List of National Monuments of the United States

List of National Monuments of the United States

The United States has 101 protected areas known as national monuments. The President of the United States can establish a national monument by executive order, and the United States Congress can by legislation. The Antiquities Act of 1906 authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest" as national monuments.[1] Concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Indian ruins and artifacts—collectively termed antiquities—on western federal lands prompted the legislation. Its purpose was to allow the president to quickly preserve public land without waiting for legislation to pass through an unconcerned Congress. The ultimate goal was to protect all historic and prehistoric sites on U.S. federal lands.[2]

President Theodore Roosevelt established the first national monument, Devils Tower in Wyoming, on September 24, 1906.[3] He established eighteen national monuments, although only nine still retain that designation.[4] Fifteen presidents have created national monuments since the program began; only Richard Nixon and George H. W. Bush did not. Bill Clinton created the most monuments, nineteen, and expanded three others. Jimmy Carter protected vast parts of Alaska, proclaiming fifteen national monuments, some of which later were promoted to national parks. The most recent national monument designated by Presidential Proclamation was by Barack Obama on November 1, 2011 (Fort Monroe National Monument). Three marine locations in the central Pacific Ocean were protected, covering a total of 195,274 square miles (505,760 km2).[5] The most recent monument, Prehistoric Trackways, was established by an Act of Congress, signed into law on March 30, 2009.

Twenty-seven states have national monuments, as do the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Minor Outlying Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Arizona, with eighteen, has the largest number of national monuments, followed by New Mexico with twelve and California with ten. Fifty-five national monuments protect places of natural significance, including ten geological sites, seven marine sites, and five volcanic sites. Twenty-two national monuments are associated with Native Americans. Twenty-four are other historical sites, including eleven forts.

Many national monuments are no longer designated as such. Some were changed to national parks or another status by Congress or the President, while others were transferred to state control or disbanded.


List of National Monuments

Breakdown by federal agency and department

Six federal agencies in four departments manage the 101 current U.S. national monuments. Of these, 96 monuments are managed by a single agency, while five are co-managed by two agencies. Only 75 of the NPS's 76 National Monuments are official units because Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument overlaps with Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

Agency Department Co-managed Total managed
National Park Service (NPS) Interior 2 with BLM, 1 with FWS 76
Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Interior 2 with NPS, 1 with USFS 16
United States Forest Service (USFS) Agriculture 1 with BLM 6
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) Interior 1 with NOAA, 1 with NPS 6
Armed Forces Retirement Home (AFRH) Defense 1
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Commerce 1 with FWS 1
(duplications) (5)
Total 101

National Monuments

National Monument Name Photo Agency Location Date Established Description
Admiralty Island Adis windfall harbor.jpg USFS Alaska
57°38′N 134°21′W / 57.64°N 134.35°W / 57.64; -134.35 (Admiralty Island)
01978-12-01 December 1, 1978 Occupying most of Admiralty Island, the 7th largest in the United States, this monument is part of Tongass National Forest in the Alaska Panhandle. It has a large population of grizzly, black, and brown bears, as well as whales, mountain goats, and deer. Most of the monument has been declared the Kootznoowoo Wilderness, restricting future development. The Greens Creek mine lies within the monument.[6]
African Burial Ground African Burial Ground.jpg NPS New York
40°42′52″N 74°00′15″W / 40.7144°N 74.0042°W / 40.7144; -74.0042 (African Burial Ground)
02006-02-27 February 27, 2006 Re-discovered in 1991 during excavations for a new federal building, this former burial ground that contains the remains of more than 400 free and enslaved Africans buried during the 17th and 18th centuries was designated a National Historic Landmark memorial in 1993.[7]
Agate Fossil Beds Agathe National Monument10.jpg NPS Nebraska
42°24′58″N 103°43′41″W / 42.416°N 103.728°W / 42.416; -103.728 (Agate Fossil Beds)
01997-06-14 June 14, 1997 The valley of the Niobrara River is known for its large number of well-preserved Miocene mammal fossils which date from about 20 million years ago.[8]
Agua Fria Agfr aguafriariver.jpg BLM Arizona
34°09′N 112°05′W / 34.15°N 112.08°W / 34.15; -112.08 (Agua Fria)
02000-01-11 January 11, 2000 Located around the canyon of the Agua Fria River, it contains more than 450 distinct Native American structures, including large pueblos with more than 100 rooms.[9]
Alibates Flint Quarries Alfl alibates 20060726164737.jpg NPS Texas
35°34′N 101°40′W / 35.57°N 101.67°W / 35.57; -101.67 (Alibates Flint Quarries)
01965-08-21 August 21, 1965 Alibates was the quarry site for high-quality, rainbow-hued flint that was distributed throughout the Great Plains in pre-Columbian times. It is part of the Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and includes the ruins of several Plains Village Indian dwellings.[10]
Aniakchak Aniakchak-caldera alaska.jpg NPS Alaska
56°54′N 158°09′W / 56.9°N 158.15°W / 56.9; -158.15 (Anikchak)
01978-12-01 December 1, 1978 Mount Aniakchak, which erupted 3,500 years ago, and the surrounding region make up one of the least visited NPS sites. Surprise Lake, within the volcano's 6-mile (9.7 km) wide, 2,500-foot (760 m) deep caldera, is the source of the Aniakchak River.[11]
Aztec Ruins Aztec nima1.JPG NPS New Mexico
36°50′N 107°00′W / 36.83°N 107.00°W / 36.83; -107.00 (Aztec Ruins)
01923-01-24 January 24, 1923 The ruins contain Pueblo structures from the 11th to 13th centuries with more than 400 masonry rooms which were misidentified by early American settlers as Aztec. It lies within the World Heritage Site of Chaco Culture National Historical Park.[12]
Bandelier Bandelier Kiva.jpg NPS New Mexico
35°47′N 106°16′W / 35.78°N 106.27°W / 35.78; -106.27 (Bandelier)
01916-02-11 February 11, 1916 A historic district, Bandelier contains Frijoles Canyon, which contains Ancestral Pueblo homes, kivas, rock paintings and petroglyphs.[13][14]
Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington National Monument.jpg NPS Virginia
37°07′23″N 79°45′58″W / 37.123°N 79.766°W / 37.123; -79.766 (Booker T. Washington)
01956-04-02 April 2, 1956 The Booker T. Washington National Monument preserves portions of the 207-acre (0.84 km2) tobacco farm on which educator and civil rights leader Booker T. Washington was born into slavery on April 5, 1856. The site contains replicas of the house Washington was born in, a smokehouse, a blacksmith shed, a tobacco barn, and a horse barn.[15]
Buck Island Reef BuckIslandReedNM.jpg NPS Virgin Islands
17°47′N 64°37′W / 17.79°N 64.62°W / 17.79; -64.62 (Buck Island Reef)
01961-12-28 December 28, 1961 Most of this 19,000-acre (77 km2) monument is underwater, containing a large elkhorn coral barrier reef that provides cover for a great variety of reef fish, sea turtles and Least Terns. It is based around Buck Island, an uninhabited 176-acre (0.71 km2) island.[16]
Cabrillo Cabrillo-Szmurlo.jpg NPS California
32°40′N 117°14′W / 32.67°N 117.24°W / 32.67; -117.24 (Cabrillo)
01913-10-14 October 14, 1913 This monument commemorates the landing of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo at San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542, which was the first European expedition on what later became the west coast of the U.S. The monument includes a statue of Cabrillo and 16th-century coastal artillery batteries built to protect the harbor of San Diego from enemy warships.[17]
California Coastal California coastal nm.jpg BLM California
36°53′N 122°11′W / 36.89°N 122.18°W / 36.89; -122.18 (California Coastal)
02000-01-11 January 11, 2000 This monument ensures the protection of all islets, reefs and rock outcroppings from the coast of California to a distance of 12 nautical miles (22 km), along the entire 840-mile (1,350 km) long California coastline.[18]
Canyon de Chelly Canyon de Chelly, Navajo.jpg NPS Arizona
36°08′N 109°28′W / 36.13°N 109.47°W / 36.13; -109.47 (Canyon de Chelly)
01931-04-01 April 1, 1931 Located within the boundaries of the Navajo Nation, it preserves the valleys and rims of the canyons of de Chelly, del Muerto, and Monument, all of which are Navajo Tribal Trust Lands.[19]
Canyons of the Ancients Canyons of the Ancients National Monument.jpg BLM Colorado
37°22′N 109°00′W / 37.37°N 109°W / 37.37; -109 (Canyon of the Ancients)
02000-06-09 June 9, 2000 Surrounding Hovenweep National Monument, it preserves and protects more than 6,000 archeological sites, the largest concentration in the U.S.[20]
Cape Krusenstern CapeKrusensternNM.jpg NPS Alaska
67°25′N 163°30′W / 67.41°N 163.50°W / 67.41; -163.50 (Cape Krusenstern)
01978-12-01 December 1, 1978 Co-located with the NHLD Cape Krusenstern Archeological District, this coastal plain contains large lagoons and rolling hills of limestone. The bluffs record thousands of years of change in the shorelines of the Chukchi Sea, as well as evidence of some 9,000 years of human habitation.[21]
Capulin Volcano Capulin 1980 tde00005.jpg NPS New Mexico
36°47′N 103°58′W / 36.79°N 103.96°W / 36.79; -103.96 (Capulin Volcano)
01916-08-09 August 9, 1916 Capulin is an extinct cinder cone volcano that is approximately 59,000 years old and part of the Raton-Clayton Volcanic Field. The crater is 400 feet (120 m) deep and its rim is more than 1,500 feet (460 m) in diameter.[22]
Carrizo Plain RockCove-CarrizoPlain.jpg BLM California
35°10′N 119°45′W / 35.16°N 119.75°W / 35.16; -119.75 (Carrizo Plain)
02001-01-12 January 12, 2001 Carrizo Plain is the largest single native grassland remaining in California. It contains part of the San Andreas Fault and is surrounded by the Temblor Range and the Caliente Range. At the center of the plain is Soda Lake, which is near Painted Rock.[23]
Casa Grande Ruins Casagrande1.jpg NPS Arizona
32°59′N 111°32′W / 32.99°N 111.54°W / 32.99; -111.54 (Casa Grande Ruins)
01918-08-03 August 3, 1918 This monument preserves a group of structures surrounded by a compound wall in the Gila Valley that were built in the early 13th century. They were inhabited by the Hohokam people until they were abandoned in the mid-15th century.[24]
Cascade–Siskiyou Sambucus caerulea 8012.jpg BLM Oregon
42°05′N 122°28′W / 42.08°N 122.46°W / 42.08; -122.46 (Cascade-Siskiyou)
02000-06-09 June 9, 2000 One of the most diverse ecosystems found in the Cascade Range, it has more than 100 dwelling and root-gathering sites belonging to the Modoc, Klamath, and Shasta tribes.[25]
Castillo de San Marcos Fort2.jpg NPS Florida
29°53′53″N 81°18′40″W / 29.898°N 81.311°W / 29.898; -81.311 (Castillo de San Marcos)
01924-10-15 October 15, 1924 This Spanish fort near St. Augustine, called Fort Marion when first protected, served for 205 years under four different flags. Built in 1672, it was involved in sieges with the British while under Spanish command, the American Revolution under Britain, the Civil War under the Confederacy, and the Seminole Wars and the Spanish-American War under the United States.[26]
Castle Clinton Castleclinton.JPG NPS New York
40°42′13″N 74°01′01″W / 40.7036°N 74.0169°W / 40.7036; -74.0169 (Castle Clinton)
01946-08-12 August 12, 1946 A circular sandstone fort built in 1811 at the southern tip of Manhattan to protect New York City from the British, Castle Clinton is now located in Battery Park. It later became a beer garden, a theater, the first immigration station (predating Ellis Island), and a public aquarium.[27]
Cedar Breaks Cedarbreaksnationalmonument.jpg NPS Utah
37°38′N 112°51′W / 37.63°N 112.85°W / 37.63; -112.85 (Cedar Breaks)
01933-08-22 August 22, 1933 A natural amphitheater canyon similar to formations at Bryce Canyon National Park, it stretches over 3 miles (4.8 km) and is more than 2,000 feet (610 m) deep.[28]
Chiricahua Chiricahua balanced rock.jpg NPS Arizona
32°01′N 109°21′W / 32.02°N 109.35°W / 32.02; -109.35 (Chiricahua)
01924-04-18 April 18, 1924 These Rhyolite tuffs are the eroded remains of an immense volcanic eruption that shook the region some 27 million years ago. It was called the Land of the Standing-Up Rocks by the Apache.[29]
Colorado Colorado national monument 20030920 130827 2.1504x1000.jpg NPS Colorado
39°02′N 108°41′W / 39.04°N 108.69°W / 39.04; -108.69 (Colorado)
01911-05-24 May 24, 1911 Monument Canyon runs the width of the park and includes rock formations formed by erosion. The monument includes 20,500 acres (83 km2) of semi-desert land high on the Colorado Plateau and has a wide range of wildlife including pinyon pines, juniper trees, ravens, jays, Desert Bighorn Sheep, and coyotes as well as a range of recreational activities.[30]
Craters of the Moon Scoria field at Craters of the Moon NM-750px.JPG NPS, BLM Idaho
