Ethers ( //) are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R–O–R'. A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as "ether" (CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3). Ethers are common in organic chemistry and pervasive in biochemistry, as they are common linkages in carbohydrates and lignin.
- 1 Structure and bonding
- 2 Nomenclature
- 3 Physical properties
- 4 Reactions
- 5 Synthesis
- 6 Important ethers
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Structure and bonding
Ethers feature C-O-C linkage defined by a bond angle of about 110° and C-O distances of about 140 pm. The barrier to rotation about the C-O bonds is low. The bonding of oxygen in ethers, alcohols, and water is similar. In the language of valence bond theory, the hybridization at oxygen is sp3.
Oxygen is more electronegative than carbon, thus the hydrogens alpha to ethers are more acidic than in simple hydrocarbons. They are far less acidic than hydrogens alpha to ketones, however.
- Depending on the groups at R and Ŕ, ether is classified into two types:
1) Simple ethers or symmetrical ethers 2) Mixed ethers or unsymmetrical ethers
The names for simple ethers (i.e. those with none or few other functional groups) are a composite of the two substituents followed by "ether." Ethyl methyl ether (CH3OC2H5), diphenylether (C6H5OC6H5). IUPAC rules are often not followed for simple ethers. As for other organic compounds, very common ethers acquired names before rules for nomenclature were formalized. Diethyl ether is simply called "ether," but was once called sweet oil of vitriol. Methyl phenyl ether is anisole, because it was originally found in aniseed. The aromatic ethers include furans. Acetals (α-alkoxy ethers R-CH(-OR)-O-R) are another class of ethers with characteristic properties.
In the IUPAC nomenclature system, ethers are named using the general formula "alkoxyalkane", for example CH3-CH2-O-CH3 is methoxyethane. If the ether is part of a more complex molecule, it is described as an alkoxy substituent, so -OCH3 would be considered a "methoxy-" group. The simpler alkyl radical is written in front, so CH3-O-CH2CH3 would be given as methoxy(CH3O)ethane(CH2CH3). The nomenclature of describing the two alkyl groups and appending "ether", e.g. "ethyl methyl ether" in the example above, is a trivial usage.
Polyethers are compounds with more than one ether group.
Polyether generally refers to polymers which contain the ether functional group in their main chain. The term glycol is reserved for low to medium range molar mass polymer when the nature of the end-group, which is usually a hydroxyl group, still matters. The term "oxide" or other terms are used for high molar mass polymer when end-groups no longer affect polymer properties.
Name of the polymers with low to medium molar mass Name of the polymers with high molar mass Preparation Repeating unit Examples of trade names Paraformaldehyde Polyoxymethylene (POM) or polyacetal or polyformaldehyde Step-growth polymerisation of formaldehyde -CH2O- Delrin from DuPont Polyethylene glycol (PEG) Polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyoxyethylene (POE) Ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide -CH2CH2O- Carbowax from Dow Polypropylene glycol (PPG) Polypropylene oxide (PPO) ou polyoxypropylene) (POP) Anionic ring-opening polymerization of propylene oxide -CH2CH(CH3)O- Polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) or Polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) Polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) Acid-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of tetrahydrofuran -CH2CH2CH2CH2O- Terathane from Invista and PolyTHF from BASF
Ether molecules cannot form hydrogen bonds with each other, resulting in a relatively low boiling points compared to those of the analogous alcohols. The difference, however, in the boiling points of the ethers and their isometric alcohols becomes lower as the carbon chains become longer, as the van der Waals interactions of the extended carbon chain dominates over the presence of hydrogen bonding.
Ethers are slightly polar. The C-O-C bond angle in the functional group is about 110°, and the C-O dipoles do not cancel out. Ethers are more polar than alkenes but not as polar as alcohols, esters, or amides of comparable structure. However, the presence of two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atoms makes hydrogen bonding with water molecules possible.
Selected data about some alkyl ethers Ether Structure m.p. (°C) b.p. (°C) Solubility in 1 liter of H2O Dipole moment (D) Dimethyl ether CH3-O-CH3 -138.5 -23.0 70 g 1,30 Diethyl ether CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3 -116.3 34.4 69 g 1.14 Tetrahydrofuran O(CH2)4 -108.4 66.0 Miscible 1.74 Dioxane O(C2H4)2O 11.8 101.3 Miscible 0.45
Ethers in general are of low chemical reactivity, but they are more reactive than alkanes (epoxides, ketals, and acetals are unrepresentative classes of ethers and are discussed in separate articles). Important reactions are listed below.
Although ethers resist hydrolysis, they are cleaved by mineral acids such as hydrobromic acid and hydroiodic acid. Hydrogen chloride cleaves ethers only slowly. Methyl ethers typically afford methyl halides:
- ROCH3 + HBr → CH3Br + ROH
These reactions proceed via onium intermediates, i.e. [RO(H)CH3]+Br-.
Some ethers rapidly cleave with boron tribromide (even aluminium chloride is used in some cases) to give the alkyl bromide. Depending on the substituents, some ethers can be cleaved with a variety of reagents, e.g. strong base.
