For other uses, see Antidote (disambiguation).
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. The term ultimately derives from the Greek αντιδιδοναι antididonai, "given against".
The antidotes for some particular toxins are manufactured by injecting the toxin into an animal in small doses and extracting the resulting antibodies from the host animals' blood. This results in an antivenom that can be used to counteract poison produced by certain species of snakes, spiders, and other venomous animals. A number of venoms lack a viable antivenom, and a bite or sting from an animal producing such a toxin often results in death. Some animal venoms, especially those produced by arthropods (e.g. certain spiders, scorpions, bees, etc.) are only potentially lethal when they provoke allergic reactions and induce anaphylactic shock; as such, there is no "antidote" for these venoms because it is not a form of poisoning and anaphylactic shock can be treated (e.g., by the use of epinephrine).
Some other toxins have no known antidote. For example, the poison aconitine, a highly poisonous alkaloid derived from various aconite species has no antidote, and as a result is often fatal if it enters the human body in sufficient quantities.
Ingested poisons are frequently treated by the oral administration of activated charcoal, which adsorbs the poison and flushes it from the digestive tract, thereby removing a large part of the toxin. Poisons which are injected into the body (such as those from bites or stings from venomous animals) are usually treated by the use of a constriction band which limits the flow of lymph and/or blood to the area, thus slowing circulation of the poison around the body. This should not be confused with use of a tourniquet which cuts off blood flow completely - often leading to the loss of the limb.
List of antidotes
Agent Indication Activated charcoal with sorbital used for many oral toxins Atropine organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, nerve agents, some mushrooms Beta Blocker theophylline Calcium chloride calcium channel blockers, black widow spider bites Calcium gluconate hydrofluoric acid Chelators such as EDTA, dimercaprol (BAL), penicillamine, and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, succimer) heavy metal poisoning Cyanide antidote (amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, or thiosulfate) cyanide poisoning Cyproheptadine serotonin syndrome Deferoxamine mesylate Iron poisoning Digoxin Immune Fab antibody (Digibind and Digifab) digoxin poisoning Diphenhydramine hydrochloride and benztropine mesylate Extrapyramidal reactions associated with antipsychotic Ethanol or fomepizole ethylene glycol poisoning and methanol poisoning Flumazenil benzodiazepine poisoning Glucagon beta blocker poisoning and calcium channel blocker poisoning 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) carbon monoxide poisoning and cyanide poisoning Insulin beta blocker poisoning and calcium channel blocker poisoning Leucovorin methotrexate and trimethoprim Methylene blue treatment of conditions that cause methemoglobinemia Naloxone hydrochloride opioid poisoning N-acetylcysteine Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning Octreotide oral hypoglycemic agents Pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) organophosphate insecticides Protamine sulfate Heparin poisoning Prussian blue Thallium poisoning Physostigmine sulfate anticholinergic poisoning Pyridoxine Isoniazid poisoning, ethylene glycol Phytomenadione (vitamin K) and fresh frozen plasma warfarin poisoning and indanedione Sodium bicarbonate ASA, TCAs with a wide QRS
- Universal antidote
Antidotes (V03AB) Nervous systemAtropine# • Biperiden • Diazepam# • Oximes (Pralidoxime, Obidoxime) • see also CholinesteraseDiprenorphine • Doxapram • Nalorphine • Naloxone# • Naltrexone • NalmefeneBarbiturate overdoseBemegride • EthamivanBenzodiazepine overdoseGHB overdoseReversal of neuromuscular blockade Cardiovascular OtherParacetamol toxicity (Acetaminophen)Toxic metals (cadmium, mercury, lead, thallium)Edetates • Dimercaprol# • Prussian blue#OtherPrednisolone/promethazine • oxidizing agent (potassium permanganate) • iodine-131 (Potassium iodide) • Methylthioninium chloride# EmeticIpecacuanha (Syrup of ipecac) • Copper sulfate#WHO-EM. ‡Withdrawn from market. Clinical trials: †Phase III. §Never to phase III Toxicology Fields Concepts TreatmentsAntidote · Gastric lavage · Whole bowel irrigation · Activated carbon · Cathartic · Hemodialysis · Chelation therapy · Hemoperfusion IncidentsBradford · Minamata · Niigata · Alexander Litvinenko · Bhopal · 2007 pet food recalls · Seveso disaster · List of poisonings Related topicsCategories:
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.