43°25′N 113°31′W / 43.42°N 113.52°W / 43.42; -113.52 (Craters of the Moon)
01924-05-02 May 2, 1924 One of the best preserved flood basalt areas in the continental U.S. contains three lava fields along the Great Rift of Idaho as well as the world's deepest open rift cracks and other volcanic features.[31][32]
Devils Postpile Devils postpile NM.jpg NPS California
37°30′N 119°05′W / 37.50°N 119.08°W / 37.50; -119.08 (Devils Postpile)
01911-05-06 May 6, 1911 Once part of Yosemite National Park, this monument is a dark cliff of columnar basalt created by a lava flow at least 100,000 years ago. It also has the 101-foot (31 m)-high Rainbow Falls.[33]
Devils Tower Devils Tower CROP.jpg NPS Wyoming
44°35′N 104°43′W / 44.59°N 104.72°W / 44.59; -104.72 (Devils Tower)
01906-09-24 September 24, 1906 The tower is a monolithic igneous intrusion of volcanic neck rising dramatically 1,267 feet (386 m) above the surrounding terrain. Proclaimed by Theodore Roosevelt, this was the first national monument.[3]
Dinosaur DNM Morrison.jpg NPS Colorado, Utah
40°32′N 108°59′W / 40.53°N 108.98°W / 40.53; -108.98 (Dinosaur)
01915-10-04 October 4, 1915 This sandstone and conglomerate bed, known as the Morrison Formation, was formed in the Jurassic Period and contains fossils of dinosaurs including Allosaurus and various long-neck and long-tail sauropods.[34]
Effigy Mounds Effigy Mounds Iowa Sny Magill.JPG NPS Iowa
43°05′N 91°11′W / 43.09°N 91.19°W / 43.09; -91.19 (Effigy Mounds)
01949-10-25 October 25, 1949 This monument preserves three prehistoric sites with 206 prehistoric mounds, notable for 31 unusual mounds in the shape of mammals, birds, or reptiles.[35]
El Malpais ElMalpaisLava.JPG NPS New Mexico
34°53′N 108°03′W / 34.88°N 108.05°W / 34.88; -108.05 (El Malpais)
01987-12-31 December 31, 1987 An extremely rough, rugged lava flow covers much of the park, filling a large basin rimmed by higher sandstone that forms large, wind-carved bluffs. It has lava tube caves that stretch over 17 miles (27 km) and the Cebolla Wilderness, a forested rimrock area that features prehistoric rock art and the Zuni-Acoma Trail, an ancient Pueblo trade route.[36]
El Morro Elmo-bluff.jpg NPS New Mexico
35°02′N 108°21′W / 35.04°N 108.35°W / 35.04; -108.35 (El Morro)
01906-12-08 December 8, 1906 On the site of an ancient east-west trail is a great sandstone promontory with a pool of water at its base. There are inscriptions from the 17th century as well as older petroglyphs made by the Anasazi.[37]
Florissant Fossil Beds Florisant.jpg NPS Colorado
38°55′N 105°16′W / 38.92°N 105.27°W / 38.92; -105.27 (Florissant Fossil beds)
01969-08-20 August 20, 1969 Huge petrified redwoods and incredibly detailed fossils of ancient insects and plants reveal a very different landscape in Colorado of almost 35 million years ago in the Eocene age.[38]
Fort Frederica FortFredBarracks.jpg NPS Georgia
31°13′26″N 81°23′35″W / 31.224°N 81.393°W / 31.224; -81.393 (Fort Frederica)
01936-05-26 May 26, 1936 Built by James Oglethorpe between 1736 and 1748, these remnants of a fort and town protected the southern boundary of the British colony of Georgia from Spanish raids. It was a few miles from the site of the Battle of Bloody Marsh.[39]
Fort Matanzas Fortwestern.jpg NPS Florida
29°42′54″N 81°14′20″W / 29.715°N 81.239°W / 29.715; -81.239 (Fort Matanzas)
01924-10-15 October 15, 1924 This 1740 Spanish fort guarded Matanzas Inlet, the southern mouth of the Matanzas River, which allowed access to St. Augustine. The monument is managed in conjunction with Castillo de San Marcos National Monument and also protects 100 acres (0.40 km2) of salt marsh and barrier islands.[40]
Fort McHenry FtMcHenryEntrance.JPG NPS Maryland
39°15′47″N 76°34′44″W / 39.263°N 76.579°W / 39.263; -76.579 (Fort McHenry)
01925-03-03 March 3, 1925 The only place designated a national monument and historic shrine, Fort McHenry is a star-shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812 when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy. It inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner".[41]
Fort Monroe Fort Monroe Aerial.jpg NPS Virginia
37°00′14″N 76°18′29″W / 37.004°N 76.308°W / 37.004; -76.308 (Fort Monroe)
02011-11-01 November 1, 2011 Fort Monroe National Monument spans the American story from the 17th to the 21st centuries: Captain John Smith's journeys, a haven of freedom for the enslaved during the Civil War, and a bastion of defense for the Chesapeake Bay.[42]
Fort Pulaski FtPulaskiInside.jpg NPS Georgia
32°01′37″N 80°53′24″W / 32.027°N 80.890°W / 32.027; -80.890 (Fort Pulaski)
01924-10-15 October 15, 1924 In 1862 during the American Civil War, the Union Army successfully tested a rifled cannon against the defending Confederates, rendering brick fortifications obsolete. Fort Pulaski was also used as a prisoner-of-war camp during the war. The national monument includes most of Cockspur Island (containing the fort) and all of adjacent McQueens Island.[43]
Fort Stanwix Fost areal image007.jpg NPS New York
43°13′05″N 75°27′32″W / 43.218°N 75.459°W / 43.218; -75.459 (Fort Stanwix)
01935-08-21 August 21, 1935 Fort Stanwix guarded a portage known as the Oneida Carrying Place during the French and Indian War. In 1768, the Treaty of Fort Stanwix was negotiated between the British and the Iroquois, which led to further hostilities. It fell into ruin and was rebuilt in the late 1970s.[44]
Fort Sumter FortSumter2009.jpg NPS South Carolina
32°45′07″N 79°52′26″W / 32.752°N 79.874°W / 32.752; -79.874 (Fort Sumter)
01948-04-28 April 28, 1948 Fort Sumter is a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina. It is best known as the site where the shots initiating the American Civil War were fired, at the Battle of Fort Sumter. Nearby Fort Moultrie is a unit of this monument; it was made of palmetto logs and inspired the flag and nickname (Palmetto State) of South Carolina.[45]
Fort Union Fortunion.JPG NPS New Mexico
35°55′30″N 105°00′32″W / 35.925°N 105.009°W / 35.925; -105.009 (Fort Union)
01956-04-05 April 5, 1956 A frontier military post and supply depot in the late 19th century, it sat at the intersection of the Mountain and Cimarron Branches of the old Santa Fe Trail.[46]
Fossil Butte FossilButte.jpg NPS Wyoming
41°52′N 110°46′W / 41.86°N 110.77°W / 41.86; -110.77 (Fossil Butte)
01972-10-23 October 23, 1972 Fossil Butte preserves the 50-million-year-old Green River lake beds, the best paleontological record of tertiary aquatic communities in North America. Fossils including fish, alligators, bats, turtles, dog-sized horses, insects, and many other species of plants and animals suggest that the region was a low, subtropical, freshwater basin when the sediments accumulated, over about a 2-million-year period.[47]