When stored in the presence of air or oxygen, ethers tend to form explosive peroxides, such as diethyl ether peroxide. The reaction is accelerated by light, metal catalysts, and aldehydes. In addition to avoiding storage conditions likely to form peroxides, it is recommended, when an ether is used as a solvent, not to distill it to dryness, as any peroxides that may have formed, being less volatile than the original ether, will become concentrated in the last few drops of liquid.
Ethers serve as Lewis bases and Bronsted bases. Strong acids protonate the oxygen to give "onium ions." For instance, diethyl ether forms a complex with boron trifluoride, i.e. diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2). Ethers also coordinate to Mg(II) center in Grignard reagents. Polyethers, including many antibiotics, cryptands, and crown ethers, bind alkali metal cations strongly.
This reactivity is akin to the tendency of ethers with alpha hydrogen atoms to form peroxides. Chlorine gives alpha-chloroethers.
Ethers can be prepared in the laboratory in several different ways.
Dehydration of alcohols
- 2 R-OH → R-O-R + H2O at high temperature
This direct reaction requires elevated temperatures (about 125 °C). The reaction is catalyzed by acids, usually sulfuric acid. The method is effective for generating symmetrical ethers, but not unsymmetrical ethers. Diethyl ether is produced from ethanol by this method. Cyclic ethers are readily generated by this approach. Such reactions must compete with dehydration of the alcohol:
- R-CH2-CH2(OH) → R-CH=CH2 + H2O
The dehydration route often requires conditions incompatible with delicate molecules. Several milder methods exist to produce ethers.
Williamson ether synthesis
Nucleophilic displacement of alkyl halides by alkoxides
- R-ONa + R'-X → R-O-R' + NaX
This reaction is called the Williamson ether synthesis. It involves treatment of a parent alcohol with a strong base to form the alkoxide, followed by addition of an appropriate aliphatic compound bearing a suitable leaving group (R-X). Suitable leaving groups (X) include iodide, bromide, or sulfonates. This method usually does not work well for aryl halides (e.g. bromobenzene (see Ullmann condensation below). Likewise, this method only gives the best yields for primary halides. Secondary and tertiary halides are prone to undergo E2 elimination on exposure to the basic alkoxide anion used in the reaction due to steric hindrance from the large alkyl groups.
In a related reaction, alkyl halides undergo nucleophilic displacement by phenoxides. The R-X cannot be used to react with the alcohol. However, phenols can be used to replace the alcohol, while maintaining the alkyl halide. Since phenols are acidic, they readily react with a strong base like sodium hydroxide to form phenoxide ions. The phenoxide ion will then substitute the -X group in the alkyl halide, forming an ether with an aryl group attached to it in a reaction with an SN2 mechanism.
- C6H5OH + OH- → C6H5-O- + H2O
- C6H5-O- + R-X → C6H5OR
The Ullmann condensation is similar to the Williamson method except that the substrate is an aryl halide. Such reactions generally require a catalyst, such as copper.
Electrophilic addition of alcohols to alkenes
Alcohols add to electrophilically activated alkenes.
- R2C=CR2 + R-OH → R2CH-C(-O-R)-R2
Acid catalysis is required for this reaction. Often, mercury trifluoroacetate (Hg(OCOCF3)2) is used as a catalyst for the reaction, geneating an ether with Markovnikov regiochemistry. Using similar reactions, tetrahydropyranyl ethers are used as protective groups for alcohols.
Preparation of epoxides
Epoxides are typically prepared by oxidation of alkenes. The most important epoxide in terms of industrial scale is ethylene oxide, which is produced by oxidation of ethylene with oxygen. Other epoxides are produced by one of two routes:
- By the oxidation of alkenes with a peroxyacid such as m-CPBA.
- By the base intramolecular nucleophilic substitution of a halohydrin.
Ethylene oxide The smallest cyclic ether. Dimethyl ether An aerosol spray propellant. A potential renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines with a cetane rating as high as 56-57. Diethyl ether A common low boiling solvent (b.p. 34.6°C), and an early anaesthetic. Used as starting fluid for diesel engines. Dimethoxyethane (DME) A high boiling solvent (b.p. 85°C): Dioxane A cyclic ether and high boiling solvent (b.p. 101.1°C). Tetrahydrofuran (THF) A cyclic ether, one of the most polar simple ethers that is used as a solvent. Anisole (methoxybenzene) An aryl ether and a major constituent of the essential oil of anise seed. Crown ethers Cyclic polyethers that are used as phase transfer catalysts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) A linear polyether, e.g. used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
- ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "ethers".
- ^ Wilhelm Heitmann, Günther Strehlke, Dieter Mayer "Ethers, Aliphatic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_023
- ^ J. F. W. McOmie and D. E. West (1973), "3,3'-Dihydroxylbiphenyl", Org. Synth., http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/orgsyn/prepContent.asp?prep=CV5P0412 ; Coll. Vol. 5: 412
- ILPI page about ethers.
- An Account of the Extraordinary Medicinal Fluid, called Aether, by M. Turner, circa 1788, from Project Gutenberg
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