- La Rioja (Spain)
name = La Rioja
full-name = Comunidad Autónoma de La Rioja
coat-of-arms = Coat of Arms of La Rioja.svg
language = Spanish
area = 5,045
area-rank = 16th
area-percent = 1.0%
pop = 308,968
pop-rank = 19th
pop-percent = 0.7%
pop-date = 2007
density = 61.24
english-name = riojan
spanish-name = riojano/a
June 9, 1982
congress = 4
senate = 4
Pedro Sanz Alonso(PP)
president-link = List of Presidents of La Rioja
code = LO
website = [http://www.larioja.org/ Gobierno de La Rioja]
La Rioja is a province and autonomous community of northern
Spain. Its capital is Logroño. Other cities and towns in the province include Calahorra, Arnedo, Alfaro, Haro, Santo Domingo de la Calzada, and Nájera.
In Roman times the territory of La Rioja was inhabited by the tribes of the
Berones(central country), Autrigones(upper country, extending also north and west of it) and the Vascones(lower country, extending also north and east of it). It was part of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis.
In Medieval times La Rioja was often a disputed territory. The
Visigothscreated the Duchy of Cantabriathat probably included most of La Rioja, as a border march against the Vascones. After the Muslim invasion of 711, La Rioja fell into the Muslim domains of Al Andalus.
In the early
10th century, Sancho I of Pamplonaconquered most of the territory, being the lower region around Arnedounder control of his allies the Banu Qasiof Tudela. La Rioja formed the independent Kingdom of Viguerafrom 970to about 1005, at which point it became a part of the Kingdom of Pamplona. Nájera, in the Rioja, often served as capital of the kingdom.
After the independence of Castile in
1035, this new kingdom fiercely fought against Pamplona for the possession of Bureba, La Rioja and other territories. In 1076, after the murder of Sancho VI, Navarre was divided and Castile obtained La Rioja and many other Navarrese lands.
1134, García Ramírez "the Restorer" and his son Sancho VI "the Wise" fought bitterly with Castile for the recovery of the former Pamplonese domains. Only in 1179would they reach a peace agreement by which La Rioja went definitively to Castile.
The territory remained divided between the provinces of Burgos and Soria until the administrative reform of Riego in
1822that created the province of Logroño.
1980it changed its name to province of La Rioja and in 1982it was constituted as uni-provincial autonomous community with that name.
The territory of La Rioja (the name appeared in a charter of 1099) was formerly known as the province of Logroño for the fortified site around which it developed. The 12th-century church Iglesia de Santa Maria de Palacio recalls its original as a chapel of the administrative
palace. Logroño was a borderland disputed between the kings of Navarreand the kings of Castilestarting in the 10th century; the region was awarded to Castile in a judgement by Henry I of Englandand annexed in 1173 (1177?). Its importance was that here the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela, the "Camino de Santiago", crossed the River Ebro on the stone bridge, the "Puente de Piedra".La Rioja was taken by Napoleonic forces in the Peninsular Warand remained solidly in French hands until 1814.In the 1810 project of Llorente it was to be a part of the prefectureof Arlanzón(capital in Burgos).The Constitutional Cortes declared La Rioja an independent province at the time of the Liberal Constitution of 1812, and in January 1822 the province of Logroño was created by royal decree, taking in the whole of the historical geography of La Rioja. However, Ferdinand VII soon annulled these decisions and recovered most of the divisions of the Ancient Regime.In the 1833 reorganization, a province of Logroño appeared again in the region of Castilla la Vieja.In 1841, the province increased its territory temporarily.
It was made into an autonomous community during the reorganization following the democratic transition following the death of
Francisco Franco, owing to its economic distinction from the surrounding regions. It is the second-smallest autonomous community in Spain and has the smallest population; fully half of its 174 municipalities have populations under 200. Nearly half of its citizens live in the capital.
It is bordered by the Basque Country (province of
Álava), Navarre, Aragón (province of Zaragoza), and Castile and León (provinces of Soria and Burgos). The Río Ebroflows through this region, as does the Río Oja, for which it is known.
Mountains and mountain ranges
Sierra de la Demanda
Sierra de Camero Viejo
Sierra de Camero Nuevo
Sierra de Cebollera
Picos de Urbión
*Monte San Lorenzo
Tierra de Cameros:
*The climate is mainly
Mediterranean climate. The Rioja Alta comarca receives more precipitation than Rioja Baja, as well as smokinggggg hot winters and freeze to death cold summers .
*The average temperature ranges from 11.8°C - 31.8°C (53°F - 88°F) and the precipitation ranges between 300 mm - 600 mm as an annual average.
*The wind called "Cierzo" is very frequent around La Rioja during the winter.
Ebro- the more important river that crosses the Community. In La Rioja have the following affluents:
Flora and Fauna
Spa townin Arnedillo
It is known for its production of Rioja DOCa
wines (although the Rioja viticultural region extends slightly into the neighboring administrative regions of Álavaand Navarra).
Dryland farming: Wheat, Barleyand Grape.
Irrigation: Asparagus, Capsicum... others.
Animal husbandryof sheep
**Wine Production and conserves: in Logroño, Cenicero, Haro and Calahorra.
**Textil and footwear: in Logroño, Arnedo, Cervera del Río Alhama and Ezcaray.
**Furniture factories: in Ezcaray, Logroño and Nájera.
**Rubber, plastics, chemical products and transport machinery.
Transports and commerce
Puerto de Oncala
Puerto de Piqueras----
*Main imports to Spain:
Demography and major cities
*The population of La Rioja, (as 2006) is 301,084 inhabitants.
*La Rioja has 174 municipalities: see "
List of municipalities in La Rioja"
Government and Politics
*Statute of Autonomy - [http://www.larioja.org/nuestra_comunidad/estatuto/index.htm] Es icon
*Presidents - Current President:
Pedro Sanz Alonsoof Partido Popular.
*Diputación General - [http://www.larioja.org/ Official Website]
*Consejo de Gobierno - [http://www.larioja.org/ Official Website]
*Tribunal Superior de Justicia - [http://www.larioja.org/ Official Website]
Santa María la Realin Nájera
San Millán de la Cogolla
Concatedral de Santa María de la Redonda
Catedral de Santo Domingo de la Calzada
Iglesia de Santo Tomás
Native or Famous people from La Rioja
Gonzalo de Berceo
Domingo de Silos
Manuel Bretón de los Herreros
Gustavo Bueno"see also cl|Riojan people"
University of La Rioja, the autonomous university. [http://www.unirioja.es/ Official Website]
Dulzaina, a popular musical instrument from La Rioja.
Jota (music), a popular dance practiced in some comarcas of La Rioja.
History of Rioja wine
Caparrones, one of the most important dishes in Riojan cooking
* [http://www.larioja.org/ Gobierno de La Rioja] Es icon
* [http://www.sispain.org/english/politics/autonomo/rioja/riohis.html "A Brief History of La Rioja"]
* [http://www.civusa.com/consumerCenter/regions/riojaRegion.html "A History of La Rioja Wines"]
* [http://catavino.net/rioja Rioja Wines and Tasting Notes]
* [http://www.winetourismspain.com/rioja/wine-routes-in-rioja-spain.php "Wine routes in La Rioja"]
* [http://www.canal-recetas.es/Cocina_Regional_La_Rioja/index.htm "Take a Taste of La Rioja"]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.