Autoimmune disease

Autoimmune disease
Autoimmune diseases
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 D84.9, M35.9
ICD-9 279.4
OMIM 109100
DiseasesDB 28805
MedlinePlus 000816
MeSH D001327

Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body actually attacks its own cells. The immune system mistakes some part of the body as a pathogen and attacks it. This may be restricted to certain organs (e.g. in autoimmune thyroiditis) or involve a particular tissue in different places (e.g. Goodpasture's disease which may affect the basement membrane in both the lung and the kidney). The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression—medication which decreases the immune response.



For a disease to be regarded as an autoimmune disease, it needs to answer to Witebsky's postulates (first formulated by Ernst Witebsky and colleagues in 1957 and modified in 1994):[1][2]

  • Direct evidence from transfer of pathogenic antibody or pathogenic T cells
  • Indirect evidence based on reproduction of the autoimmune disease in experimental animals, and
  • Circumstantial evidence from clinical clues


It is possible to classify autoimmune diseases by corresponding type of hypersensitivity: type II, type III, or type IV. (No type of autoimmune disease mimics type I hypersensitivity.)[3]

There is an on-going discussion about when a disease should be considered autoimmune, leading to different criteria such as Witebsky's postulates.

Name: Accepted/suspected Hypersensitivity


Autoantibody Notes
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Accepted[4]
Addison's Disease interferon omega; transglutaminase; aromatic acid carboxylase; GAD; HAI; 17 hydroxylase; 21 hydroxylase
Agammaglobulinemia IGHM; IGLL1: CD79A; CD79B; BLNK; LRRC8A
Alopecia areata Accepted [5][6] T-cells
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Ankylosing Spondylitis Accepted [7][8][9] ANCA? CD8; HLA-B27
Antiphospholipid syndrome Accepted[4] anti-cardiolipin;anti pyruvate dehydrogenase; β2 glycoprotein I; phosphatidylserine; anti apoH; Annexin A5 HLA-DR7, HLA-B8, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3
Antisynthetase syndrome
Atopic allergy I
Atopic dermatitis I
Autoimmune aplastic anemia
Autoimmune cardiomyopathy Accepted
Autoimmune enteropathy
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Accepted II complement activation
Autoimmune hepatitis Accepted cell-mediated anti-mitochondrial antibodies; ANA; anti-smooth muscle antibodies, LKM-1; soluble liver antigen
Autoimmune inner ear disease Accepted [10]
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome Accepted TNFRSF6; defective Fas-CD95 apoptosis
Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy Accepted
Autoimmune pancreatitis Accepted ANA; anti-lactoferrin antibodiesanti-carbonic anhydrase antibodies; rheumatoid factor
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Accepted Unknown or multiple APS-1 see Addison's Disease
Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis Accepted
Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura Accepted anti gpIIb-IIIa or 1b-IX
Autoimmune urticaria Accepted [11]
Autoimmune uveitis Accepted HLAB-27?
Balo disease/Balo concentric sclerosis
Bechets Syndrome HLA-B51
Berger's disease IgA (elevated in 50% of patients), IgA (in mesangial deposits on kidney biopsy)
Bickerstaff's encephalitis Anti-GQ1b 2/3 patients similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome
Blau syndrome overlaps both sarcoidosis and granuloma annulare
Bullous pemphigoid IgG autoantibodies targeting the type XVII collagen component of hemidesmosomes [12]
Castleman's disease Over expression of IL-6
Celiac disease Accepted[13][14][15] IV?? Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies HLA-DQ8 and DQ2.5
Chagas disease Suspected[16]
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy Anti-ganglioside antibodies:anti-GM1, anti-GD1a, anti-GQ1b similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis LPIN2, D18S60,similar to Majeed syndrome
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Suspected[17] [18]
Churg-Strauss syndrome p-ANCA
Cicatricial pemphigoid anti-BP-1, anti BP-2 precipitates C3
Cogan syndrome
Cold agglutinin disease Accepted II IgM idiopathic or secondary to leukemia or infection
Complement component 2 deficiency
Contact Dermatitis III
Cranial arteritis aka Temporal arteritis; involves giant cells
CREST syndrome Anti-centromere_antibodies Anti-nuclear_antibodies
Crohns Disease (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted[4] IV Innate immunity; Th17; Th1; ATG16L1; CARD15;XBP1;
Cushing's Syndrome cortisol binding globulin?
Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis neutrophils
Dego's disease Vasculopathy
Dercum's disease Suspected Lipoid tissue.[19]
Dermatitis herpetiformis IgA; anti-epidermal transglutaminase antibodies
Dermatomyositis Accepted[20] histidine-tRNA anti-signal_recognition_peptide Anti-Mi-2 Anti-Jo1.[21] B- and T-cell perivascular inflammatory infiltrate on muscle biopsy