George Washington Birthplace Geo Washington birthplace.jpg NPS Virginia
38°11′10″N 76°55′50″W / 38.1861°N 76.9305°W / 38.1861; -76.9305 (George Washington's Birthplace)
01930-01-23 January 23, 1930 Representative of 18th-century Virginia tobacco farms, this site is the birthplace and boyhood environment of George Washington. The entrance includes a Memorial Shaft obelisk of Vermont marble that is a one-tenth scale replica of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. Also within the monument are the historic birthplace home area, a kitchen house, and the Washington family burial ground.[48]
George Washington Carver George-washington-carver-nmon-2.jpg NPS Missouri
36°59′10″N 94°21′14″W / 36.986°N 94.354°W / 36.986; -94.354 (George Washington Carver)
01943-07-14 July 14, 1943 The site preserves Moses Carver's farm, which was the boyhood home of George Washington Carver, a scientist and educator who developed many uses for peanuts. It was the first national monument dedicated to an African-American and first to a non-president.[49]
Giant Sequoia Giant sequoia-national-monument-jason-hickey.jpg USFS California
36°02′N 118°30′W / 36.04°N 118.50°W / 36.04; -118.50 (Giant Sequoia National Monument)
02000-04-15 April 15, 2000 The monument includes 38 of the 39 Giant Sequoia groves in the Sequoia National Forest, amounting to about half of the sequoia groves currently in existence. This includes one of the ten largest Giant Sequoias, the Boole Tree. Its two parts are around Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks.[50]
Gila Cliff Dwellings GilaCliffDwellings NatlMonument.jpg NPS New Mexico
33°14′N 108°17′W / 33.24°N 108.28°W / 33.24; -108.28 (Gila Cliff Dwellings)
01907-11-16 November 16, 1907 Located within the Gila Wilderness, the people of the Mogollon culture lived in these cliff dwellings 180 feet (55 m) above the canyon floor from the 1280s through the early 14th century. They lived in five caves with 46 rooms. Henry B. Ailman discovered them in 1878.[51]
Governors Island FortJay.jpg NPS New York
40°41′28″N 74°00′58″W / 40.691°N 74.016°W / 40.691; -74.016 (Governors Island)
02001-01-19 January 19, 2001 From 1783 to 1966, Governors Island in New York Harbor was an Army post, and from 1966 to 1996 it was a Coast Guard installation. Located on Governors Island are Castle Williams and Fort Jay, which served as outposts to protect New York City from sea attack.[52]
Grand Canyon-Parashant Para slide1.jpg BLM, NPS Arizona
36°24′N 113°42′W / 36.4°N 113.7°W / 36.4; -113.7 (Grand Canyon-Parashant)
02000-01-11 January 11, 2000 Located on the northern rim of the Grand Canyon, this diverse landscape includes an array of scientific and historic resources. About 20,000 of the monument's 1,017,000 acres (4,120 km2) are also within Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Grand Canyon-Parashant is not considered an official NPS unit. There are no paved roads or visitor services.[53][54]
Grand Portage 050820 GrandPortageNationalMonument.jpg NPS Minnesota
47°58′N 89°41′W / 47.96°N 89.68°W / 47.96; -89.68 (Grant Portage)
01960-01-27 January 27, 1960 The Grand Portage itself is an 8.5-mile (13.7 km) footpath which bypasses a set of waterfalls on the Pigeon River near Lake Superior. The region was a vital trade route and center of fur trade activity as well as an Anishinaabeg Ojibwe heritage site.[55]
Grand Staircase-Escalante Chinle Badlands.jpg BLM Utah
37°24′N 111°41′W / 37.4°N 111.68°W / 37.4; -111.68 (Grand Staircase-Escalante)
01996-09-18 September 18, 1996 Preserving 1,900,000 acres (7,700 km2), the monument consists of the Grand Staircase, the Kaiparowits Plateau, and the Canyons of the Escalante. It is notable for its paleontological finds and geology, and it was the first monument to be maintained by the Bureau of Land Management.[56]
Hagerman Fossil Beds HAFO FlowersRiver.jpg NPS Idaho
42°47′N 114°57′W / 42.79°N 114.95°W / 42.79; -114.95 (Hagerman Fossil Beds)
01988-11-18 November 18, 1988 This monument contains the largest concentration of Hagerman Horse fossils in North America. It protects the world's richest known fossil deposits from the late Pliocene epoch, 3.5 million years ago. These plants and animals represent the last glimpse of time that existed before the Ice Age, and the earliest appearances of modern flora and fauna.[57]
Hanford Reach Hare columbia-river.jpg FWS Washington
46°29′N 119°32′W / 46.48°N 119.53°W / 46.48; -119.53 (Hanford Reach)
02000-06-08 June 8, 2000 Created from what used to be the security buffer surrounding the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, this area has been untouched by development or agriculture since 1943. The area is part of the Columbia River Plateau, formed by basalt lava flows and water erosion, and is named after the Hanford Reach, the last free flowing section of the Columbia River.[58]
Hohokam Pima Hohokam Pima National Monument.jpg NPS Arizona
33°11′N 111°55′W / 33.19°N 111.91°W / 33.19; -111.91 (Hohokam Pima)
01972-10-21 October 21, 1972 Hohokam Pima is part of the Gila River Indian Community and not open to the public. The monument preserves the Snaketown-Settlement, archeological remains of the Hohokam culture, which lived in the area until 1500.[59]
Homestead Homestead Freeman School.jpg NPS Nebraska
40°17′06″N 96°49′19″W / 40.285°N 96.822°W / 40.285; -96.822 (Homestead)
01936-03-19 March 19, 1936 Daniel Freeman's homestead was recognized by the United States Congress as the first homestead in the nation obtained through the Homestead Act of 1862. The monument contains a visitor center, a tract of tallgrass prairie, and the Freeman School.[60]
Hovenweep Squaretower.JPG NPS Colorado, Utah
37°23′N 109°05′W / 37.38°N 109.08°W / 37.38; -109.08 (Hovenweep)
01923-03-02 March 2, 1923 Hovenweep contains six clusters of Native American ruins. Holly Canyon, Hackberry Canyon, Cutthroat Castle and Goodman Point are in Colorado and Square Tower and Cajon are in Utah. Ancient Pueblo Peoples lived in the Hovenweep area from 1150 to 1350.[61]
Ironwood Forest RaggedTop.jpg BLM Arizona
32°28′N 111°34′W / 32.46°N 111.57°W / 32.46; -111.57 (Ironwood Forest)
02000-06-09 June 9, 2000 Located within the Sonoran Desert, significant concentrations of ironwood (Olneya tesota) trees and two endangered animal and plant species are found within the monument. More than 200 Hohokam and Paleoindian archeological sites have been identified from between 600 and 1450 AD[62]
Jewel Cave JECA formations.jpg NPS South Dakota
43°44′N 103°50′W / 43.73°N 103.83°W / 43.73; -103.83 (Jewel Cave)
01908-02-07 February 7, 1908 Jewel Cave is the second longest cave in the world, with about 141 miles (227 km) of mapped passageways. In the Black Hills, it was discovered in 1900 and is so named because of its calcite crystals.[63]
