- Hurricane Katrina
Image location=Hurricane Katrina August 28 2005 NASA.jpg
Formed=August 23, 2005
Dissipated=August 30, 2005
tropical cyclonein history
Fatalities= 1,836 confirmed, 705 missing" [http://www.dhh.louisiana.gov/offices/page.asp?ID=192&Detail=5248 Reports of Missing and Deceased] ." "Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals." April 18, 2006. Retrieved on
2006-06-05.] " [http://www.nola.com/news/t-p/frontpage/index.ssf?/base/news-5/1148020620117480.xml&coll=1 Deaths of evacuees push toll to 1,577] ." "New Orleans Times-Picayune." May 19, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Bahamas, South Florida, Cuba, Louisiana(especially Greater New Orleans), Mississippi, Alabama, Florida Panhandle, most of eastern North America
2005 Atlantic hurricane season
Hurricane Katrina of the
2005 Atlantic hurricane seasonwas the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest, in the history of the United States.] Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall. Hurricane Katrina formed over the Bahamason August 23, 2005, and crossed southern Floridaas a moderate Category 1 hurricane, causing some deaths and flooding there before strengthening rapidly in the Gulf of Mexico. The storm weakened before making its second landfall as a Category 3 storm on the morning of Monday, August 29 in southeast Louisiana. It caused severe destruction along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge. The most severe loss of life and property damage occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana, which flooded as the leveesystem catastrophically failed, in many cases hours after the storm had moved inland. The federal flood protection system in New Orleans failed at more than fifty places. Nearly every levee in metro New Orleans was breached as Hurricane Katrina passed just east of the city limits. Eventually 80% of the city became flooded and also large tracts of neighboring parishes, and the floodwaters lingered for weeks.cite web|last=Swenson|first=Dan D|coauthors=Marshall, Bob |url=http://www.nola.com/katrina/graphics/credits.swf|format=SWF|title=Flash Flood: Hurricane Katrina's Inundation of New Orleans, August 29, 2005|publisher= Times-Picayune|date=May 14, 2005|] At least 1,836 people lost their lives in the actual hurricane and in the subsequent floods, making it the deadliest U.S. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. The storm is estimated to have been responsible for $81.2 billion (2005 U.S. dollars) in damage, making it the costliest tropical cyclone in U.S. history.
The levee failures prompted corps commander Lt. Gen. Carl Strock to commission an investigation of the New Orleans flood protection system. [http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/PAO/CorpsPoints/Corpspoints_051104.pdf] In New Orleans, responsibility for the system's design and construction belongs by the federal statute to the Corps of Engineers. Other congressional investigations were launched into response of the federal, state and local governments, resulting in the resignation of
Federal Emergency Management Agencydirector Michael D. Brown. Conversely, the National Hurricane Centerand National Weather Servicewere widely commended for accurate forecasts and abundant lead time. Three years later, thousands of displaced residents in Mississippi and Louisiana were still living in trailers.
Hurricane Katrina formed as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on August 23, 2005 as the result of an interaction of a
tropical waveand the remains of Tropical Depression Ten. The system was upgraded to tropical storm status on the morning of August 24 and at this point, the storm was given the name "Katrina." The tropical storm continued to move towards Florida, and became a hurricane only two hours before it made landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura, Floridaon the morning of August 25. The storm weakened over land, but it regained hurricane status about one hour after entering the Gulf of Mexico.
The storm rapidly intensified after entering the Gulf, growing from a Category 3 hurricane to a Category 5 hurricane in just nine hours. This rapid growth was due to the storm's movement over the "unusually warm" waters of the
Loop Current, which increased wind speeds. [Leben, Robert; Born, George; Scott, Jim. " [http://www.colorado.edu/news/releases/2005/358.html CU-Boulder Researchers Chart Katrina's Growth In Gulf Of Mexico] ." " University of Colorado at Boulder." September 15, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05, and 2008-04-09.] On Saturday, August 27, the storm reached Category 3 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, becoming the third major hurricane of the season. An eyewall replacement cycle disrupted the intensification, but caused the storm to nearly double in size. Katrina again rapidly intensified, attaining Category 5 status on the morning of August 28 and reached its peak strength at 1:00 p.m. CDT that day, with maximum sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 902 mbar. The pressure measurement made Katrina the fourth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record at the time, only to be surpassed by Hurricanes Rita and Wilma later in the season; it was also the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico at the time (a record also later broken by Rita).
Katrina made its second landfall at 6:10 a.m. CDT on Monday, August 29 as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) near
Buras-Triumph, Louisiana. At landfall, hurricane-force winds extended outward 120 miles (190 km) from the center and the storm's central pressure was 920 mbar. After moving over southeastern Louisiana and Breton Sound, it made its third landfall near the Louisiana/Mississippi border with 120 mph (195 km/h) sustained winds, still at Category 3 intensity.
Katrina maintained strength well into Mississippi, finally losing hurricane strength more than 150 miles (240 km) inland near
Meridian, Mississippi. It was downgraded to a tropical depression near Clarksville, Tennessee, but its remnants were last distinguishable in the eastern Great Lakesregion on August 31, when it was absorbed by a frontal boundary. The resulting extratropicalstorm moved rapidly to the northeast and affected eastern Canada.
On the morning of Friday, August 26, at 10 a.m. CDT (1500
UTC), Katrina had strengthened to a Category 3 storm in the Gulf of Mexico. Later that afternoon, the NHC realized that Katrina had yet to make the turn toward the Florida Panhandle and ended up revising the predicted track of the storm from the panhandle to the Mississippi coast. [Spann, James. [http://www.jamesspann.com/bmachine/calendar/wxtalk/26,08,2005 "Models Shifting West," "NHC Shifting Track To MS Coast" and "Late Katrina Thoughts" from the ABC33/40 Weather Blog] August 26, 2005. URL accessed July 23, 2006] cite web | author = Stewart, Stacy | publisher = National Hurricane Center | title = Hurricane Katrina Discussion No. 14, 5:00 p.m. EDT | date = August 26, 2005 | accessdate = 2006-09-16|url = http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2005/dis/al122005.discus.014.shtml?] The NHC issued a hurricane watch for southeastern Louisiana, including the New Orleans area at 10 a.m. CDT Saturday, August 27. That afternoon the NHC extended the watch to cover the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines as well as the Louisiana coast to Intracoastal City.
United States Coast Guardbegan prepositioning resources beyond the expected impact zone starting on August 26, and activated more than 400 reservists.Staff Writer. " [http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-cp/comrel/factfile/Factcards/Hurricane_Katrina.htm Coast Guard Response to Hurricane Katrina] Dead link|date=October 2008." " United States Coast Guard." Accessed May 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] Aircrews from the Aviation Training Center, in Mobile, staged rescue aircraft from Texas to Florida.cite web | author = Bruce Jones and David Callahan | title = Leadership Talent Emerges During Hurricane Katrina Aviation Rescue Operations | url = http://www.uscg.mil/leadership/news/fall05/katrina.htm | publisher = United States Coast Guard | accessdate = 2006-08-27Dead link|date=October 2008] All aircraft were returning back towards the Gulf of Mexico by the afternoon of August 29. Air crews, many of whom lost their homes during the hurricane, began a round-the-clock rescue effort in New Orleans, and along the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines.cite news | url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/05/AR2005090501418.html | title = Coast Guard's Response to Katrina a Silver Lining in the Storm | author = Stephen Barr|date = September 6, 2005 | accessdate = 2006-08-29 | publisher = The Washington Post]
George W. Bushdeclared a state of emergency in selected regions of Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi on Saturday, the 27th, two days before the hurricane made landfall. [Bush, George W. " [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050827-1.html Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Louisiana] ." " White House." August 27, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] However, the president's declaration did not include any of Louisiana's coastal parishes, a fact that would be addressed in Congressional hearings held in the wake of the eventual disaster (see subsection below). That same evening, the NHC upgraded the storm alert status from hurricane watch to hurricane warning over the stretch of coastline between Morgan City, Louisianato the Alabama-Florida border, 12 hours after the watch alert had been issued, and also issued a tropical storm warning for the westernmost Florida Panhandle.
During video conferences involving the president on August 28 and 29, the director of the National Hurricane Center at the time,
Max Mayfield, expressed concern that Katrina might push its storm surge over the city's levees and flood walls. In one conference, he stated, "I do not think anyone can tell you with confidence right now whether the levees will be topped or not, but that's obviously a very, very great concern."cite news | url = http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/03/02/fema.tapes/index.html | title = Transcripts, tape show Bush, Brown warned on Katrina | date= March 2, 2006 | accessdate = 2007-04-22 | publisher = CNN.com]
On Sunday, August 28, as the sheer size of Katrina became clear, the NHC extended the tropical storm warning zone to cover most of the Louisiana coastline and a larger portion of the
Florida Panhandle. The National Weather Service's New Orleans/Baton Rouge office issued a vividly worded bulletin predicting that the area would be "uninhabitable for weeks" after "devastating damage" caused by Katrina, which at that time rivaled the intensity of Hurricane Camille. [ [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/data/warn_archive/LIX/NPW/0828_214001.txt "NWS bulletin"] . " National Weather Service/New Orleans, Louisiana." August 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.] "On Sunday, August 28, President Bush spoke with Governor Blanco to encourage her to order a mandatory evacuation of New Orleans." (Per page 235 of Special Report of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs [ [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/katrinanation.html Congressional Reports: S. Rpt. 109-322 - Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared ] ] )
Voluntary and mandatory evacuations were issued for large areas of southeast Louisiana as well as coastal Mississippi and Alabama. About 1.2 million residents of the Gulf Coast were covered under a voluntary or mandatory evacuation order.
