- Outline of chemistry
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry:
Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions. Chemistry is centrally concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds.
Nature of chemistry
Chemistry can be described as all of the following:
- An academic discipline: one with academic departments, curricula and degrees; national and international societies; and specialized journals.
- A scientific field (a branch of science) – widely-recognized category of specialized expertise within science, and typically embodies its own terminology and nomenclature. Such a field will usually be represented by one or more scientific journals, where peer reviewed research is published. There are several geophysics-related scientific journals.
- A natural science – one that seeks to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world using empirical and scientific method.
Branches of chemistry
- Analytical chemistry – analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Analytical chemistry incorporates standardized experimental methods in chemistry. These methods may be used in all subdisciplines of chemistry, excluding purely theoretical chemistry.
- Biochemistry – study of the chemicals, chemical reactions and chemical interactions that take place in living organisms. Biochemistry and organic chemistry are closely related, as in medicinal chemistry or neurochemistry. Biochemistry is also associated with molecular biology and genetics.
- Inorganic chemistry – study of the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. The distinction between organic and inorganic disciplines is not absolute and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry.
- Materials chemistry – preparation, characterization, and understanding of substances with a useful function. The field is a new breadth of study in graduate programs, and it integrates elements from all classical areas of chemistry with a focus on fundamental issues that are unique to materials. Primary systems of study include the chemistry of condensed phases (solids, liquids, polymers) and interfaces between different phases.
- Neurochemistry – study of neurochemicals; including transmitters, peptides, proteins, lipids, sugars, and nucleic acids; their interactions, and the roles they play in forming, maintaining, and modifying the nervous system.
- Nuclear chemistry – study of how subatomic particles come together and make nuclei. Modern Transmutation is a large component of nuclear chemistry, and the table of nuclides is an important result and tool for this field.
- Organic chemistry – study of the structure, properties, composition, mechanisms, and reactions of organic compounds. An organic compound is defined as any compound based on a carbon skeleton.
- Physical chemistry – study of the physical and fundamental basis of chemical systems and processes. In particular, the energetics and dynamics of such systems and processes are of interest to physical chemists. Important areas of study include chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, and more recently, astrochemistry. Physical chemistry has large overlap with molecular physics. Physical chemistry involves the use of infinitesimal calculus in deriving equations. It is usually associated with quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry. Physical chemistry is a distinct discipline from chemical physics, but again, there is very strong overlap.
- Theoretical chemistry – study of chemistry via fundamental theoretical reasoning (usually within mathematics or physics). In particular the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry is called quantum chemistry. Since the end of the Second World War, the development of computers has allowed a systematic development of computational chemistry, which is the art of developing and applying computer programs for solving chemical problems. Theoretical chemistry has large overlap with (theoretical and experimental) condensed matter physics and molecular physics.
- atmospheric chemistry
- chemical engineering
- chemical biology
- environmental chemistry
- flavor chemistry
- flow chemistry
- green chemistry
- history of chemistry
- hydrogenation chemistry
- marine chemistry
- materials science
- mathematical chemistry
- medicinal chemistry
- molecular biology
- molecular mechanics
- natural product chemistry
- organometallic chemistry
photochemistry, physical organic chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, radiochemistry, solid-state chemistry, sonochemistry, supramolecular chemistry, surface chemistry, synthetic chemistry, thermochemistry, and many others.
Properties and Changes
- Extensive property
- Intensive property
Physical Properties and Changes
Chemical Properties and Changes
Classification of Matter
- Pure substance
- Pure substance
Foundations of Atomic Theory
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Five main points of Dalton's atomic theory
- Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.
- Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties.
- Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.
- Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
- In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.
