- Bam, Iran
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Bam and its Cultural Landscape
State Party =
Type = Cultural
Criteria = ii, iii, iv, v
ID = 1208
Region = Asia-Pacific
Year = 2004
Session = 28th
Danger = 2004—
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1208
Bam is a city in
Kerman Provinceof Iran. The city is the center of Bam County. The modern Iranian city of Bam surrounds the Bam citadel. Before the 2003earthquake the official population count of the city was of around 90,000. [cite web | title = Cold is the main health threat after the Bam earthquake | work = BMJ| url = http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/328/7431/66-a | accessdate = 2007-09-13 ] There are various opinions about the date and reasons for the foundation of the citadel. Some people believe that Bam city was founded during the Parthian empire, a very powerful Persian empire, that ruled from 250 BCE to 226 CE. Economically and commercially, Bam occupied a very important place in the region and was famed for its textiles and clothes. Ibn Hawqal( 943– 977), the Arabtraveller and geographer, wrote of Bam in his book "Surat-ul-`ard" ("The Earth-figure"):
:"Over there they weave excellent, beautiful and long-lasting cotton cloths which are sent to places all over the world There they also make excellent clothes, each of which costs around 30
dinars; these are sold in Khorasan, Iraqand Egypt."
The ancient citadel of Arg-é Bam probably has a
historydating back around 2000 years ago, to the Parthian dynasty (248 BC–224 AD), but most buildings were built during the Safavid dynasty. The city was largely abandoned due to an Afghan invasion in 1722. Subsequently, after the city had gradually been re-settled, it was abandoned a second time due to an attack by invaders from Shiraz. It was also used for a time as an army barracks.
The modern city of Bam was established later than the old citadel. It has gradually developed as an agricultural and industrial centre, and until the
2003earthquake was experiencing rapid growth. In particular, the city is known for its dates and citrus fruit. The city also benefited from tourism, with an increasing number of people visiting the ancient citadel in recent years.
Etymology of the word Bam
About the origin of the word Bam, there are some links even to the mythical history of Iran, namely according to some sourcesWho|date=July 2007 “Bam” is metamorphosis of the word “Bahman”, which is the name of a prince, about whom
Ferdowsi(940?–1020?), narrated in his most famous work Shahnameh(The Book of Kings). In the poem, Bahman was the son of Esfendaydewho had fought against Rostam, one of the chief heroes in the Shahnameh. As Ferdowsi epically narrates, Bahman fights against one of the sons of Rostam, who was called Faramarz. A sandstorm hindered Faramarz and Bahman defeated him; as a triumph he built a statue on the rock hill there, where the Bam Citadel is now situated. It is customary to throw a flower into a "Butch" well whenever hearing the name of the prince.
December 26, 2003at 5:26 AM local time(1:56 AM UTC) Bam Citadel— "the biggest adobe structure of the world" — and most of the city of Bam proper were devastated by an earthquake. The United States Geological Surveyestimated its magnitude as 6.6 on the Richter scale. [cite web | title = Magnitude 6.6 - Southeastern Iran | work = U.S. Geological Survey | url = http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/eqinthenews/2003/uscvad/ | accessdate = 2007-09-13 ] The BBC reported that "70% of the modern city of Bam" was destroyed. [cite web | title = Iran earthquake kills thousands | work = BBC News | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3348613.stm | accessdate = 2007-09-13 ] Death toll numbers as high as 80,000 were rumoured on the street and 70,000 reported in the media. However, the total death toll was given as 56,230 on January 17and the latest estimate from Tehranhas halved previous estimates to 26,271 deaths. An additional 10,000 – 50,000 were reported injured, however this number is very uncertain; the most reported number is 30,000, which may have originated from an early Reutersaccount. According to the Iranian news agency IRNA, the old Bam Citadel was "levelled to the ground".
A documentary about this earthquake has been produced titled
Post 2003 Development
Immediately following the 2003 earthquake the Iranian government began to plan a new city based on modern city planning theories in order to eliminate problems that existed with the old city. The development of the plan took at least six months and resulted in significant complaints against the central government and local government by the Bam earthquake survivors.fact|date=December 2007 Nevertheless, government in
Tehrancontinued its plans and currently the city is being rebuilt. The citadel is also being rebuilt with specialist care from the Ministry of Culture and from Japanese universities.
16 March 2007a 130 km/h sandstormhit the city of Bam without warning, suffocating 3 children, killing 2 in car accidents, and wounding 14 others. [cite web | title = 5 killed in Bam sand storm | work = IRIB News | url = http://www.iribnews.ir/Full_en.asp?news_id=233481 | accessdate = 2007-09-13 ]
* [http://www.thetravelrag.com/docs/10006.asp Travel magazine story on Bam as a tourist destination]
* [http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/01/16/1073878018823.html Newspaper item: "The Lost Beauty that was Bam"]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3349353.stm BBC story: "Bam: Jewel of Iranian heritage"]
* [http://www.world-gazetteer.com/d/d_ir_km.htm Population figures from World-Gazetteer.com]
* [http://dsr.nii.ac.jp/bam Digital Silk Roads Project – Citadel of Bam. Photos and movies]
* [http://www.iranian.com/Bam/2006/May/Riahi/index.html To Bam & back by Asghar Riahi]
* [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IR/29/Bam.html FallingRain Map - elevation = 1058m]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3348613.stm BBC news report]
* [http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/12/30/iran.quake/index.html CNN news report]
* [http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/12/29/iran.rescuers.reut/index.html CNN report on rescue efforts]
* [http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=40237 IRINNews.org "Special on Bam three months on"]
* [http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=40323 IRINNews.org "Tehran lowers Bam earthquake toll"]
* [http://www.payvand.com/news/05/dec/1210.html Reconstruction efforts in quake-devastated Bam continue two years on]
* Arg-e Bam – The BAM Citadel – Film Documentary:
* [http://www.iraninfo.dk/arge-bam-irans-og-verdens-kulturarv-dokumentar-film.html Arg e Bam Movie Documentary – The BAM Citadel]
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