Investigation of State of Emergency declaration
In a September 26, 2005 hearing, former FEMA chief Michael Brown testified before a U.S. House subcommittee about FEMA's response. During that hearing, Representative
Stephen Buyer(R-IN) inquired as to why president Bush's declaration of state of emergency of August 27 had not included the coastal parishes of Orleans, Jefferson, and Plaquemines.cite news | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/27/national/nationalspecial/27text-brown.html?ei=5070&en=eda6637e28de37c1&ex=1188792000&pagewanted=all | title = Former FEMA Director Testifies Before Congress | date= 2005-09-27 | accessdate = 2007-09-01 | publisher = nytimes.com] (In fact, the declaration did not include "any" of Louisiana's coastal parishes, whereas the coastal counties were included in the declarations for Mississippi [Bush, George W. " [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050828.html Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Mississippi] ." "White House." August 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-01.] and Alabama. [Bush, George W. " [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050828-3.html Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Alabama] ." "White House." August 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-01.] ) Brown testified that this was because Louisiana Governor Blanco had not included those parishes in her initial request for aid, a decision that he found "shocking." After the hearing, though, Blanco released a copy of her letter, which requested assistance for "all the southeastern parishes including the New Orleans Metropolitan area and the mid state Interstate I-49 corridor and northern parishes along the I-20 corridor that are accepting [evacuated citizens] ." [" [http://www.gov.state.la.us/index.cfm?md=newsroom&tmp=detail&articleID=778&printer=1] Dead link|date=October 2008." "Governor Blanco asks President to Declare an Emergency for the State of Louisiana due to Hurricane Katrina." August 27, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.]
On August 26, the state of Mississippi activated its National Guard in preparation for the storm's landfall. Additionally, the state government activated its Emergency Operations Center the next day, and local governments began issuing evacuation orders. By 7:00 p.m. EDT on August 28, 11 counties and eleven cities issued evacuation orders, a number which increased to 41 counties and 61 cities by the following morning. Moreover, 57 emergency shelters were established on coastal communities, with 31 additional shelters available to open if needed.cite book| author=
United States Congress| date = February 19, 2006 | title = A Failure of Initiative: Final Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina | publisher = Government Printing Office|location = Washington, DC| format = PDF | accessdate = 2006-04-10 |url=http://www.gpoaccess.gov/katrinareport/fullreport.pdf] Louisiana's hurricane evacuation plan calls for local governments in areas along and near the coast to evacuate in three phases, starting with the immediate coast 50 hours before the start of tropical storm force winds. Persons in areas designated Phase II begin evacuating 40 hours before the onset of tropical storm winds and those in Phase III areas (including New Orleans) evacuate 30 hours before the start of such winds. [cite web | author = Louisiana Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness | title = Louisiana Citizen Awareness and Disaster Evacuation Guide | accessdate = 2006-07-20 | url = http://www.ohsep.louisiana.gov/evacinfo/stateevacrtes.htm]
Many private caregiving facilities that relied on bus companies and ambulance services for evacuation were unable to evacuate their charges. Rental cars were in short supply and many forms of public transportation had been shut down well before the storm arrived. [Rulon, Malia; Scott, Katerine Hutt. " [http://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050905/NEWS01/509050309/1009 Evacuation plan failed to consider those without transportation] Dead link|date=October 2008." "Burlington Free Press." March 11, 2006. Retrieved on
2006-06-05.] Some estimates claimed that 80% of the 1.3 million residents of the greater New Orleans metropolitan area evacuated, leaving behind substantially fewer people than remained in the city during the Hurricane Ivanevacuation. [Brown, Aaron. " [http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0508/29/asb.01.html Hurricane Katrina Pummels Three States (Transcript of CNN Newsnight with Aaron Brown)] ." " CNN." August 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
By Sunday, August 28, most infrastructure along the Gulf Coast had been shut down, including all
Canadian National Railwayand Amtrakrail traffic into the evacuation areas as well as the Waterford Nuclear Generating Station. [" [http://www.amtrak.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=Amtrak/am2Copy/Simple_Copy_Popup&c=am2Copy&cid=1093554014709 Service Alert: Hurricane Katrina Update - City of New Orleans, Crescent, Sunset Limited - Revised Service Information] ." " Amtrak." September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] The NHC maintained the coastal warnings until late on August 29, by which time Hurricane Katrina was over central Mississippi.
Greater New Orleans area
By August 26, the possibility of unprecedented cataclysm was already being considered. Many of the computer models had shifted the potential path of Katrina convert|150|mi|km|-1 westward from the Florida Panhandle, putting the city of New Orleans directly in the center of their track probabilities; the chances of a direct hit were forecast at 17%, with strike probability rising to 29% by August 28. [" [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2005/prb/al122005.prblty.015.shtml Hurricane Katrina Probabilities Report Number 15] ," and " [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2005/prb/al122005.prblty.021.shtml Hurricane Katrina Probabilities Report Number 21] ." "National Hurricane Center." August 26, 2005. Retrieved on
2006-06-05.] This scenario was considered a potential catastrophe because some parts of New Orleans and the metro area are below sea level. Since the storm surge produced by the hurricane's right-front quadrant (containing the strongest winds) was forecast to be 28 feet (8.5 m), emergency management officials in New Orleans feared that the storm surge could go over the tops of levees protecting the city, causing major flooding. [Drye, Willie. " [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/08/0829_050829_hurricane.html Hurricane Katrina Pulls Its Punches in New Orleans] ." " National Geographic." August 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
At a news conference at 10 a.m. on August 28, shortly after Katrina was upgraded to a Category 5 storm, New Orleans mayor
Ray Naginordered the first-ever mandatory evacuation of the city, calling Katrina "a storm that most of us have long feared." [Staff Writer. " [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,167270,00.html Katrina Heads for New Orleans] ." " Fox News/ Associated Press." August 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] The city government also established several "refuges of last resort" for citizens who could not leave the city, including the massive Louisiana Superdome, which sheltered approximately 26,000 people and provided them with food and water for several days as the storm came ashore. [Staff Writer." [http://www.nola.com/newslogs/breakingtp/index.ssf?/mtlogs/nola_Times-Picayune/archives/2005_08_28.html#074657 26,000 shelter at Superdome] ." "Times-Picayune." August 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Many people living in the area were unaware when Katrina strengthened from a tropical storm to a hurricane in one day and struck southern Florida near the Miami-Dade – Broward county line. The hurricane struck between the cities of Aventura, in Miami-Dade County, and Hallandale, in Broward County, on Thursday, August 25, 2005. However, National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecasts had correctly predicted that Katrina would intensify to hurricane strength before landfall, and hurricane watches and warnings were issued 31.5 hours and 19.5 hours before landfall, respectively — only slightly less than the target thresholds of 36 and 24 hours.
Jeb Bushdeclared a state of emergencyon August 24 in advance of Hurricane Katrina's landfall in Florida. Shelters were opened and schools closed in several counties in the southern part of the state. A number of evacuation orders were also issued, mostly voluntary, although a mandatory evacuation was ordered for vulnerable housing in Martin County.Staff writer. " [http://floridadisaster.org/eoc/eoc_activations/katrina05/reports/Sitrep_Katrina_082605_3.pdf Hurricane Katrina Situation Report No. 3] ." "Florida State Emergency Response Team." August 26, 2005. URL accessed on 2006-06-06.]
On August 29, Katrina's
storm surgecaused 53 different levee breaches in greater New Orleans submerging eighty percent of the city. A June 2007 report by the American Society of Civil Engineersindicated that two-thirds of the flooding were caused by the multiple failures of the city's floodwalls.cite web|url=http://www.asce.org/files/pdf/ERPreport.pdf|title=The New Orleans Hurricane Protection System: What Went Wrong and Why|author=Andersen, Christine F. et al.|year=2007|publisher= American Society of Civil EngineersHurricane Katrina External Review Panel|accessdate=2008-08-27|format=PDF] The storm surge also devastated the coasts of Mississippi and Alabama, making Katrina the most destructive and costliest natural disasterin the history of the United States, and the deadliest hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. The total damage from Katrina is estimated at $81.2 billion (2005 U.S. dollars), nearly double the cost of the previously most expensive storm, Hurricane Andrew, when adjusted for inflation.cite web|author= United States Department of Commerce| title=Hurricane Katrina Service Assessment Report | month=June | year=2006 | accessdate=2006-07-14 | format = PDF | url=http://www.weather.gov/om/assessments/pdfs/Katrina.pdf]
As of May 19, 2006, the confirmed death toll (total of direct and indirect deaths) stood at 1,836, mainly from Louisiana (1,577) and Mississippi (238).cite journal | author = Beven II, John L., Lixion A Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Famie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart | date=March 2008 | title=Annual Summary: Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005 | journal=
Monthly Weather Review| publisher= American Meteorological Society| volume=136 | issue=3 | pages=1131–1141 | accessdate=2008-09-08 | url = http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/2005.pdf | format = PDF ] However, 705 people remain categorized as missing in Louisiana, [Michelle Krupa " [http://www.nola.com/news/t-p/frontpage/index.ssf?/base/news-5/1141545589263750.xml Presumed Missing] " "Times-Picayune", March 5, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] and many of the deaths are indirect, but it is almost impossible to determine the exact cause of some of the fatalities.
Federal disaster declarations covered 90,000 square miles (233,000 km²) of the United States, an area almost as large as the United Kingdom. The hurricane left an estimated three million people without electricity. On September 3, 2005,
Homeland SecuritySecretary Michael Chertoffdescribed the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as "probably the worst catastrophe, or set of catastrophes," in the country's history, referring to the hurricane itself plus the flooding of New Orleans. [" [http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0509/03/cst.04.html The Aftermath of Katrina: Transcript of CNN Live Saturday] ." "CNN." September 3, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
outh Florida and Cuba
Hurricane Katrina first made landfall on August 25, 2005 in
South Floridawhere it hit as a Category 1 hurricane, with 80 mph (130 km/h) winds. Rainfall was heavy in places and exceeded 14 inches (350 mm) in Homestead, Florida, and a storm surge of 3 – convert|5|ft|m was measured in parts of Monroe County. More than 1 million customers were left without electricity, and damage in Florida was estimated from $1 - $2 billion, with most of the damage coming from flooding and overturned trees. There were 14 fatalities reported in Florida as a result of Hurricane Katrina.