Modern Atomic Theory
- Cathode-ray tube
- Plum pudding model
- Atomic nucleus
- Geiger–Marsden experiment
- Nuclear forces
- Atomic radius
Relating Mass to Numbers of Atoms
Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms
The Periodic Law
History of the Periodic Table
Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
Electron Configuration and Periodic Properties
- Valence electrons
- Ionic bonding
- Covalent bonding
- Non-polar covalent bond
- Chemical polarity
- Polar-covalent bond
Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds
- Molecular compound
- Chemical formula
- Molecular formula
- Bond length
- Bond energy
- Octet rule
- Electron dot notation
- Lewis structures
- Structural formula
- Single bond
- Double bond
- Triple bond
- Multiple bond
Ionic Bonding and Compounds
Chemical Formulas and Compounds
Chemical Equations and Reactions
States of Matter
Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties
Acids and Bases
Acid-Base Titration and pH
Concepts by subject area
- Apparatus : Bunsen burner — Calorimeter — Colorimeter — Burette — Thermometer
- Atomic structure : Atom — Ion — Electron — Proton — Neutron — Atomic orbital — Molecular orbital — Chemical element — Valence — Atomic nucleus — Isotope
- Bonding : Chemical bond — Ionic bond — Covalent bond — Metallic bond — Hydrogen bond — Intermolecular force — Dipole — Electron pair — Unpaired electron
- Chemical reaction — Chemical formula — Structural formula — Mole — Stoichiometry — Chemical nomenclature — Chemical equilibrium — Reversible reaction — Electrophile — Nucleophile — Redox
- Chemical techniques : Titration — Distillation — Chromatography — Reflux — Buffer solution — Filtration — Hydrolysis — Condensation reaction
- Important Chemical substances: Matter — Water — Ammonia — Benzene — Phenol
- Mixtures and Solutions: Concentration — Vapour pressure — Raoult's law — Partial pressure — solvation
- Periodic table : Periodicity — Group 1 elements — Group 2 elements — Transition metal — Group 5 elements — Group 6 elements — Halogen — Noble gas — s block — d block — p block — f block
- Properties : pH — electronegativity
- Structure : Gas — Liquid — Molecule — Solid — Isomer — Allotropy — Crystal — Complex (chemistry) — Ligand — Chemical compound — Stereochemistry
Concepts by branch
- Analytical chemistry :
- Electrochemistry : Electrochemical cell — Oxidation — Reduction — Electrode potential — Oxidation number — Electrolysis — Electrolytic cell — Electrolyte — Nernst equation
- Spectroscopy : atomic absorption spectroscopy — Auger electron spectroscopy — electromagnetic spectroscopy — fluorescence spectroscopy — infrared spectroscopy — mass spectrometer — Mössbauer spectroscopy — nuclear magnetic resonance — neutron activation analysis — Raman spectroscopy — UV/Vis spectrophotometry — X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy —
- Inorganic chemistry : Alkali — Acid — Base — Metals — Nonmetals — Salt — pH
- Solid state chemistry
- Organic chemistry : Functional group — Hydrocarbon — Alkane — Alkene — Halogenoalkane - Alcohol — Ether — Aldehyde — Ketone - Carboxylic acid — Ester — Alicyclic compound — Amine — Amide — Amino acid — Polymer — Polymerization — Organic nomenclature — Arene — Phenol — Peptide
- Physical chemistry :
- Kinetics: Catalyst — Enzyme — Arrhenius equation
- Thermochemistry : Enthalpy — Activation energy — Entropy
- Computational chemistry : Molecular modeling — Molecular dynamics — Molecular mechanics — Quantum methods — Combinatorial chemistry — Cheminformatics — Bioinformatics
- Quantum chemistry : Slater determinant - Self-consistent field — Hartree-Fock — Moller-Plesset - Electron correlation - Semiempirical methods
- Biochemistry : Protein — Carbohydrate — Fat — Nucleic Acid
- Main article: History of chemistry
- ^ "What is Chemistry?". Chemweb.ucc.ie. http://chemweb.ucc.ie/what_is_chemistry.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
- ^ Chemistry. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
- ^ Herbst, Eric (May 12, 2005). "Chemistry of Star-Forming Regions". Journal of Physical Chemistry A 109 (18): 4017–4029. doi:10.1021/jp050461c. PMID 16833724.
- International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
- IUPAC Nomenclature Home Page, see especially the "Gold Book" containing definitions of standard chemical terms
- Interactive Mind Map of Chemistry
- / Chemical energetics
OutlinesGeneral reference · Culture and the arts · Geography and places · Health and fitness · History and events · Mathematics and logic · Natural and physical sciences · People and self · Philosophy and thinking · Religion and belief systems · Society and social sciences · Technology and applied sciences Branches of Chemistry Physical chemistry Organic chemistry Inorganic chemistry Others Functional groups
Acetyl · Acetoxy · Acryloyl · Acyl · Alcohol · Aldehyde · Alkane · Alkene · Alkyne · Alkoxy group · Amide · Amine · Azo compound · Benzene derivative · Carboxylic acid · Cyanate · Disulfide · Ester · Ether · Epoxide · Haloalkane · Hydrazone · Hydroxyl · Imine · Isocyanate · Isonitrile · Isothiocyanate · Ketone · Methine · Nitrile · Nitro compound · Nitroso compound · Organophosphorus · Oxime · Peroxide · Phosphonous and Phosphonic acid · Pyridine derivative · Sulfone · Sulfonic acid · Sulfoxide · Thiocyanate · Thioester · Thioether · Thiol · UreaSee also Chemical classification
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