company_name = Carrefour SA
company_type = Public (Euronext|CA)
company_slogan = "Choice and quality for everyone"
foundation = 1957
key_people = José Luis Duran (Chairman of the management board and CEO), Amaury de Sèze (Chairman of the
industry = Retail
products = Discount, grocery and
convenience stores, cash and carry, hypermarkets
revenue = €82.15 billion (2007)cite web |url=http://www.carrefour.com/docroot/groupe/C4com/Pieces_jointes/RA/RFi_GB_BAT.pdf |title=Annual Report 2007 |accessdate=2008-06-26 |publisher=Carrefour Group|format=PDF]
operating_income = profit €3.338 billion (2007)
net_income = profit €1.868 billion (2007)
num_employees = 461,260 (2007)
subsid = See below
homepage = [http://www.carrefour.com/english/homepage/index.jsp www.carrefour.com]
intl = yes
Carrefour SA (Euronext|CA) (pronounced|karˈfur) is a French international
hypermarketchain, with a global network of outlets. It is the second largest retail group in the world in terms of revenueafter Wal-Mart. Carrefour operates mainly in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, Dominican Republicand Colombia, but also has shops in North Africaand Asia. Carrefour means "junction" in French.
The first Carrefour store opened on
3 June 1957, in suburban Annecynear a crossroads ("carrefour" in French). Today it is the smallest Carrefour location in the world. The group was created by Marcel Fournierand Denis Defforeyand grew into a chain from this first sales outlet. In 1999 it merged with Promodès, known as Continent, one of its major competitors on the French market.
Marcel Fournier and Denis Defforey had attended several seminars in the
United Statesled by "The Pope of modern distribution" Bernardo Trujillo, who influenced other famous French executives like Édouard Leclerc ( E.Leclerc), Gérard Mulliez ( Auchan), Paul Dubrule (Accor), and Gérard Pélisson ( Accor). Their slogan was "No parking, no business.".
The Carrefour group pioneered the concept of a
hypermarketDubious|date=March 2008, a large supermarket and a department storeunder the same roof. They opened their first hypermarket 15 June 1963in Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, near Parisin Francefr icon Hugues Joublin, [http://www.lexpansion.com/art/6.0.114505.0.html "L'aventure du premier hyper"] , L'Expansion, 06/05/1993] .In April 1976, Carrefour launched a private label"Produits libres" (free products -- "libre" meaning "free" in the sense of liberty as opposed to "gratis") line of fifty foodstuffs, including oil, biscuits, milk, and pasta, sold in unbranded white packages at substantially lower prices. The popularity of these products led critics on the political right to charge that Carrefour was undermining capitalism by acclimating the population to generic (rather than brand name or specialty) foods.Fact|date=December 2007 In particular, Jean Mothes, an executive at Perrier, wrote in "Investir" magazine that Carrefour did more to accelerate the change to a socialist-led government than socialist politicians and syndicalists like Edmond Maire, Georges Marchais, François Mitterrandand Georges Séguy.Fact|date=April 2008
*Hypermarkets: "Choice and quality for everyone"
*Hypermarkets: "Ke Carrefour Aja Ahh...!!!" (Indonesia), literally means "Go to Carrefour (is better)...!!!"
*Supermarkets: "The prices people want, close to home"
*Hard Discount: "Grocery products at low, low prices"
*Convenience Stores: "Just what you need, right next door"
*Cash & Carry: "Proximity and accessibility for catering professionals"
Carrefour around the world in September 2007
*Carrefour has a presence in 4 countries in the Americas:
Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic. Carrefour is active in 3 types of retail distribution: hypermarkets, supermarketsand hard discounters, and entered the Cash & Carry market in Brazil, after the purchase of Atacadão[ [http://noticias.uol.com.br/economia/ultnot/efe/2007/04/23/ult1767u91283.jhtm Carrefour purchases Atacadão and becomes leader of the segment in Brazil - UOL (Portuguese)] ] .
Hard discount stores:
5 minutes, 8 a HuiT, Marche Plus, Proxi, Sherpa, Dìperdì, Smile Market, Ok!, Contact GB, GB Express, Shopi.
Cash & Carry:
Promocash, Docks Market, Gross IPer.