Most of the
Florida Keysexperienced tropical-storm force winds from Katrina as the storm's center passed to the north, with hurricane force winds reported in the Dry Tortugas. Rainfall was also high in the islands, with 10 inches (250 mm) falling on Key West. On August 26, a strong F1 tornadoformed from an outer rain band of Katrina and struck Marathon. The tornado damaged a hangar at the airport there and caused an estimated $5 million in damage.Devenas, Andy " [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/key/HTML/Marathon_Report.pdf Marathon Tornado Survey Report] ." " [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/key/ NWS Key West] ." Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Although Hurricane Katrina stayed well to the north of
Cuba, on August 29 it brought tropical-storm force winds and rainfall of over 8 inches (200 mm) to western regions of the island. Telephone and power lines were damaged and around 8,000 people were evacuated in the Pinar del Río Province. According to Cuban television reports the coastal city of Surgidero de Batabano was 90% underwater.Staff Writer. " [http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/2005/08/29/batters.shtml Hurricane Katrina batters western Cuba] ."]
On August 29 Hurricane Katrina made landfall near
Buras, Louisianawith 125 mph (205 km/h) winds, as a strong Category 3 storm. However, as it had only just weakened from Category 4 strength and the radius of maximum winds was large, it is possible that sustained winds of Category 4 strength briefly impacted extreme southeastern Louisiana. Although the storm surge to the east of the path of the eye in Mississippi was higher, a very significant surge affected the Louisiana coast. The height of the surge is uncertain because of a lack of data, although a tide gauge in Plaquemines Parishindicated a storm tide in excess of 14 feet (4.3 m) and a 12-foot (3 m) storm surge was recorded in Grand Isle.
Hurricane Katrina also brought heavy rain to Louisiana, with 8 – 10 inches (200 – 250 mm) falling on a wide swath of the eastern part of the state. In the area around Slidell, the rainfall was even higher, and the highest rainfall recorded in the state was approximately 15 inches (380 mm). As a result of the rainfall and storm surge the level of
Lake Pontchartrainrose and caused significant flooding along its northeastern shore, affecting communities from Slidell to Mandeville. Several bridges were destroyed, including the I-10 Twin Span Bridgeconnecting Slidell to New Orleans. Almost 900,000 people in Louisiana lost power as a result of Hurricane Katrina.Staff Writer. " [http://www.oe.netl.doe.gov/docs/katrina/katrina_083005_1600.pdf Hurricane Katrina Situation Report#11] ." "Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) United States Department of Energy." August 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
St. Bernard Parishwas flooded due to breaching of the levees that contained a navigation channel called the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MR-GO). The search for the missing was slow. According to an interview in the " New Orleans Times-Picayune", the coroner was still trying to get a list of missing from the Red Crossin November 2005. While there were some victims on this list whose bodies were found in their homes, the vast majority were tracked down through word-of-mouth and credit card records. As of December 2005, the official missing list in the Parish stood at 47. [Cannizaro, Steve. " [http://www.sbpg.net/cannizaro121705a.html List of Missing Residents Down to 47, and More...] Dead link|date=October 2008" "St. Bernard Parish Government (press release)." December 17, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
As the eye of Hurricane Katrina swept to the northeast, it subjected the city to hurricane conditions for hours. Although power failures prevented accurate measurement of wind speeds in New Orleans, there were a few measurements of hurricane-force winds. From this the NHC concluded that it is likely that much of the city experienced sustained winds of Category 1 or Category 2 strength.
Katrina's storm surge led to 53 levee breaches in the federally built levee system protecting metro New Orleans. Failures occurred in New Orleans and surrounding communities, especially St. Bernard Parish. The
Mississippi River Gulf Outlet(MR-GO) breached its levees in approximately 20 places, flooding much of east New Orleans, most of Saint Bernard Parish and the East Bank of Plaquemines Parish. The major levee breaches in the city included breaches at the 17th Street Canallevee, the London Avenue Canal, and the wide, navigable Industrial Canal, which left approximately 80% of the city flooded. [Murphy, Verity. " [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4307972.stm Fixing New Orleans' thin grey line] ." " BBC News." October 4, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Most of the major roads traveling into and out of the city were damaged. The only routes out of the city were the westbound
Crescent City Connectionand the Huey P. Long Bridge, as large portions of the I-10 Twin Span Bridge traveling eastbound towards Slidell, Louisiana had collapsed. Both the Lake Pontchartrain Causewayand the Crescent City Connection only carried emergency traffic. [Gordon, Meghan. " [http://www.nola.com/newslogs/breakingtp/index.ssf?/mtlogs/nola_Times-Picayune/archives/2005_08_31.html#075566 Causeway closed but hardly damaged] ." "Times Picayune." August 31, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
On August 29, at 7:40 a.m. CDT, it was reported that most of the windows on the north side of the
Hyatt Regency New Orleanshad been blown out, and many other high rise buildings had extensive window damage. [Transcript from, " The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer." " [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/weather/july-dec05/katrina_8-29.html Hurricane Damages Gulf Coast] ." " PBS." August 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] The Hyattwas the most severely damaged hotel in the city, with beds reported to be flying out of the windows. Insulation tubes were exposed as the hotel's glass exterior was completely sheared off. [Mowbray, Rebecca. " [http://www.nola.com/hurricane/t-p/katrina.ssf?/hurricane/katrina/stories/083005_a15_hotels.html Evacuations to hotels come with own set of hazards] ." "Times-Picayune." August 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
The Superdome, which was sheltering many people who had not evacuated, sustained significant damage. Two sections of the Superdome's roof were compromised and the dome's waterproof membrane had essentially been peeled off.
Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airportwas closed before the storm but did not flood. On August 30, it was reopened to humanitarian and rescue operations. Limited commercial passenger service resumed at the airport on September 13 and regular carrier operations resumed in early October.Staff Writer. " [http://www.flymsy.com/Katrinastory.htm Hurricane Katrina from the Airport's Point of View] Dead link|date=October 2008." " Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport." accessed May 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Levee breaches in New Orleans also caused widespread loss of life, with over 700 bodies recovered in New Orleans by October 23, 2005. [Warner, Coleman; Travis, Robert. " [http://www.nola.com/news/t-p/frontpage/index.ssf?/base/news-4/113005097377980.xml Where They Died] ." "Times-Picayune." October 23, 2005. Retrieved on
2006-06-05.] Some survivors and evacuees reported seeing dead bodies lying in city streets and floating in still-flooded sections, especially in the east of the city. The advanced state of decomposition of many corpses, some of which were left in the water or sun for days before being collected, hindered efforts by coroners to identify many of the dead. [O'Neill, Ann. " [http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/09/09/katrina.morgue/index.html Identifying victims a grueling task] ." "CNN." September 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
The first deaths reported from the city were reported shortly before midnight on August 28, as three
nursing homepatients died during an evacuation to Baton Rouge, most likely from dehydration. While there were also early reports of fatalities amid mayhem at the Superdome, only six deaths were confirmed there, with four of these originating from natural causes, one from a drug overdose, and one a suicide. At the Convention Center, four bodies were recovered. One of the four is believed to be the result of a homicide.Thevenot, Brian; Russell, Gordon. " [http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2002520986_katmyth26.html Reports of anarchy at Superdome overstated] ." "Seattle Times." September 26, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
The Gulf coast of Mississippi suffered massive damage from the impact of Hurricane Katrina on August 29, leaving 238 people dead, 67 missing, and billions of dollars in da
cite web | title =Information Relating to the Federal Appropriations for Katrina Recovery|date = January 6, 2006 | accessdate = 2006-09-27 | author = Haley Babour | publisher = Office of the Governor, Mississippi | url = http://www.governorbarbour.com/Recovery/news/2006/jan/information.html] Katrina traveled up the entire state, and afterwards, all 82 counties in Mississippi were declared disaster areas for federal assistance, 47 for full assistance.
After making a brief initial landfall in Louisiana, Katrina had made its final landfall near the state line, and the eyewall passed over the cities of Bay St. Louis and Waveland as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). Katrina's powerful right-front quadrant passed over the west and central Mississippi coast, causing a powerful 27-foot (8.2 m) storm surge, which penetrated 6 miles (10 km) inland in many areas and up to 12 miles (20 km) inland along bays and rivers; in some areas, the surge crossed
Interstate 10for several miles. Hurricane Katrina brought strong winds to Mississippi, which caused significant tree damage throughout the state. The highest unofficial reported wind gust recorded from Katrina was one of 135 mph (217 km/h) in Poplarville, in Pearl River County.
The storm also brought heavy rains with 8 – 10 inches (200 – 250 mm) falling in southwestern Mississippi and rain in excess of 4 inches (100 mm) falling throughout the majority of the state. Katrina caused eleven tornadoes in Mississippi on August 29, some of which damaged trees and power lines.
Battered by wind, rain and storm surge, some beachfront neighborhoods were completely leveled. Preliminary estimates by Mississippi officials calculated that 90% of the structures within half a mile of the coastline were completely destroyed,Staff Writer. " [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/09/01/katrina/main810916.shtml Mississippi Coast Areas Wiped Out] ." "
CBS News." September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] and that storm surges traveled as much as six miles (10 km) inland in portions of the state's coast. One apartment complex with approximately thirty residents seeking shelter inside collapsed. More than half of the 13 casinos in the state, which were floated on barges to comply with Mississippi land-based gambling laws, were washed hundreds of yards inland by waves.
A number of streets and bridges were washed away. On
U.S. Highway 90along the Mississippi Gulf Coast, two major bridges were completely destroyed: the Bay St. Louis - Pass Christian bridge, and the Biloxi - Ocean Springs bridge. In addition, the eastbound span of the I-10 bridge over the Pascagoula Riverestuary was damaged. In the weeks after the storm, with the connectivity of the coastal U.S. Highway 90 shattered, traffic traveling parallel to the coast was reduced to two lanes on the remaining I-10 span.