John Day Fossil Beds JOHNDAY.jpg NPS Oregon
44°40′N 120°03′W / 44.67°N 120.05°W / 44.67; -120.05 (John Day Fossil)
01974-10-26 October 26, 1974 Located within the John Day River Basin, the Fossil Beds have a well-preserved, complete record of fossil plants and animals from more than 40 of the 65 million years of the Cenozoic Era. The monument is divided into three units: Painted Hills, named for its delicately colored stratifications; Sheep Rock; and Clarno. Blue Basin is a volcanic ash bowl transformed into claystone by eons of erosion, colored pastel blue by minerals.[64]
Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks Tent rocks MG 3183.jpg BLM New Mexico
35°40′N 106°25′W / 35.67°N 106.42°W / 35.67; -106.42 (Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks)
02001-01-17 January 17, 2001 Kasha-Katuwe is known for its geology of layers of volcanic rock and ash deposited by a volcanic explosion. Over time, weathering and erosion of these layers has created canyons and tent rocks. The tent rocks themselves are cones of soft pumice and tuff beneath harder caprocks.[65]
Lava Beds Lavacicles 8238.jpg NPS California
41°43′N 121°31′W / 41.71°N 121.51°W / 41.71; -121.51 (Lava Beds)
01925-11-21 November 21, 1925 This is the site of the largest concentration of lava tube caves in North America. It also includes Petroglyph Point, one of the largest panels of Native American rock art. The monument lies on the northeast flank of the Medicine Lake Volcano, the largest volcano in the Cascade Range.[66]
Little Bighorn Battlefield Little Bighorn memorial obelisk.jpg NPS Montana
45°34′N 107°26′W / 45.57°N 107.43°W / 45.57; -107.43 (Little Bighorn Battlefield)
01940-07-01 July 1, 1940 This monument includes the 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn between George Armstrong Custer's 7th Cavalry and a combined Lakota-Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho force, Custer National Cemetery, and the Reno-Benteen Battlefield.[67]
Marianas Trench Marine Marianatrenchmap.png FWS Northern Mariana Islands
20°N 145°E / 20°N 145°E / 20; 145 (Marianas Trench Marine)
02009-01-06 January 6, 2009 Covering over 95,000 square miles (250,000 km2), this marine monument includes the waters and submerged lands of the three northernmost islands of the Mariana Archipelago, the submerged lands of 22 designated volcanic sites, and the Mariana Trench.[68][69]
Misty Fjords Mifj inlet.jpg USFS Alaska
55°37′N 130°37′W / 55.62°N 130.61°W / 55.62; -130.61 (Misty Fjords)
01978-12-01 December 1, 1978 Located within the Tongass National Forest and called The Yosemite of the North for its similar geology, it also contains the Quartz Hill molybdenum deposit, possibly the largest such mineral deposit in the world. Throughout the monument is light-colored granite, about 50 to 70 million years old (Eocene Epoch to Cretaceous Period), that has been sculpted by glaciers that gouged deep U-shaped troughs.[70]
Montezuma Castle Montezuma Castle National Monument2.jpg NPS Arizona
34°37′N 111°50′W / 34.61°N 111.84°W / 34.61; -111.84 (Montezuma Castle)
01906-12-08 December 8, 1906 Montezuma Castle features well-preserved cliff dwellings built and used by the Pre-Columbian Sinagua people around 1400 AD. Several Hopi clans trace their roots to the area, which is not connected to Montezuma. The monument also includes the Montezuma Well, which has been used for irrigation since the 8th century.[71]
Mount St. Helens MSH82 st helens plume from harrys ridge 05-19-82.jpg USFS Washington
46°14′N 122°11′W / 46.23°N 122.18°W / 46.23; -122.18 (Mount St. Helens)
01982-08-27 August 27, 1982 Following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, this area was set aside for research, recreation, and education. The environment is left to respond naturally to the disturbance.[72]
Muir Woods MUWO4193.JPG NPS California
37°53′N 122°35′W / 37.89°N 122.58°W / 37.89; -122.58 (Muir Woods)
01908-01-09 January 9, 1908 Part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, it protects one of the last old growth Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) groves in the San Francisco Bay Area as well as one of the most easily accessed.[73]
Natural Bridges Owachomo laban.jpg NPS Utah
37°35′N 110°00′W / 37.58°N 110°W / 37.58; -110 (Natural Bridges)
01908-04-16 April 16, 1908 Located at the junction of White Canyon and Armstrong Canyon, it is part of the Colorado River drainage. It features the second- and third-largest natural bridges in the world, carved from the white Triassic sandstone of the Cedar Mesa Formation that gives White Canyon its name.[74]
Navajo Keet Seel closeup.jpg NPS Arizona
36°41′N 110°32′W / 36.68°N 110.53°W / 36.68; -110.53 (Navajo)
01909-03-20 March 20, 1909 This monument preserves three of the most intact cliff dwellings of the Ancestral Puebloan people, the Anasazi. The monument is high on the Shonto plateau, overlooking the Tsegi Canyon system in the Navajo Nation in Northern Arizona.[75]
Newberry Nebe caldera10832l.jpg USFS Oregon
43°41′N 121°15′W / 43.69°N 121.25°W / 43.69; -121.25 (Newberry Volcano)
01990-11-05 November 5, 1990 Located within Deschutes National Forest, the monument protects the area around the Newberry Volcano and its geologic features. It contains over 50,000 acres (200 km2) of lakes, lava flows, and other geologic features.[76]
Ocmulgee Macon Ocmulgee Earth Lodge.jpg NPS Georgia
32°50′N 83°37′W / 32.83°N 83.61°W / 32.83; -83.61 (Ocmulgee)
01936-12-23 December 23, 1936 Ocmulgee preserves traces of more than 10 millennia of native Southeastern culture, including Mississippian mounds. From Ice Age hunters to the Creek Indians of historic times, there is evidence of at least 10,000 years of human habitation. Between 900 and 1150, an elite society supported by skillful farmers lived on this site near the Ocmulgee River.[77]
Oregon Caves Oregon Caves p1080458 1024.jpg NPS Oregon
42°06′N 123°25′W / 42.10°N 123.41°W / 42.10; -123.41 (Oregon Caves)
01909-07-12 July 12, 1909 The monument is known for its marble caves, as well as for the Pleistocene jaguar and grizzly bear fossils found in the deeper caves. There are four primary buildings: The Oregon Caves Chateau, The Ranger Residence, The Chalet, and the old Dormitory.[78]
Organ Pipe Cactus Organ pipe cactus arches.jpg NPS Arizona
32°02′N 112°52′W / 32.04°N 112.86°W / 32.04; -112.86 (Organ Pipe Cactus)
01937-04-13 April 13, 1937 This monument is the only place in the United States where the Organ Pipe Cactus grows wild. There are many other types of cacti and desert flora native to the Sonoran Desert. The Bates Well Ranch and Dos Lomitas Ranch are also within the monument.[79]