Criticism and controversies
26 June 2007the company was convicted in a French court for false advertising. The suit alleged that Carrefour regularly stocked insufficient quantities of advertised products for sale. In addition, the company was convicted of selling products below cost and accepting kickbacks from wholesalers. Carrefour was ordered to pay a fine of €2 million and to prominently and legibly display a notice in all of its French stores disclosing the false advertising. [ [http://www.lefigaro.fr/actubourse/20070626.WWW000000449_carrefour_rappele_a_lordre_par_le_tribunal_devry.html (French) Carrefour condamné pour publicité mensongère] ]
In Carrefour Mangga Dua Square,
Jakarta, Indonesia, a 5-metre high metal rack fell on top of a 3-year old boy, killing him almost instantly due to internal bleeding. [ [http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2007/bulan/04/tgl/09/time/193426/idnews/764856/idkanal/10 A 3-year old boy died when a metal rack fell onto him] ] Afterwards, the victim's family claimed that Carrefour has refused to meet with them to settle the case. [ [http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2007/bulan/04/tgl/09/time/205055/idnews/764873/idkanal/10 Victims Family is Refused to Meet Carrefour Officials] ] However, Carrefour Corporate Affairs Officer denied this allegation [ [http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2007/bulan/04/tgl/10/time/112919/idnews/765096/idkanal/10 Carrefour Officials deny refusing victim's family] ]
Carrefour has also received criticism for engaging in
sweatshoppractices. [ [http://www.peuples-solidaires.org/article618.html Bangladesh - Carrefour has to do better] ]
Boycott of supplies in
In April 2008, after the 2008 Olympic torch relay was disrupted by
Tibetan independenceadvocates in Londonand especially Paris, where some protesters attempted to wrest control of the torch from torch bearers, Chinese activists have promoted boycotting Carrefour because of its French roots. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7347918.stm Carrefour faces China boycott bid] ] The boycott of Carrefour in particular was further fueled by unsubstantiated rumours that a major shareholder, Moët Hennessy - Louis Vuitton, had donated to the Dalai Lama. In its response, Carrefour China stated that it does support the Beijing Olympics; and that they will never do anything to harm the feelings of Chinese people. [ [http://www.carrefour.com.cn/note/note.html 家乐福中国对近日出现的一些不实传闻的声明] ] Protests occurred in and around a number of Carrefour outlets throughout China, and anti-Carrefour advocates campaigned for a one-day boycott of Carrefour on May Day, a public holiday in China.
As a result of the boycott, Chinese search engines Baidu.com.cn and sina.com have blocked access to Carrefour's website in China. Users searching 家乐福, Carrefour in Chinese, will be given an error page indicating "The search result may contain illegal content, so we can not display the result." in Chinese. [ [http://www.chinatechnews.com/2008/04/30/6693-carrefour-removed-from-chinese-internet/#more-6693 Chinanews.com article dated April 30th, 2008] ]
Chile― In 2004, Carrefour sold its 8 hypermarkets in Chileto D&S;
Czech Republicand Slovakia— In September 2005, Carrefour sold to Tesco(the biggest UK retailer) 11 stores in the Czech Republicand four in Slovakia. Tescopaid €57.4 million as well as its stores in Taiwan. Carrefour had opened its first store in 1998 in the Czech Republicand in 2000 in Slovakia. The stores still use the Carrefour name and brand;
Hong Kong— In the late 1990s, Carrefour moved out of Hong Kongafter complaints from manufacturers about selling products (especially electronics) at prices far below those of its competitors.Fact|date=December 2007 Carrefour previously had stores in Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, Yuen Long and Heng Fa Chuen.
Japan— In 2005, Carrefour sold its 8 hypermarkets to AEON Group, but stores still use the Carrefour name and brand;
Mexico— In March 2005, Carrefour sold its 29 hypermarketsin Mexicoto Chedraui. Carrefour had opened its first store in 1995 in Mexico;
Portugal— Carrefour entered Portugal by buying its first stores in 1991 - two Euromaché hypermarkets, in Telheiras (a Lisbonneighbourhood) and Vila Nova de Gaia (suburbs of Porto); This chain was known to have very good quality products, mainly from French origin, when in July 2007 Carrefour sold all of its 12 hypermarkets and 9 fuel stations to Sonaefor €662 million. Also included were 11 licenses for opening new commercial spaces. Nowadays only the 365 hard-discount supermarkets (Minipreço) are supported by Carrefour in this country, not included in the takeover.
South Korea— In 2006, Carrefour sold its 32 hypermarketsto E-Land. The stores have been re-branded as Homever
Switzerland- In August 2007 Carrefour sold its 12 hypermarkets in Switzerlandto Swiss retailer Coop for $390 million; [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/innovationNews/idUSL2156542620070821 Carrefour sell its hypermarkets to Swiss retailer Coop for $390 million.] ]
United Kingdom— Carrefour had several hypermarketsin the UKuntil the 1980s. The first of these was opened in the early 1970s in Caerphilly, South Wales. Subsequent outlets were opened at Merry Hill, Dudley; Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham; Glasshoughton(near Castleford); Eastleigh, Hampshire; MetroCentre( Gateshead); Telford Shopping Centre, Shropshire, Swindonand Cribbs Causewayin Bristol. All stores were later acquired by the Dee Corporation, but continued to trade as Carrefour for some time before being converted to Gateway Superstores. Today many of the old Carrefour stores in the UK are branches of Asda.
United States— Carrefour opened hypermarketsin Philadelphiaand Voorhees Township, New Jersey, in 1988 and 1992 respectively. Both stores closed in 1993. Some associates wore roller skatesto facilitate moving about the large building. The Voorhees location now houses a Kohl'sdepartment store, a Raymour & Flaniganfurniture store, and a Marshallsdiscount clothing store. The Philadelphia location (within the Franklin Mills Mall complex) houses a Wal-Mart and a few other stores.
European Retail Round Table
List of French companies
[ [http://www.bnr.bg/RadioBulgaria/Emission_English/Theme_Economy/Material/carrefour.htm French Carrefour supermarket chain to gain foothold in Bulgaria] ]
* [http://www.carrefour.com Official site]
* [http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/40/40719.html Yahoo! - Carrefour SA Company Profile]
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