All three coastal counties of the state were severely affected by the storm. Katrina's surge was the most extensive, as well as the highest, in the documented history of the United States; large portions of both Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties were inundated by the storm surge, in all three cases affecting most of the populated areas. [cite web|author=
Federal Emergency Management Agency| title = Mississippi Hurricane Katrina Surge Inundation and Advisory Base Flood Elevation Map Panel Overview | month= November | year= 2005 | accessdate = 2006-07-16 | format = PDF | publisher = FEMA|url = http://www.fema.gov/pdf/hazard/flood/recoverydata/katrina/ms_overview.pdf] Surge covered almost the entire lower half of Hancock County, destroying the coastal communities of Clermont Harbor and Waveland, much of Bay St. Louis, and flowed up the Jourdan River, flooding Kiln. In Harrison County, Pass Christianwas completely inundated, along with a narrow strip of land to the east along the coast, which includes the cities of Long Beach and Gulfport; the flooding was more extensive in communities such as D'Iberville, which borders Back Bay. Biloxi, on a peninsula between the Back Bay and the coast, was particularly hard hit, especially the low-lying Point Cadet area. In Jackson County, storm surge flowed up the wide river estuary, with the combined surge and freshwater flooding cutting the county in half. Remarkably, over 90% of Pascagoula, the easternmost coastal city in Mississippi, and about convert|75|mi|km|0 east of Katrina's landfall near the Louisiana-Mississippi border, was flooded from surge at the height of the storm. Other large Jackson County neighborhoods such as Porteaux Bay and Gulf Hills were severely damaged with large portions being completely destroyed, and St. Martin was hard hit; Ocean Springs, Moss Point, Gautier, and Escatawpaalso suffered major surge damage.
outheast United States
Although Hurricane Katrina made landfall well to the west, Alabama and the Florida Panhandle were both affected by tropical-storm force winds and a storm surge varying from 12 to 16 feet (3-5 m) around
Mobile Bay, with higher waves on top. Sustained winds of 67 mph (107 km/h) were recorded in Mobile, Alabama, and the storm surge there was approximately 12 feet (3.7 m). The surge caused significant flooding several miles inland along Mobile Bay. Four tornadoes were also reported in Alabama. Ships, oil rigs, boats and fishing piers were washed ashore along Mobile Bay: the cargo ship M/V "Caribbean Clipper" and many fishing boats were grounded at Bayou La Batre.
oil rigunder construction along the Mobile Riverbroke its moorings and floated 1.5 miles (2 km) northwards before striking the Cochrane Bridgejust outside Mobile. No significant damage resulted to the bridge and it was soon reopened. The damage on Dauphin Islandwas severe, with the surge destroying many houses and cutting a new canal through the western portion of the island. An offshore oil rig also became grounded on the island. As in Mississippi, the storm surge caused significant beach erosion along the Alabama coastline. More than 600,000 people lost power in Alabama as a result of Hurricane Katrina and two people died in a traffic accident in the state. Residents in some areas, such as Selma, were without power for several days.
Along the Florida Panhandle the storm surge was typically about five feet (1.5 m) and along the west-central Florida coast there was a minor surge of 1 – 2 feet (0.3 – 0.6 m). In
Pensacola, Florida56 mph (90 km/h) winds were recorded on August 29. The winds caused damage to some trees and structures and there was some minor flooding in the Panhandle. There were two indirect fatalities from Katrina in Walton County as a result of a traffic accident. In the Florida Panhandle, 77,000 customers lost power. [Associated Press, "Katrina at a Glance" (August 31, 2005), page 4A, "Mobile Register", web: [http://www.al.com/mobileregister/pdf/register083105a.pdf MobileRegister-083105-PDF] .]
Northern and central Georgia were affected by heavy rains and strong winds from Hurricane Katrina as the storm moved inland, with more than 3 inches (75 mm) of rain falling in several areas. At least 18 tornadoes formed in Georgia on August 29, the most on record in that state for one day in August. The most serious of these tornadoes was an F2 tornado which affected Heard County and Carroll County. This tornado caused 3 injuries and one fatality and damaged several houses. In addition this tornado destroyed several poultry barns, killing over 140,000 chicks. The other tornadoes caused significant damages to buildings and agricultural facilities. In addition to the fatality caused by the F2 tornado, there was another fatality in a traffic accident. [Westbrook, Robby; WFO Peachtree City Staff. " [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ffc/html/katrina05.shtml Katrina Spawns Tornadoes in Georgia - August 29, 2005] ." "
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration." December 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Other U.S. States and Canada
New Orleansarea are not available.] Hurricane Katrina weakened as it moved inland, but tropical-storm force gusts were recorded as far north as Fort Campbell, Kentuckyon August 30, and the winds damaged trees in New York. The remnants of the storm brought high levels of rainfall to a wide swath of the eastern United States, and rain in excess of 2 inches (50 mm) fell in parts of 20 states.Staff Writer. " [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/discussions/tcpat2.html Tropical Summary Message] ." "The Hydrometeorological Prediction Center." August 31, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] A number of tornadoes associated with Katrina formed on August 30 and August 31, which caused minor damages in several regions. In total, 62 tornadoes formed in eight states as a result of Katrina.
Arkansasreceived light rain from the passage of Katrina.Cite web|author=David Roth|year=2005|title=Hurricane Katrina Rainfall Summary|publisher=HPC|accessdate=2006-11-04|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/katrina2005.html] Gusty winds downed some trees and power lines, though damage was minimal.Cite web|author=NCDC|year=2005|title=Event Report for Arkansas|accessdate=2006-11-04|url=http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~571417] In Kentucky, a storm that had moved through the weekend before had already produced flooding and the rainfall from Katrina added to this. As a result of the flooding, Kentucky Governor Ernie Fletcherdeclared three counties disaster areas and a statewide state of emergency. [Staff Writer. " [http://www.wkyt.com/Global/story.asp?S=3782559 Gov. Fletcher Declares Three Kentucky Counties Disaster Areas] Dead link|date=October 2008." " WKYT." Accessed on April 18, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] [Blanton, Carla; Goins, Michael; Whitaker, Jodi. " [http://kentucky.gov/Newsroom/governor/050830stateofemerg.htm Governor Fletcher declares state of emergency in Kentucky] Dead link|date=October 2008." "Commonwealth of Kentucky" (Press Release). August 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] One person was killed in Hopkinsville, Kentuckyand part of a high school collapsed. [Staff Writer. " [http://www.wave3.com/Global/story.asp?S=3782760 Hopkinsville Swamped By Floodwaters; 10-Year-Old Drowns] ." " WAVE (TV)." September 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] Flooding also prompted a number of evacuations in West Virginiaand Ohio, the rainfall in Ohio leading to two indirect deaths. Katrina also caused a number of power outages in many areas, with over 100,000 customers affected in Tennessee, primarily in the Memphis and Nashvilleareas. [" [http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~600800 Hurricane Katrina: Event Record Details] ." "Satellite and Information Service; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration." Accessed May 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
The remnants of Katrina were absorbed by a new cyclone to its east across
Pennsylvania. This second cyclone continued north and affected Canadaon August 31. In Ontariothere were a few isolated reports of rain in excess of 100 mm (4 inches) and there were a few reports of damage from fallen trees. [Perreault, Bob. " [http://www.cfra.com/headlines/index.asp?cat=1&nid=31504 Brockville May Have Set Rain Record] Dead link|date=October 2008." " CFRA (AM)." September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] Flooding also occurred in both Ontario and Quebec, cutting off a number of isolated villages in Quebec, particularly in the Côte-Nordregion. [Staff Writer. " [http://www.recorder.ca/cp/National/050901/n0901137A.html Remnants of Hurricane Katrina washes out roads in Quebec's north shore] Dead link|date=October 2008." " Canadian Press." September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
The economic effects of the storm were far-reaching. As of April 2006, the Bush Administration has sought $105 billion for repairs and reconstruction in the region, [St. Onge, Jeff; Epstein, Victor. " [http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2006/04/01/ex_chief_says_fema_readiness_even_worse/ Ex-chief says FEMA readiness even worse] ." "Boston.com." April 1, 2006. Retrieved on
2006-06-05.] and this does not account for damage to the economy caused by potential interruption of the oil supply, destruction of the Gulf Coast's highway infrastructure, and exports of commodities such as grain. Katrina damaged or destroyed 30 oil platforms and caused the closure of nine refineries; the total shut-in oil production from the Gulf of Mexico in the six-month period following Katrina was approximately 24% of the annual production and the shut-in gas production for the same period was about 18%. [Fagot, Caryl; Winbush, Debra. " [http://www.mms.gov/ooc/press/2006/press0222.htm Hurricane Katrina/Hurricane Rita Evacuation and Production Shut-in Statistics Report as of Wednesday, February 22, 2006] ." " [http://www.mms.gov/ U.S. Government Minerals Management Service] ." February 22, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] The forestry industry in Mississippi was also affected, as 1.3 million acres (5,300 km²) of forest lands were destroyed.cite web | last = Sheikh
first = Pervaze A. | date = October 18, 2005 | url = http://www.opencrs.com/rpts/RL33117_20051018.pdf | title = The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Biological Resources|format =
Congressional Research Service
accessdate = 2006-06-05] The total loss to the forestry industry from Katrina is calculated to rise to about $5 billion. Furthermore, hundreds of thousands of local residents were left unemployed, which will have a trickle-down effect as fewer taxes are paid to local governments. Before the hurricane, the region supported approximately one million non-farm jobs, with 600,000 of them in New Orleans. It is estimated that the total economic impact in Louisiana and Mississippi may exceed $150 billion. [Burton, Mark L.; Hicks, Michael J. " [http://www.marshall.edu/cber/research/katrina/Katrina-Estimates.pdf Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary Estimates of Commercial and Public Sector Damages] ." "
Marshall University: Center for Business and Economic Research." September, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Katrina redistributed over one million people from the central Gulf coast elsewhere across the United States, which became the largest
diasporain the history of the United States. [Anthony E. Ladd, John Marszalek, and Duane A. Gill. [http://www.ssrc.msstate.edu/katrina/publications/katrinastudentsummary.pdf The Other Dispora: New Orleans Student Evacuation Impacts and Responses Surrounding Hurricane Katrina.] Retrieved on 2008-03-29.] Houston, Texas, had an increase of 35,000 people; Mobile, Alabama, gained over 24,000; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, over 15,000; and Hammond, Louisianareceived over 10,000, nearly doubling its size. Chicagoreceived over 6,000 people, the most of any non-southern city. [cite news | url = http://chicagodefender.com/page/local.cfm?ArticleID=6776 | title = Katrina evacuees at home in Chicago | author = Mema Ayi | publisher = Chicago Defender| date = August 30, 2006 | accessdate = 2006-12-31Dead link|date=October 2008] By late January, 2006, about 200,000 people were once again living in New Orleans, less than half of the pre-storm population.cite web | first=Greg | last=Stone | coauthors= Time Grant and Nathaniel Weaver | year = 2006 | title = Rapid Population Estimate Project: January 28 – 29, 2006 Survey Report | publisher = Emergency Operations Center, City of New Orleans | format = PDF|accessdate = 2006-06-22 |url=http://www.cityofno.com/Resources/RPEP_Draft%20Report_Jan2.pdfDead link|date=October 2008] By July 1, 2006, when new population estimates were calculated by the U.S. Census Bureau, the state of Louisiana showed a population decline of 219,563, or 4.87%.Christie, Les. " [http://money.cnn.com/2006/12/22/real_estate/fastest_growing_states/index.htm?postversion=2006122209 Growth states: Arizona overtakes Nevada: Texas adds most people overall; Louisiana population declines nearly 5%] ." "CNN." December 22, 2006. Retrieved on December 22, 2006.] Additionally, some insurance companies have stopped insuring homeowners in the area because of the high costs from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, or have raised homeowners' insurance premiums to cover their risk. [Staff Writer. " [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/05/28/eveningnews/main1663142.shtml More Bad News Blows In From Katrina] ." "CBS News." May 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Katrina also had a profound impact on the environment. The storm surge caused substantial beach erosion, in some cases completely devastating coastal areas. In Dauphin Island, approximately 90 miles (150
km) to the east of the point where the hurricane made landfall, the sand that comprised the barrier islandwas transported across the island into the Mississippi Sound, pushing the island towards land. [cite web | author = United States Geological Survey| date = September 14, 2005 | url = http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/katrina/lidar/dauphin-island.html | title = Daupin Island - Pre- and Post-Storm 3D Topography | work = Hurricane Katrina Impact Studies | publisher = USGS| accessdate = 2006-06-05] The storm surge and waves from Katrina also obliterated the Chandeleur Islands, which had been affected by Hurricane Ivan the previous year. [cite web | author = United States Geological Survey | date = September 14, 2005 | url = http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/katrina/photo-comparisons/chandeleur.html | title = Before and After Photo Comparisons: Chandeleur Islands | work = Hurricane Katrina Impact Studies|publisher = USGS | accessdate = 2006-06-05] The US Geological Survey has estimated convert|217|sqmi|km2 of land was transformed to water by the hurricanes Katrina and Rita. [ [http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/releases/pr06_002.htm "USGS Reports Latest Land Change Estimates for Louisiana Coast", USGS National Wetlands Research Center, 3 Oct 2006] , accessed 7 May 2008]
The lands that were lost were breeding grounds for marine mammals, brown
pelicans, turtles, and fish, as well as migratory species such as redhead ducks. Overall, about 20% of the local marshes were permanently overrun by water as a result of the storm.