Pacific Remote Islands Marine United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges-CIA WFB Map.png FWS United States Minor Outlying Islands south-southwest of Hawaii 02009-01-06 January 6, 2009 The marine monument consists of Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Island, which are in the Pacific southwest of Hawaii.[69]
Papahānaumokuākea Marine Albatross birds at Northwest Hawaiian Islands National Monument, Midway Atoll, 2007March01.jpg NOAA, FWS Hawaii
25°42′N 171°44′W / 25.7°N 171.73°W / 25.7; -171.73 (Papahānaumokuākea)
02006-06-15 June 15, 2006 Encompassing 140,000 square miles (360,000 km2) of ocean waters and 10 islands and atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, it is the largest Marine Protected Area in the world. It is larger than 46 states as well as 7 times larger than all other national marine sanctuaries combined.[80][81]
Petroglyph 2004-05-06 07 - Petroglyph, NM.jpg NPS New Mexico
35°10′N 106°46′W / 35.16°N 106.76°W / 35.16; -106.76 (Petroglyph)
01990-06-27 June 27, 1990 This monument protects a variety of cultural and natural resources, including five volcanic cones, hundreds of archeological sites and an estimated 25,000 images carved by native peoples and early Spanish settlers. It lies on West Mesa, a volcanic basalt escarpment.[82]
Pinnacles PinnaclesParkView.jpg NPS California
36°29′N 121°10′W / 36.48°N 121.16°W / 36.48; -121.16 (Pinnacles)
01908-01-16 January 16, 1908 Known for the namesake eroded leftovers of half of an extinct volcano, it is popular for its rock climbing.[83]
Pipe Spring Pisp fort.jpg NPS Arizona
36°52′N 112°44′W / 36.86°N 112.73°W / 36.86; -112.73 (Pipe Spring)
01923-05-31 May 31, 1923 Rich with American Indian, early explorer and Mormon pioneer history, this site shows Ancestral Puebloans and Kaibab Paiute Indian and pioneer life in the Old West, including the cabin where explorer John Wesley Powell's survey crew stayed in 1871. The water of Pipe Spring, discovered in 1858, made it possible for plants, animals, and people to live in this dry desert region.[84]
Pipestone Pipe quarry 01.jpg NPS Minnesota
44°01′N 96°20′W / 44.01°N 96.33°W / 44.01; -96.33 (Pipestone)
01937-08-25 August 25, 1937 This monument preserves traditional catlinite quarries used to make ceremonial peace pipes, vitally important to traditional Plains Indian culture. The quarries are sacred to the Sioux and Sioux and were neutral territory where all tribes could quarry the stone.[85]
Pompeys Pillar Pompeys pillar boardwalk.jpg BLM Montana
45°59′24″N 108°00′04″W / 45.99°N 108.001°W / 45.99; -108.001 (Pompeys Pillar)
01966-10-15 October 15, 1966 Pompeys Pillar is a 150-foot (46 m) sandstone pillar from the late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation next to the Yellowstone River. It has an abundance of Native American petroglyphs, as well as the signature of William Clark, who named the formation after Sacagawea's infant son.[86]
Poverty Point Poverty point 1938 USACE-3.jpg NPS [87] Louisiana
32°38′N 91°25′W / 32.63°N 91.41°W / 32.63; -91.41 (Poverty Point)
01988-10-31 October 31, 1988 Poverty Point is a prehistoric archeological site that dates from between 1650 and 700 BC and consisting of six earthen rings and seven mounds. The diameter of the outside ridge is 0.75 miles (1.21 km), and the largest mound rises 51 feet (16 m).[88]
Prehistoric Trackways Prehistoric-trackways-01.gif BLM New Mexico
32°21′N 106°54′W / 32.35°N 106.9°W / 32.35; -106.9 (Prehistoric Trackways)
02009-03-30 March 30, 2009 Prehistoric Trackways contains fossilized footprints of numerous Paleozoic amphibians, reptiles, and insects, as well as fossilized plants and petrified wood dating back approximately 280 million years. (Public Law No. 111-11)
President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home Lincoln Cottage 2007.jpg AFRH District of Columbia
38°56′30″N 77°00′42″W / 38.9416°N 77.0117°W / 38.9416; -77.0117 (President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home)
02000-07-07 July 7, 2000 President Abraham Lincoln and his family resided seasonally on the grounds of the United States Soldiers' and Airmen's Home, which was founded in 1851 for homeless and disabled war veterans. The home is co-managed by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.[89]
Rainbow Bridge Utah Rainbow Arch.jpg NPS Utah
37°05′N 110°58′W / 37.08°N 110.96°W / 37.08; -110.96 (Rainbow Bridge)
01910-05-30 May 30, 1910 One of the largest in the world, Rainbow Bridge is the most famous example of a natural bridge as well as the most accessible. It stands 290 feet (88 m) tall and spans 275 feet (84 m) wide; the top of the bridge is 42 feet (13 m) thick and 33 feet (10 m) wide. It was made from sandstone formed during the Triassic and the Jurassic periods.[90]
Rose Atoll Marine Nwrroseatollside320.gif FWS American Samoa
14°33′S 168°32′W / 14.55°S 168.54°W / -14.55; -168.54 (Rose Atoll Marine)
02009-01-06 January 6, 2009 This marine monument consists of the two small islands of Rose Atoll, a lagoon, and a coral reef east of American Samoa. It is the southernmost point in the U.S..[69][91]
Russell Cave Russel Cave Entrance RUCA9323.jpg NPS Alabama
34°58′N 85°48′W / 34.97°N 85.80°W / 34.97; -85.80 (Russell Cave)
01961-05-11 May 11, 1961 Donated by the National Geographic Society, the cave's exceptionally large main entrance was used as a shelter by prehistoric Indians from the earliest known human settlement in the southeastern United States. The rock from which Russell Cave was formed over 300 million years ago at the bottom of an inland sea that covers the region.[92]
Salinas Pueblo Missions Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument ruins.jpg NPS New Mexico
34°16′N 106°04′W / 34.26°N 106.06°W / 34.26; -106.06 (Salinas Pueblo Missions)
01909-11-01 November 1, 1909 Formerly known as Gran Quivira National Monument, it is where Native American trade communities of Tiwa- and Tompiro-speaking Puebloans lived when Spanish Franciscan missionaries made contact in the 17th century. What remains are the ruins of four mission churches, at Quarai, Abó, and Gran Quivira, and the partially excavated pueblo of Las Humanas.[93]
Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains 283.jpg BLM, USFS California
33°48′N 116°42′W / 33.80°N 116.70°W / 33.80; -116.70 (Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains)
02000-10-24 October 24, 2000 This monument preserves large portions of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto ranges, the northernmost of the Peninsular Ranges. Parts are within San Bernardino National Forest and the California Desert Conservation Area.[94][95]
Scotts Bluff Saddlerock Scotts-Bluff NM Nebraska USA.jpg NPS Nebraska
