AUD 8.4 million.

Other matches, such as those in late January 2005 between the New Zealand national team and a World XI also had fundraising as a primary aim.

Other events

See also


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