The damage from Katrina forced the closure of 16
National Wildlife Refuges. Breton National Wildlife Refuge lost half its area in the storm.cite web | author = United States Fish and Wildlife Service| date = September 9, 2005 | url = http://www.fws.gov/southeast/news/2005/r05-088.html | title = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conducting Initial Damage Assessments to Wildlife and National Wildlife Refuges | publisher = USFWS|accessdate = 2006-06-05] As a result, the hurricane affected the habitats of sea turtles, Mississippi sandhill cranes, Red-cockaded woodpeckers and Alabama Beach mice.
Finally, as part of the cleanup effort, the flood waters that covered New Orleans were pumped into Lake Pontchartrain, a process that took 43 days to complete. These residual waters contained a mix of raw
sewage, bacteria, heavy metals, pesticides, toxic chemicals, and about 6.5 million U.S. gallons (24.6 million L) of oil, which has sparked fears in the scientific community of massive numbers of fish dying.
Prior to the storm,
subsidenceand erosioncaused erosion in the Louisiana wetlands and bayous. This, along with the canals built in the area, allowed for Katrina to maintain more of its intensity when it struck. [Tidwell, Mike. "The Ravaging Tide: Strange Weather, Future Katrinas, and the Coming Death of America's Coastal Cities", Free Press, 2006. ISBN 0-7432-9470-X]
Looting and violence
Shortly after the hurricane moved away on August 30, 2005, some residents of New Orleans who remained in the city began
lootingstores. Many were in search of food and water that were not available to them through any other means, as well as non-essential items. [KLRT FOX 16, " [http://community.fox16.com/photos/story_in_pictures--_hurricane_katrina/picture807981.aspx Photos : Story in Pictures-- Hurricane Katrina : Aug 31: Looting in Mississippi] ." " FOX16 Nowcaster Community" ( Little Rock, Arkansas). August 31, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-09-11.]
carjacking, murders, thefts, and rapes in New Orleans flooded the news. Several news media later determined that the majority of reports were based on unfounded rumors. [cite news
last = Rosenblatt
first = Sarah
coauthors = James Rainey
title = Rita's Aftermath; Katrina Takes a Toll on Truth, News Accuracy
work = Main News; Part A; National Desk
pages = A16
Los Angeles Times
date = 2005-09-27
url = http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/asection/la-na-rumors27sep27,0,5536446.story?track=hpmostemailedlink
archiveurl = http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/902682211.html?dids=902682211:902682211&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Sep+27%2C+2005&author=Susannah+Rosenblatt+and+James+Rainey&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&edition=&startpage=A.16&desc=RITA%27S+AFTERMATH%3B+Katrina+Takes+a+Toll+on+Truth%2C+News+Accuracy%3B+Rumors+supplanted+accurate+information+and+media+magnified+the+problem.+Rapes%2C+violence+and+estimates+of+the+dead+were+wrong.
archivedate = 2005-10-04] Thousands of National Guard and federal troops were mobilized and sent to Louisiana along with numbers of local law enforcement agents from across the country who were temporarily deputized by the state. "They have M16s and are locked and loaded. These troops know how to shoot and kill and I expect they will," Louisiana Governor
Kathleen Blancosaid. Congressman Bill Jefferson(D-LA) told ABC News: "There was shooting going on. There was sniping going on. Over the first week of September, law and order were gradually restored to the city." [Tapper, Jake. " [http://www.abcnews.go.com/US/HurricaneKatrina/story?id=1123495&page=1 Amid Katrina Chaos, Congressman Used National Guard to Visit Home] ." " ABC News." September 13, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] Several shootings were between police and New Orleans residents, including a fatal incident at Danziger Bridge. [Staff Writer. " [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9208195/ Police kill at least 5 in New Orleans] ." " MSNBC." September 4, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
A number of
arrestswere made throughout the affected area, including some near the New Orleans Convention Center. A temporary jail was constructed of chain link cages in the city train station. [Staff Writer. " [http://www.komonews.com/news/archive/4163081.html At the Train Station, New Orleans' Newest Jail is Open For Business] ." " KOMO-TV." September 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
In Texas, where more than 300,000 evacuees were located, local officials ran 20,000 criminal background checks on the evacuees, as well as on the relief workers helping them and people who opened up their homes. Most of the checks found very little for police to be concerned about.Schubert, Elizabeth. " [http://www.wboy.com/story.cfm?func=viewstory&storyid=5266 Some Katrina Evacuees at Camp Dawson Have Criminal Records] ." "Associated Press." September 18, 2005. Retrieved on
2006-06-05.] The number of homicides in Houstonfrom September 2005 through February 22, 2006 went up by 23% relative to the same period a year before; 29 of the 170 murders involved displaced Louisianans as a victim or as a suspect. [" [http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000103&sid=az6n8C6gsqf0 Louisiana Gangs That Fled Katrina Heighten Houston Murder Rate] ." "Bloomberg.com." March 3, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.]
Within the United States and as delineated in the
National Response Plan, disaster response and planning is first and foremost a local government responsibility. When local government exhausts its resources, it then requests specific additional resources from the county level. The request process proceeds similarly from the county to the state to the federal government as additional resource needs are identified. Many of the problems that arose developed from inadequate planning and back-up communications systems at various levels.
disaster recoveryresponse to Katrina began before the storm, with Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) preparations that ranged from logistical supply deployments to a mortuaryteam with refrigerated trucks. A network of volunteers began rendering assistance to local residents and residents emerging from New Orleans and surrounding parishes as soon as the storm made landfall, and continued for more than six months after the storm.Cite web|author=U.S. Government|title=The FEDERAL RESPONSE TO HURRICANE KATRINA: LESSONS LEARNED|year=2006|publisher=|accessdate=2008-06-06|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/reports/katrina-lessons-learned.pdf]
Of the 60,000 people stranded in New Orleans, the Coast Guard rescued more than 33,500.cite book | author = United States Government Accountability Office | authorlink = Government Accountability Office | url = http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06903.pdf | title = Coast Guard: Observations on the Preparation, Response, and Recovery Missions Related to Hurricane Katrina | accessdate = 2006-08-27 | month= July | year= 2006 | format = PDF] Congress recognized the Coast Guard's response with an official entry in the Congressional Record,cite book | author = United States Congress | title = Senate Resolution 246: To express the sense of the Senate regarding the missions and performance of the United States Coast Guard in responding to Hurricane Katrina. | format = PDF | date = September 21, 2005 | accessdate = 2006-08-27 | publisher = Government Printing Office | url = http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109_cong_bills&docid=f:sr246ats.txt.pdf] and the Armed Service was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation. [cite web | title = USCG Message Traffic: Award of the Presidential Unit Citation to the Coast Guard|date = May 25, 2006 | accessdate = 2006-08-27 | url = http://www.uscg.mil/RESERVE/msg06/alcoast/coast317_06.htm | publisher = United States Coast GuardDead link|date=October 2008]
United States Northern Commandestablished Joint Task Force (JTF) Katrina based out of Camp Shelby, Mississippi, to act as the military's on-scene command on Sunday, August 28. [" [http://www.dod.gov/transcripts/2005/tr20050901-3843.html Special Defense Department Briefing with Commander of Joint Task Force Katrina] ". " United States Department of Defense," News Transcript. September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] Approximately 58,000 National Guard personnel were activated to deal with the storm's aftermath, with troops coming from all 50 states. [Phillips, Kyra. " [http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0509/06/se.01.html Bush Discusses Displaced Students; Department of Defense Briefs Press on Katrina Response (CNN Live Transcript)] ." "CNN." September 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] The Department of Defense also activated volunteer members of the Civil Air Patrol.