41°50′N 103°42′W / 41.83°N 103.70°W / 41.83; -103.70 (Scotts Bluff)
01919-12-12 December 12, 1919 Scotts Bluff is an important 19th century geologic formation and landmark on the Oregon Trail and Mormon Trail. It contains multiple bluffs on the south side of the North Platte River, but it is named after a prominent bluff called Scotts Bluff which rises more than 830 feet (250 m) above the plains at its highest point. The monument is composed of five rock formations named Crown Rock, Dome Rock, Eagle Rock, Saddle Rock, and Sentinel Rock.[96]
Sonoran Desert Son des 52697.jpg BLM Arizona
33°00′N 112°28′W / 33.00°N 112.46°W / 33.00; -112.46 (Sonoran Desert)
02001-01-17 January 17, 2001 This monument protects a small portion of the Sonoran Desert. It is home to several federally-listed endangered species and also has three wilderness areas, many significant archeological and historic sites, and remnants of several important historic trails.[97]
Statue of Liberty Statue of Liberty, NY.jpg NPS New York, New Jersey
40°41′N 74°02′W / 40.69°N 74.04°W / 40.69; -74.04 (Statue of Liberty)
01924-10-15 October 15, 1924 This iconic statue, built in 1886 on Liberty Island and 151 feet (46 m) tall, commemorates the centennial of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence and is a gesture of friendship from France to the U.S. Liberty Enlighening the World is a symbol of welcoming immigrants to the U.S. and is listed as a World Heritage Site. Ellis Island, where 12 million immigrants entering the U.S. passed through, is included in the monument.[98]
Sunset Crater Volcano SUCR2262.jpg NPS Arizona
35°22′N 111°30′W / 35.36°N 111.50°W / 35.36; -111.50 (Sunset Crater Volcano)
01930-05-30 May 30, 1930 Sunset Crater is the youngest in a string of volcanoes in the San Francisco volcanic field that is related to the nearby San Francisco Peaks. Final volcanic activity in the 13th century painted the upper portion of the cone with bright red and orange rocks, giving the volcano its name.[99]
Timpanogos Cave Timpanogos Cave.gif NPS Utah
40°26′N 111°43′W / 40.44°N 111.71°W / 40.44; -111.71 (Timpanogos Cave)
01922-10-14 October 14, 1922 The Timpanogos cave system is in the Wasatch Range in the American Fork Canyon. Three main chambers are accessible: Hansen Cave, Middle Cave, and Timpanogos Cave. Many colorful cave features or speleothems can be seen, including helictites, cave bacon, cave columns, flowstone, cave popcorn, and cave drapery.[100]
Tonto Tonto National Monument Arizona.jpg NPS Arizona
33°39′N 111°05′W / 33.65°N 111.09°W / 33.65; -111.09 (Tonto)
01907-10-21 October 21, 1907 Lying on the northeastern edge of the Sonoran Desert along the Salt River, Tonto preserves two cliff dwellings that were occupied by the Salado culture during the 13th to 15th centuries. The monument is surrounded by Tonto National Forest.[101]
Tuzigoot Tuzi pueblo01.jpg NPS Arizona
34°47′N 112°02′W / 34.79°N 112.04°W / 34.79; -112.04 (Tuzigoot)
01939-07-25 July 25, 1939 Tuzigoot preserves a two- to three-story pueblo ruin on the summit of a limestone and sandstone ridge in the Verde Valley. It was built by the Sinagua people between 1125 and 1400.[102]
Upper Missouri River Breaks Missouri River breaks.jpg BLM Montana
47°47′N 109°01′W / 47.78°N 109.02°W / 47.78; -109.02 (Upper Missouri River Breaks)
02001-01-17 January 17, 2001 A series of badland areas characterized by rock outcroppings, steep bluffs and grassy plains along the 149-mile (240 km) Upper Missouri National Wild and Scenic River in central Montana, The Breaks is home to at least 60 mammal species and hundreds of bird species. Charles Marion Russell often painted here, and Lewis and Clark traveled on this pathway.[103]
Vermilion Cliffs Vermilion Cliffs1.jpg BLM Arizona
36°49′N 111°44′W / 36.81°N 111.74°W / 36.81; -111.74 (Vermilion Cliffs)
02000-11-09 November 9, 2000 Steep eroded escarpments consisting primarily of sandstone, siltstone, limestone and shale rise as much as 3,000 feet (910 m) above their base. These sedimentary rocks have been deeply eroded for millions of years, exposing hundreds of layers of richly colored rock strata. The monument protects Paria Plateau, Vermilion Cliffs, Coyote Buttes and Paria Canyon.[104]
Virgin Islands Coral Reef VICR hurricane hole.jpg NPS Virgin Islands
18°19′N 64°43′W / 18.31°N 64.72°W / 18.31; -64.72 (Virgin Islands Coral Reef)
02001-01-17 January 17, 2001 These coral reefs, sandy bottoms, seagrass beds, and mangrove forests are in a 3-mile (4.8 km) belt that surrounds St John, VI.[105]
Walnut Canyon WalnutCanyonNorthWall.jpg NPS Arizona
35°10′N 111°31′W / 35.17°N 111.51°W / 35.17; -111.51 (Walnut Canyon)
01915-11-30 November 30, 1915 Walnut Canyon protects 25 cliff dwelling rooms constructed by the Sinagua people. It lies on the Colorado Plateau and cuts through the Permian Kaibab Limestone, which exposes the Toroweap Formation and Coconino Sandstone.[106]
White Sands Dunes as White Sands NM.jpg NPS New Mexico
32°47′N 106°10′W / 32.78°N 106.17°W / 32.78; -106.17 (White Sands)
01933-07-25 July 25, 1933 Located in the mountain-ringed Tularosa Basin valley area, White Sands consists of the southern part of a 275 square miles (710 km2) field of white sand dunes composed of gypsum crystals. It is completely within the White Sands Missile Range and is subject to closure when tests are conducted.[107]
World War II Valor in the Pacific USS Arizona.JPG NPS, FWS Hawaii, Alaska, California 02008-12-05 December 5, 2008 Valor in the Pacific encompasses nine sites in three states associated with World War II: The Attack on Pearl Harbor, including the USS Arizona, Utah, and Oklahoma memorials in Hawaii; the Aleutian Islands Campaign on Attu Island, Kiska Island, and Atka Island in Alaska; and the Japanese American internment at Tule Lake War Relocation Center in California.[108][109]
Wupatki Wukoki Ruins.jpeg NPS Arizona
35°34′N 111°23′W / 35.56°N 111.38°W / 35.56; -111.38 (Wupatki)
01924-12-09 December 9, 1924 Many settlement sites built by the Sinagua, Cohonina, and Kayenta Anasazi are scattered throughout the monument. About 2000 Ancient Pueblo People moved here to farm after an 11th century eruption of Sunset Crater.[110]
Yucca House Yucca-House-NM.jpg NPS Colorado
37°15′N 108°41′W / 37.25°N 108.69°W / 37.25; -108.69 (Yucca House)
01919-12-19 December 19, 1919 Designated a research national monument, it is a large, unexcavated Ancestral Puebloan archeological site. The site is one of many Anasazi (Ancestral Pueblo) village sites located in the Montezuma Valley occupied between AD 900 and 1300.[111]

See also


  1. ^ 16 U.S.C. § 431 § 432, and § 433. U.S. Code collection. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on 11 February 2009.
  2. ^ Righter, Robert W. (March 5, 2005). "National Monuments to National Parks:". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  3. ^ a b "Devils Tower National Monument". National Park Service. October 03, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  4. ^ "National Monument Proclamations under the Antiquities Act". National Park Service. January 16, 2003. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  5. ^ "Bush establishes 3 marine monuments in Pacific". International Herald Tribune. January 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  6. ^ "Admiralty Island National Monument". USDA Forest Service. November 21, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  7. ^ "African Burial Ground National Monument". National Park Service. January 07, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  8. ^ "Agate Fossil Beds National Monument". National Park Service. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  9. ^ "Agua Fria NM". Bureau of Land Management. February 21, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  10. ^ "Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument". National Park Service. February 29, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  11. ^ "Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve". National Park Service. September 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  12. ^ "Aztec Ruins National Monument". National Park Service. March 04, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  13. ^ "Bandelier National Monument". National Park Service. January 06, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  14. ^ "Bandelier CCC Historic District". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  15. ^ "Booker T. Washington National Monument". National Park Service. July 04, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  16. ^ "Buck Island Reef National Monument". National Park Service. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  17. ^ "Cabrillo National Monument". National Park Service. August 04, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  18. ^ "California Coastal National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. January 05, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  19. ^ "Canyon de Chelly National Monument". National Park Service. June 04, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  20. ^ "Canyons of the Ancients National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. November 25, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  21. ^ "Cape Krusenstern National Monument". National Park Service. July 02, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  22. ^ "Capulin Volcano National Monument". National Park Service. October 29, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  23. ^ "Carrizo Plain National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. December 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  24. ^ "Casa Grande Ruins". National Park Service. January 08, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  25. ^ "Cascade–Siskiyou National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  26. ^ "Castillo de San Marcos National Monument". National Park Service. March 04, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  27. ^ "Castle Clinton National Monument". National Park Service. November 05, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  28. ^ "Cedar Breaks National Monument". National Park Service. December 19, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  29. ^ "Capulin Chiricahua National Monument". National Park Service. May 19, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  30. ^ "Colorado National Monument". National Park Service. January 18, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  31. ^ "Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve". National Park Service. January 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  32. ^ "Craters of the Moon National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. November 04, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  33. ^ "Devils Postpile National Monument". National Park Service. October 31, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  34. ^ "Dinosaur National Monument". National Park Service. January 18, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  35. ^ "Effigy Mounds National Monument". National Park Service. January 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  36. ^ "El Malpais National Monument". National Park Service. October 21, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  37. ^ "El Morro National Monument". National Park Service. October 21, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  38. ^ "Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument". National Park Service. December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  39. ^ "Fort Frederica National Monument". National Park Service. November 12, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  40. ^ "Fort Matanzas National Monument". National Park Service. February 29, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  41. ^ "Fort McHenry National Monument". National Park Service. January 05, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  42. ^ "Fort Monroe National Monument". National Park Service. November 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  43. ^ "Fort Pulaski National Monument". National Park Service. December 26, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  44. ^ "Fort Stanwix National Monument". National Park Service. December 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  45. ^ "Fort Sumter National Monument". National Park Service. January 08, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  46. ^ "Fort Union National Monument". National Park Service. September 03, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  47. ^ "Fossil Butte National Monument". National Park Service. November 04, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  48. ^ "George Washington Birthplace National Monument". National Park Service. March 26, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  49. ^ "George Washington Carver National Monument". National Park Service. October 02, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  50. ^ "Sequoia National Forest". USDA Forest Service. January 18, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  51. ^ "Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument". National Park Service. September 08, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  52. ^ "Governors Island National Monument". National Park Service. October 24, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  53. ^ "Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument". National Park Service. May 07, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  54. ^ "Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. April 28, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  55. ^ "Grand Portage National Monument". National Park Service. July 14, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  56. ^ "Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. January 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  57. ^ "Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument". National Park Service. January 06, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  58. ^ "Hanford Reach National Monument". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  59. ^ "Hohokam Pima National Monument". National Park Service. June 15, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  60. ^ "Homestead National National Monument". National Park Service. January 02, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  61. ^ "Hovenweep National National Monument". National Park Service. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  62. ^ "Grand Staircase-Ironwood Forest National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. September 15, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  63. ^ "Jewel Cave National Monument". National Park Service. January 12, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  64. ^ "John Day Fossil Beds National Monument". National Park Service. December 29, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  65. ^ "Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. January 08, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  66. ^ "Lava Beds National Monument". National Park Service. January 18, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  67. ^ "Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument". National Park Service. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  68. ^ "Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument" (PDF). The White House: President George W. Bush. January 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  69. ^ a b c "Marine National Monument maps" (PDF). L. A. Times. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  70. ^ "Misty Fiords National Monument". USDA Forest Service. August 07, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  71. ^ "Montezuma Castle National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  72. ^ "Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument". US Forest Service. January 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  73. ^ "Muir Woods National Monument". National Park Service. December 30, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  74. ^ "Natural Bridges National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  75. ^ "Navajo National Monument". National Park Service. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  76. ^ "Newberry National Volcanic Monument". USDA Forest Service. September 18, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  77. ^ "Ocmulgee National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  78. ^ "Oregon Caves National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  79. ^ "Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument". National Park Service. August 31, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  80. ^ "Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. January 06, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  81. ^ "Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. January 22, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  82. ^ "Petroglyph National Monument". National Park Service. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  83. ^ "Pinnacles National Monument". National Park Service. January 09, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  84. ^ "Pipe Spring National Monument". National Park Service. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  85. ^ "Pipestone National Monument". National Park Service. March 28, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  86. ^ "Welcome to Pompeys Pillar National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. January 05, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  87. ^ As of 2009, Poverty Point is a public park owned and operated by the state of Louisiana. See Poverty Point#History
  88. ^ "Poverty Point National Monument". National Park Service. April 14, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  89. ^ "President Lincoln's Cottage at the Soldiers' Home". National Trust for Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  90. ^ "Rainbow Bridge National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  91. ^ "Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument" (PDF). The White House: President George W. Bush. January 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  92. ^ "Russell Cave National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  93. ^ "Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  94. ^ "Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. October 31, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  95. ^ "Santa Rosa/San Jacinto Mountains National Monument". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  96. ^ "Scotts Bluff National Monument". National Park Service. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  97. ^ "Sonoran Desert National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. January 05, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  98. ^ "Statue of Liberty National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  99. ^ "Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  100. ^ "Timpanogos Cave National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  101. ^ "Tonto National Monument". National Park Service. November 09, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  102. ^ "Tuzigoot National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  103. ^ "Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. March 11, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  104. ^ "Vermilion Cliffs National Monument". Bureau of Land Management. September 25, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  105. ^ "Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  106. ^ "Walnut Canyon National Monument". National Park Service. September 29, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  107. ^ "White Sands National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  108. ^ "World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  109. ^ "World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. December 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  110. ^ "Wupatki National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  111. ^ "Yucca House National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 

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