Michael Chertoff, Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, decided to take over the federal, state, and local operations officially on August 30, 2005, citing the National Response Plan. [California Political Desk. " [http://www.californiachronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=5916 Pelosi: Davis Report on Katrina Leaves Unfinished Business] ." " [http://www.californiachronicle.com/ California Chronicle] ." February 15, 2006. Retrieved on
2006-06-05.] Early in September, Congress authorized a total of $62.3 billion in aid for victims. [Baker, Peter; Goldstein, Amy. " [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/08/AR2005090801081.html Congress Approves $51.8 Billion For Victims] ." " Washington Post." September 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] Additionally, President Bush enlisted the help of former presidents Bill Clintonand George H.W. Bushto raise additional voluntary contributions, much as they did after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquakeand tsunami. [Bush, George W. " [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/09/20050901-3.html President Asks Bush and Clinton to Assist in Hurricane Relief] ." "White House," Press Release. September 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] American flags were also ordered to be half-stafffrom September 2, 2005 to September 20, 2005 in honor of the victims. [cite web|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/09/20050904-2.html|title=www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/09/20050904-2.html ]
FEMA provided housing assistance (rental assistance, trailers, etc.) to more than 700,000 applicants—families and individuals. However, only one-fifth of the trailers requested in Orleans Parish have been supplied, resulting in an enormous housing shortage in the city of New Orleans. ["Times-Picayune," September 26, 2005, page A-12. Retrieved on
2006-06-05.] To provide for additional housing, FEMA has also paid for the hotel costs of 12,000 individuals and families displaced by Katrina through February 7, 2006, when a final deadline was set for the end of hotel cost coverage. After this deadline, evacuees were still eligible to receive federal assistance, which could be used towards either apartment rent, additional hotel stays, or fixing their ruined homes, although FEMA no longer paid for hotels directly. [Foster, Mary. " [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/02/13/katrina/main1311616.shtml Judge: FEMA Off Hook For Hotel Costs] ." " CBC News." February 13, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] As of early July 2006, there are still about 100,000 people living in 37,745 FEMA-provided trailers.cite web | author = Federal Emergency Management Agency | title = Hurricane Katrina Recovery Update: Week 44 | date = July 7, 2006 | accessdate=2006-07-08|publisher = FEMA| url = http://www.fema.gov/news/newsrelease.fema?id=27504]
Law enforcement and public safety agencies, from across the United States, provided a "mutual aid" response to Louisiana and New Orleans in the weeks following the disaster. Many agencies responded with manpower and equipment from as far away as
California, Michigan, Nevada, New York, and Texas. This response was welcomed by local Louisiana authorities as their staff were either becoming fatigued, stretched too thin, or even quitting from the job. [cite web | last = Treaster | first = Joseph B. | title = Law Officers, Overwhelmed, Are Quitting the Force | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/04/national/nationalspecial/04police.html?ei=5090&en=8bf8550c348bbc33&ex=1283486400&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss&pagewanted=print | publisher = The New York Times|date = September 4, 2005 | accessdate=2006-06-24]
Two weeks after the storm, more than half of the states were involved in providing shelter for evacuees. By four weeks after the storm, evacuees had been registered in all 50 states and in 18,700 zip codes—half of the nation's residential postal zones. Most evacuees had stayed within 250 miles (400 km), but 240,000 households went to Houston and other cities over convert|250|mi|km away and another 60,000 households went over 750 miles (1,200 km) away. [Quigley, Bill. " [http://www.coc.org/index.fpl/1090/article/3678.html Six Months After Katrina: Who Was Left Behind Then and Who is Being Left Behind Now?] Dead link|date=October 2008" " [http://www.coc.org/ Center of Concern] ." Retrieved on
Criticism of government response
The criticisms of the government's response to Hurricane Katrina primarily consisted of condemnations of mismanagement and lack of
leadershipin the relief efforts in response to the storm and its aftermath. More specifically, the criticism focused on the delayed response to the flooding of New Orleans, and the subsequent state of chaos in the Crescent City. The neologism"Katrinagate" was coined to refer to this controversy, and was a runner-up for "2005 word of the year." [Clark, Heather. " [http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory?id=1480616 Linguists Vote 'Truthiness' Word of 2005] ." "ABC News." January 6, 2006. Retrieved on July 18, 2006.]
Within days of Katrina's August 29, 2005 landfall, public debate arose about the local, state and federal governments' role in the preparations for and response to the hurricane.
Criticismwas initially prompted by televised images of visibly shaken and frustrated political leaders, and of residents who remained stranded by flood waters without water, foodor shelter. Deaths from thirst, exhaustion, and violence, days after the storm had passed, fueled the criticism, as did the dilemma of the evacuees at facilities such as the Louisiana Superdome and the New Orleans Civic Center. Some alleged that race, class, and other factors could have contributed to delays in government response. The percentage of black victims among storm-related deaths (49%)cite web | title = Updated Number of Deceased Victims Recovered Following Hurricane Katrina | date = December 9, 2005 | accessdate = 2006-08-01 | publisher = Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals|url = http://www.dhh.state.la.us/news.asp?Detail=758] was below their proportion in the area's population (approx. 60% [" [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/18/national/main1913712.shtml?source=RSS&attr=U.S._1913712 New Orleans population statistics] ." "Associated Press." August 18, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-28.] ).
In accordance with federal law, President George W. Bush directed the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, Michael Chertoff, to coordinate the Federal response. Chertoff designated Michael D. Brown, head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as the Principal Federal Official to lead the deployment and coordination of all federal response resources and forces in the Gulf Coast region. However, the President and Secretary Chertoff initially came under harsh criticism for what some perceived as a lack of planning and coordination. Eight days later, Brown was recalled to Washington and Coast Guard Vice Admiral
Thad W. Allenreplaced him as chief of hurricane relief operations. [Meserve, Jeanne; Barrett, Ted. " [http://www.cnn.com/2005/POLITICS/09/09/katrina.washington/index.html Admiral takes over Katrina relief] ." "CNN." September 9, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] Three days after the recall, Michael D. Brown resigned as director of FEMA in spite of having received praise from Bush with the now-well-known phrase, "Brownie, you're doing a heck of a job." [cite web | author = Office of the Press Secretary | title = President Arrives in Alabama, Briefed on Hurricane Katrina | date = September 2, 2005 | accessdate = 2006-07-19|publisher = The White House | url = http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/09/20050902-2.html]
On September 2, 2005, during a
benefit concertfor Hurricane Katrina relief on NBC, " A Concert for Hurricane Relief", Kanye Westwas a featured speaker. Controversy arose when West was presenting, as he deviated from the prepared script:
"I hate the way they portray us in the media. You see a black family, it says, 'They're looting.' You see a white family, it says, 'They're looking for food.' And, you know, it's been five days waiting for federal help because most of the people are black. And even for me to complain about it, I would be a hypocrite because I've tried to turn away from the teacher-the TV because it's too hard to watch. I've even been shopping before even giving a donation, so now I'm calling my business manager right now to see what is the biggest amount I can give, and just to imagine if I was down there, and those are my people down there. So anybody out there that wants to do anything that we can help — with the way America is set up to help the poor, the black people, the less well-off, as slow as possible. I mean, the Red Cross is doing everything they can. We already realize a lot of people that could help are at war right now, fighting another way — and they've given them permission to go down and shoot us!"
Mike Myers, with whom West was paired to present, spoke next and continued as normal by reading the script. Once it was West's turn to speak again, West delivered the controversial phrase "George Bush doesn't care about
black people." Although the camera quickly cut away to Chris Tucker, West's comments still reached the East Coast broadcasts, and was replayed or discussed afterwards. [cite news|last=de Moraes|first=Lisa|title=Kanye West's Torrent of Criticism, Live on NBC|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/03/AR2005090300165.html|work=The Washington Post|date=2005-09-03|accessdate=2008-09-01]
Criticism from politicians, activists, pundits and journalists of all stripes was directed at the local and state and governments headed by Mayor Ray Nagin of New Orleans and Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco. Nagin and Blanco were criticized for failing to implement New Orleans' evacuation plan and for ordering residents to a shelter of last resort without any provisions for food, water, security, or sanitary conditions. Perhaps the most important criticism of Nagin was that he delayed his emergency evacuation order until 19 hours before landfall, which led to hundreds of deaths of people who (by that time) could not find any way out of the city.
The destruction wrought by Hurricane Katrina raised other, more general public policy issues about
emergency management, environmental policy, poverty, and unemployment. The discussion of both the immediate response and of the broader public policy issues may have affected electionsand legislationenacted at various levels of government. The storm's devastation also prompted a Congressional investigation, which found that FEMA and the Red Cross "did not have a logistics capacity sophisticated enough to fully support the massive number of Gulf coast victims." Additionally, it placed responsibility for the disaster on all three levels of government.
An ABC News Poll conducted on September 2, 2005, showed slightly more blame was being directed at state and local governments (75%) than at the Federal government (67%), with 44% blaming President Bush's leadership directly.Langer, Gary. " [http://abcnews.go.com/US/HurricaneKatrina/story?id=1094262&page=1 Poll: Bush Not Taking Brunt of Katrina Criticism] ." "ABC News." September 12, 2005. Retrieved on July 15, 2006.] A later
CNN/USATODAY/ Gallup pollshowed that respondents disagreed widely on who was to blame for the problems in the city following the hurricane — 13% said Bush, 18% said federal agencies, 25% blamed state or local officials and 38% said no one was to blame.Staff Writer. " [http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/09/07/katrina.poll/ Poll: Most Americans believe New Orleans will never recover] ." "CNN." September 8, 2005. Retrieved on July 15, 2006.]
Over seventy countries pledged monetary donations or other assistance. Notably, Cuba and
Venezuela(both hostile to US government themselves) were the first countries to offer assistance, pledging over $1 million, several mobile hospitals, water treatment plants, canned food, bottled water, heating oil, 1,100 doctors and 26.4 metric tons of medicine, though this aid was rejected by the U.S. government. [" [http://english.aljazeera.net/English/archive/archive?ArchiveId=14771 Venezuela and Cuba offer US aid ] Dead link|date=October 2008." Al Jazeera, September 07, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.] [" [http://freepeoplesmovement.org/fpm/page.php?56 Venezuela and Cuba offer aid to Katrina victims] Dead link|date=October 2008." The Free Press, Volume 1, Issue 4. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.] [" [http://www.pww.org/article/view/7693/1/285/ From abroad, offers of aid for Katrina victims] ." People's Weekly World, Sept 10, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.] [" [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2005-09-02-katrinaworldhelps_x.htm France, Cuba, Venezuela among those offering aid] ." USA Today, Sept 2, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.] Kuwaitmade the largest single pledge, $500 million; other large donations were made by Qatar($100 million), South Korea($30 million), Australia($10 million), India, China (both $5 million), New Zealand($2 million), [ [http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PA0509/S00159.htm Scoop: Further NZ assistance in wake of Hurricane Katrina ] ] Pakistan($1.5 million), [Staff Writer. " [http://usembassy.state.gov/pakistan/h05090802.html U.S. Grateful for Pakistan's Assistance for Hurricane Katrina Victims] Dead link|date=October 2008."Embassy of the United States. September 8, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] and Bangladesh($1 million). [Staff Writer. " [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4215820.stm Asian nations offer U.S. assistance] ." "BBC News." September 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] Israelsent an IDF delegation to New Orleans to transport aid equipment including 80 tons of food, disposable diapers, beds, blankets, generators and additional equipment which were donated from different governmental institutions, civilian institutions and the IDF. [Ministry of Foreign Affairs. " [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/About+the+Ministry/MFA+Spokesman/2005/Israeli+aid+to+Hurricane+Katrina+victims+5-Sep-2005.htm Israel Aids Hurricane Katrina Victims] ." "MFA." September 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.] The Bush Administration announced in mid-September that it did not need Israeli divers and physicians to come to the United States for search and rescue missions, but a small team landed in New Orleans on September 10 to give assistance to operations already under way. The team administered first aid to survivors, rescued abandoned pets and discovered hurricane victims. [Jewish Virtual Library. " [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Politics/Katrianaid.html Israel's Aid to Hurricane Katrina Victims] ." " Jewish Virtual Library."]
Sri Lanka, which was still recovering from the Indian Ocean Tsunami, also offered to help. Countries including Canada, Mexico, Singapore, and Germanysent supplies, relief personnel, troops, ships and water pumps to aid in the disaster recovery. Belgiumsent in a team of relief personnel. Britain's donation of 350,000 emergency meals did not reach victims because of laws regarding mad cow disease. [Staff Writer. " [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4344168.stm U.S. rejects British Katrina beef] ." "BBC News." October 15, 2005. ] Russia's initial offer of two jets was declined by the U.S. State Department but accepted later. The French offer was also declined and requested later. [Staff Writer. " [http://edition.cnn.com/2005/US/09/04/katrina.world.aid U.S. receives aid offers from around the world] ." "CNN." September 4, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Despite receiving aid from around the world, there was also a heavy dose of criticism from around the world, including accusations of racism that were revealed at the international level across global press. Quotations from the UK Mirror such as "Many things about the United States are wonderful, but it has a vile underbelly which is usually kept well out of sight. Now in New Orleans it has been exposed to the world." were common. [" [http://www.tolerance.org/news/article_tol.jsp?id=1291 KATRINA AND RACISM: The World View] ." "Tolerance.org." September 19, 2006. Retrieved on
Non-governmental organization response
American Red Cross, Southern Baptist Convention, Salvation Army, Oxfam, Common Ground Collective, Emergency Communities, Habitat for Humanity, Service International, "A River of Hope" and many other charitable organizations provided help to the victims of the storm. They were not allowed into New Orleans proper by the National Guard for several days after the storm because of safety concerns. These organizations raised $4.25 billion (USD) in donations by the public, with the Red Cross receiving over half of the donations. cite web | author = Staff writer|publisher= Charity Navigator| title = Where Did The Money Go? | year= 2006 | accessdate = 2006-08-05 | work = Hurricane Katrina: One Year Later | url = http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm/bay/katrina.main.htm]
amateur radio's emergency service wing, the Amateur Radio Emergency Service, provided communications in areas where the communications infrastructure had been damaged or totally destroyed, relaying everything from 911 traffic to messages home. [Staff Writer. " [http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2005/09/15/100/ ARRL President Submits Congressional Testimony on Hams' Katrina Response] " "The American Radio Relay League." September 15, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.] In Hancock County, Mississippi, ham radio operators provided the only communications into or out of the area, and even served as 911 dispatchers. [Staff Writer. " [http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2005/09/16/100/ Amateur Radio Earning Praise, Respect in Hurricane Katrina Relief] ." "The American Radio Relay League." September 16, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Many corporations also contributed to relief efforts. On September 13, 2005, it was reported that corporate donations to the relief effort were $409 million, and were expected to exceed $1 billion. [" [http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/13/news/fortune500/katrina_donations/ Corporate Katrina gifts could top $1B] ." "CNN." September 13, 2005. Retrieved on
During and after the Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma and Rita, the American Red Cross had opened 1,470 different shelters across and registered 3.8 million overnight stays. A total of 244,000 Red Cross workers (95% of which were non-paid volunteers) were utilized throughout these three hurricanes. In addition, 346,980 comfort kits (such as toothpaste, soap, washcloths and toys for children) and 205,360 cleanup kits (containing brooms, mops and bleach) were distributed. For mass care, the organization served 68 million snacks and meals to victims of the disasters and to rescue workers. The Red Cross also had its Disaster Health services meet 596,810 contacts, and Disaster Mental Health services met 826,590 contacts. Red Cross emergency financial assistance was provided to 1.4 million families. Hurricane Katrina was the first natural disaster in the United States in which the American Red Cross utilized its "Safe and Well" family location website.cite web | publisher =
American Red Cross| title = A Year of Healing |month=August | year=2006 | date = 2006-09-29| url = http://www.redcross.org/images/pdfs/Katrina_OneYearReport.pdf] cite web | publisher = American Red Cross | title = Hurricane Season 2005: Facts and Figures | date = June 30, 2006|date = 2006-09-29| url = http://www.redcross.org/news/ds/hurricanes/2005/facts.html]
In the year following Katrina's strike on the Gulf Coast, The Salvation Army allocated donations of more than $365 million to serve more than 1.7 million people in nearly every state. The organization's immediate response to Hurricane Katrina included more than 5.7 million hot meals, 8.3 million sandwiches, snacks & drinks. Its SATERN network of amateur radio operators picked up where modern communications left off to help locate more than 25,000 survivors. Salvation Army pastoral care counselors were on hand to comfort the emotional and spiritual needs of 277,000 individuals. As part of the overall effort, Salvation Army officers, employees and volunteers contributed more than 900,000 hours of service.cite web | url = http://www.salvationarmyusa.org/usn%5Cwww_usn.nsf/vw-news/FB0167FE449EC0C4802571D8004B5FEE | title = Salvation Army Reflects on Largest Disaster Response Ever at One-Year Anniversary of Hurricane Katrina | accessdate = 2006-08-28|date = August 28, 2006 | publisher = The Salvation ArmyDead link|date=October 2008]
Analysis of New Orleans levee failures
A June 2007 report released by the
American Society of Civil Engineersstates that the failures of the federally built levees in New Orleans were found to be primarily the result of system design flaws. The US Army Corps of Engineerswho by federal mandate is responsible for the conception, design and construction of the region's flood-control system failed to pay sufficient attention to public safety.
According to new modeling and field observations by a team from
Louisiana State University, the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO), a 200-meter-wide (660-foot-wide) canal designed to provide a shortcut from New Orleans to the Gulf of Mexico, helped provide a funnel for the storm surge, making it 20% higher and 100%-200% faster as it crashed into the city. St. Bernard Parish, one of the more devastated areas, lies just south of the MRGO. The Army Corps of Engineersdisputes this causality and maintains Katrina would have overwhelmed the levees with or without the contributing effect of the MRGO. [Warrick, Joby; Grunwald, Michael. " [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/23/AR2005102301200_pf.html Investigators Link Levee Failures to Design Flaws] ." "Washington Post." October 24, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
On April 5, 2006, months after independent investigators had demonstrated that levee failures were not caused by natural forces beyond intended design strength, Lieutenant General Carl Strock testified before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Energy and Water that "We have now concluded we had problems with the design of the structure." [Staff Writers " [http://www.unregisterednews.com/content/view/184/53/ Problems with the design of levees] Dead link|date=October 2008." "
Unregistered News." September 29, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.] He also testified that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers did not know of this mechanism of failure prior to August 29, 2005. The claim of ignorance is refuted, however, by the National Science Foundation investigators hired by the Army Corps of Engineers, who point to a 1986 study by the Corps itself that such separations were possible in the I-wall design. [cite news| title = Corps chief admits to 'design failure' | author = Walsh, Bill | publisher = Times Picayune|date = April 6, 2006 | accessdate=2006-04-09 | url = http://www.nola.com/news/t-p/frontpage/index.ssf?/base/news-5/1144306231230500.xml]
Various conspiracy theories began floating around that the levees were in fact deliberately demolished. A number of New Orleans residents described hearing "explosions" coming from the Industrial Canal levee in the
Lower 9th Wardbefore the floodwaters rushed in. A National Guard worker claims he was sworn to secrecy upon finding explosives residue at the site of the break. [cite web|url=http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/orleans_levees.html|title=New Orleans Levees Were Blown In 1927] Explosives are commonly used as part of construction. [cite web
title=Explosive and Blasting (Construction)
Many of the levees have been reconstructed since the time of Katrina. In reconstructing them, precautions were taken to bring the levees up to modern building code standards and to ensure their safety. For example, in every situation possible, the Corps of Engineers replaced I-walls with T-walls. T-walls have a horizontal concrete base that protects against soil erosion underneath the floodwalls. cite news | first=Matt | last=Crenson | publisher=Associated Press | url=http://www.constructionequipmentguide.com/story.asp?story=6589 | title=Levee Repairs to Be Finished By First Day of Hurricane Season | date=2006-02-02 | accessdate=2008-05-12]
However, there are funding battles over the remaining levee improvements. In February 2008, the Bush administration requested that the state of Louisiana pay about $1.5 billion of an estimated $7.2 billion for Army Corps of Engineers levee work, a proposal which angered many Louisiana leaders. cite news | title=White House Budget for Levee Work Riles Many Louisiana Elected Officials | publisher=Associated Press | first=Cain | last=Burdeau | url=http://www.cegltd.com/story.asp?story=10045 | date=2008-02-12 | accessdate=2008-05-12]
On May 2, 2008, Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal used a speech to The National Press Club to request that President Bush free up money to complete work on Louisiana's levees. Bush promised to include the levee funding in his 2009 budget, but rejected the idea of including the funding in a war bill, which would pass sooner. cite web | url=http://www.2theadvocate.com/news/18539869.html | title =Jindal asks Bush for levee cash | p ublisher=2theadvocate.com | first=Gerard | last=Shields | date=2008-05-03 | accessdate=2008-05-12]
Many representatives of the
news mediareporting on the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina became directly involved in the unfolding events, instead of simply reporting. Because of the loss of most means of communication, such as land-based and cellular telephone systems, field reporters in many cases became conduits for information between victims and authorities.
The authorities, who monitored local and network news broadcasts, as well as internet sites, would then attempt to coordinate rescue efforts based on the reports. One illustration was when
Geraldo Riveraof Fox Newstearfully pleaded for authorities to either send help or evacuate the thousands of evacuees stranded at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center. [" [http://www.ifilm.com/ifilmdetail/2678976 Geraldo Rivera & Shepard Smith Unleashed] ." — "Video." 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
The storm also brought a dramatic rise in the role of Internet sites - especially
bloggingand community journalism. One example was the effort of "NOLA.com", the web affiliate of New Orleans' "Times-Picayune", which was awarded the Breaking News Pulitzer Prize,cite web | author = The Pulitzer Board | title = 2006 Pulitzer Prize Winners - Breaking News Reporting | year= 2006 | accessdate = 2006-08-02 | url = http://www.pulitzer.org/year/2006/breaking-news-reporting/Dead link|date=October 2008] and shared the Public Service Pulitzer with the Biloxi-based "Sun Herald".cite web | author = The Pulitzer Board | title = 2006 Pulitzer Prize Winners - Public Service | year= 2006 | accessdate = 2006-08-02 | url = http://www.pulitzer.org/year/2006/public-service/Dead link|date=October 2008] The newspaper's coverage was carried for days only on NOLA's blogs, as the newspaper lost its presses and evacuated its building as water rose around it on August 30. The site became an international focal point for news by local media, and also became a vital link for rescue operations and later for reuniting scattered residents, as it accepted and posted thousands of individual pleas for rescue on its blogs and forums. NOLA was monitored constantly by an array of rescue teams - from individuals to the Coast Guard - which used information in rescue efforts. Much of this information was relayed from trapped victims via the SMS functions of their cell phones, to friends and relatives outside the area, who then relayed the information back to NOLA.com. The aggregation of community journalism, user photos and the use of the internet site as a collaborative response to the storm attracted international attention, and was called a watershed moment in journalism.cite web | author = Mark Glaser | title = NOLA.com blogs and forums help save lives after Katrina | date = September 13, 2005 | publisher = Online Journalism Review | accessdate = 2006-08-02 | url = http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/050913glaser/] In the wake of these online-only efforts, the Pulitzer Committee for the first time opened all its categories to online entries.cite web | author = Paul Steiger| title = Remarks at Pulitzer Prize luncheon|date = May 22, 2006 | accessdate = 2006-08-02 | publisher = The Pulitzer Board | url = http://www.pulitzer.org/resources/steigerspeech.htmlDead link|date=October 2008]
The role of AM radio was of importance to the hundreds of thousands of persons with no other ties to news.
AM radioprovided emergency information regarding access to assistance for hurricane victims. Immediately after Hurricane Katrina, radio station WWL-AM(New Orleans) was one of the few area radio stations in the area remaining on the air. The 870 kHz frequency has a clear channelhigh power designation and the on-going nighttime broadcasts continued to be available up to convert|500|mi|km away. Announcers continued to broadcast from improvised studio facilities after the storm damaged their transmitter tower.Fact|date=September 2008
During the period of several weeks when most area radio stations were off the air, WWL-AM's emergency coverage was simulcast on the frequencies of other area radio stations. This emergency service was named "The United Radio Broadcasters of New Orleans." To reach emergency radio operators in storm-ravaged areas, many of whom made their volunteer services available to the Red Cross and government entities, WWL-AM was simulcast on shortwave outlet
WHRI, owned by World Harvest Radio International. The cellular phoneantenna network was severely damaged and completely inoperable for several months. The AM and shortwave radio efforts were crucial in coordinating rescue and relief efforts.Fact|date=January 2008
As the U.S. military and rescue services regained control over the city, there were restrictions on the activity of the media. On September 9, the military leader of the relief effort announced that reporters would have "zero access" to efforts to recover bodies in New Orleans. Immediately following this announcement, CNN filed a
lawsuitand obtained a temporary restraining orderagainst the ban. The next day the government backed down and reversed the ban.Staff Writer. " [http://edition.cnn.com/2005/LAW/09/10/katrina.media/ U.S. won't ban media from New Orleans searches] ." "CNN." September 11, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.]
Hurricane Katrina has also been the centerpiece of several documentary films, including
Spike Lee's film, " When the Levees Broke", and Darren Martinez's film, "Hellp". [Britt, M. "Las Vegas Teen Helps Hurricane Victims In New Orleans", "Las Vegas Daily Optic", December 19, 2005,] An episode of the Fox TV series House first broadcast on May 16, 2006, featured a teenage victim of Hurricane Katrina at the centre of the main medical storyline.
Because of the large loss of life and property along the
Gulf Coast, the name Katrina was officially retired on April 6, 2006 by the World Meteorological Organizationat the request of the U.S. government. It was replaced by Katia on List III of the Atlantic hurricane naming lists, which will next be used in the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season. [cite web|url = http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2006/s2607.htm|title = Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, and Wilma "Retired" from List of Storm Names|accessmonthday = August 28|accessyear = 2006|date = April 6, 2006|publisher = NOAA]
Hurricane on the Bayou"
List of Atlantic hurricanes
List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes
List of storms in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season
List of tribute songs to Hurricane Katrina
Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries - Enforcement Division
Louisiana State Police
Wetlands of Louisiana
*Dyson, Michael Eric (2006). "Come Hell or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster". New York: Perseus Books Group. ISBN 0465017614.
*2008–"Trouble the Water". Directed by Carl Deal and Tia Lessin.
National Hurricane Center's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL122005_Katrina.pdf Tropical Cyclone Report on Hurricane Katrina]
* National Hurricane Center's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2005/KATRINA.shtml archive on Hurricane Katrina]
Hydrometeorological Prediction Center's [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical2005/KATRINA/KATRINA_archive.shtml archive on Hurricane Katrina]
* [http://www.hurricanekatrinanews.org/ Updated Hurricane Katrina News and Wetlands Information]
* [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/katrina2005.html Hurricane Katrina Rainfall Information from HPC]
* [http://www.farmersalmanac.com/weather/time_machine/2005/08/29/70112 Observed Weather Conditions for New Orleans, LA - August 29, 2005] from the
Farmers' AlmanacWeather Time Machine
* [http://www.fema.gov/hazard/hurricane/2005katrina/index.shtm Federal Emergency Management Agency]
* [http://www.msema.org/ Mississippi Emergency Management Agency]
* [http://www.charitynavigator.org/katrina Charity Navigator's detailed report on the Charitable Response to Hurricane Katrina]
* [http://www.ohsep.louisiana.gov/ Louisiana Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness]
* [http://www.katrinasangels.org/ Katrina's Angels Resource Coordination]
* [http://icpd.dartmouth.edu/ Dartmouth-Dillard Neighborhood Katrina Recovery Project]
* [http://www.city-journal.org/html/16_2_houston.html Houston's Noble Experiment] - An article in the "City Journal"
* [http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/currentawareness/katrinadisaster.php Katrina disaster legal news and resources] ,
* [http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1629962,00.html Saving Pets from Another Katrina]
* [http://www.indypendent.org/2007/01/12/students-give-nola-helping-hand/ "Students Give NOLA Helping Hand"] , The Indypendent, January 10, 2007
* [http://www.dollarsandsense.org/archives/2007/0907evans.html The KatrinaRitaVille Express Tour] from
Dollars & Sensemagazine
* [http://www.wwltv.com/Katrina/index.html Photo Collection of Katrina's Aftermath] (Courtesy
*Archive of newspaper front page images from [http://www.newseum.org/todaysfrontpages/default_archive.asp?fpArchive=083005 8/30/2005] , [http://www.newseum.org/todaysfrontpages/default_archive.asp?fpArchive=083105 8/31/2005] , [http://www.newseum.org/todaysfrontpages/default_archive.asp?fpArchive=090105 9/1/2005] , [http://www.newseum.org/todaysfrontpages/default_archive.asp?fpArchive=090205 9/2/2005] , [http://www.newseum.org/todaysfrontpages/default_archive.asp?fpArchive=090305 9/3/2005] , and [http://www.newseum.org/todaysfrontpages/default_archive.asp?fpArchive=090405 9/4/2005] from the
* [http://www.streetgangs.com/katrina/ Hurricane Katrina's Aftermath Photos by StreetGangs.com]
* [http://www.photosfromkatrina.com/ Photographs and Video of Hurricane Katrina's Aftermath]
* [http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/050829/050829.html Weather satellite imagery] (
University of Wisconsin at Madison)
* [http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/lookingatearth/h2005_katrina.html NASA's Hurricane Katrina Archive]
* [http://www.davidmetraux.com/news/2006/hurricane_katrina.html Photographs of Hurricane Katrina's Aftermath]
* [http://www.stephenvoss.com/stories/Churches/index.html Churches of the Lower 9th Ward (post Hurricane Katrina)]
* [http://group22.net/katrina/ Civil Air Patrol, Illinois Wing Deployment (Hancock County, MS)]
* [http://mikerigamer.com/gallery/album01 New Orleans, Louisiana - Inside the homes of New Orleans residents after Hurricane Katrina] Dead link|date=October 2008
* [http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/44024/story.htm Climate Report May Have Cut Katrina Impact - Analyst] .
* [http://photos.themindofmatt.com/20051223/20051227/index.htm Photos of Katrina Damage four months after the storm.]
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