Diabetes mellitus type 1 Accepted[4] IV Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA), islet cell antibodies (ICA), and insulinoma-associated autoantibodies (IA-2), anti-insulin antibodies
Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-centromere and anti-scl70/anti-topoisomerase antibodies[22] COL1A2 and TGF-β1
Dressler's syndrome myocardial neo-antigens formed as a result of the MI
Drug-induced lupus anti-histone
Discoid lupus erythematosus III IL-2 and IFN-gamma>[23]
Eczema LEKTI,SPINK5,[24] filaggrin.,[25] Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Substance P.[26]
Endometriosis Suspected[27]
Enthesitis-related arthritis [28] . MMP3 [29] TRLR2, TLR4,[30] ERAP1[31]
Eosinophilic fasciitis Accepted
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis IgE IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF, eotaxin
Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita COL7A1
Erythema nodosum
Erthroblastosis fetalis II ABO, Rh, Kell antibodies mother's immune system attacks fetus
Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia
Evan's syndrome
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva ACVR1 Lymphocytes express increased BMP4
Fibrosing aveolitis aka Idiopathic_pulmonary_fibrosis SFTPA1, SFTPA2, TERT, and TERC.[32]
Gastritis serum antiparietal and anti-IF antibodies
Gastrointestinal pemphigoid Accepted
Giant cell arteritis macrophage giant cells
Glomerulonephritis Sometimes IgA see Buerger's Disease for IgA; Membranous glomerulonephritis for IgG; Membranoproliferative/mesangiocapillary GN (Complement activation); Goodpasture's syndrome; Wegener's granulomatosis
Goodpasture's syndrome Accepted[4] II Anti-Basement Membrane Collagen Type IV Protein
Graves' disease Accepted[4] II thyroid autoantibodies (TSHR-Ab) that activate the TSH-receptor (TSHR)
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) Accepted[4] IV Anti-ganglioside
Hashimoto's encephalopathy Accepted[4] IV alpha-enolase[33]
Hashimoto's thyroiditis Accepted[4] IV antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and/or thyroglobulin HLADR5, CTLA-4
Henoch-Schonlein purpura immunoglobulin A (IgA) and complement component 3 (C3)
Herpes gestationis aka Gestational Pemphigoid IgG and C3 misdirected antibodies intended to protect the placenta
Hidradenitis suppurativa Suspected[34]
Hypogammaglobulinemia IGHM, IGLL1, CD79A, BLNK, LRRC8A, CD79B
Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases a variant of multiple sclerosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis SFTPA1, SFTPA2, TERT, and TERC.[32]
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (See Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura) Accepted[4] II glycoproteins IIb-IIIa or Ib-IX, immunoglobulin G
IgA nephropathy III? IgA produced from marrow rather than MALT
Inclusion body myositis similar to polymyositis but does not respond to steroid therapy-activated T8 cells
Chronic Inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy anti-ganglioside antibodies similar to Guillain–Barré syndrome
Interstitial cystitis Suspected[35] Mast cells
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis aka Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis inconsistent ANA Rheumatoid_factor
Kawasaki's Disease Suspected ITPKC HLA-B51
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome voltage-gated calcium channels; Q-type_calcium_channel, synaptogagmin, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 HLA-DR3-B8
Leukocytoclastic vasculitis
Lichen planus
Lichen sclerosus
Linear IgA disease (LAD)
Lou Gehrig's disease (Also Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) VCP, ATXN2, OPTN, FIG4, TARDBP, ANG, VAPB, FUS, SETX,ALS2, SOD1
Lupoid hepatitis aka Autoimmune_hepatitis ANA and SMA,[36] LKM-1 , LKM-2 or LKM-3; antibodies against soluble liver antigen[37] [38](anti-SLA, anti-LP) no autoantibodies detected (~20%)[citation needed]
Lupus erythematosus Accepted[4] III Anti-nuclear antibodies [39] anti-Ro]].[40] Also, they are often present in Sjögren's syndrome.[41][42]
Majeed syndrome LPIN2
Ménière's disease III? major peripheral myelin protein P0 [43]
Microscopic polyangiitis p-ANCA myeloperoxidase binds to neutrophils causing them to degranulate and damages endothelium
Miller-Fisher syndrome see Guillain-Barre_Syndrome Accepted anti-GQ1b
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Accepted[4] anti-nuclear antibody anti-U1-RNP HLA-DR4
Morphea Suspected[44]
Mucha-Habermann disease aka Pityriasis_lichenoides_et_varioliformis_acuta T-cells
Multiple sclerosis Suspected IV PECAM-1 [45] Anti-Myelin Basic Protein
Myasthenia gravis Accepted[4] II nicotinic_acetylcholine_receptor MuSK_protein HA-B8 HLA-DR3 HLA-DR1
Myositis see Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis see Inclusion-body-myositis
Narcolepsy [46][47] Suspected[48] II? hypocretin or orexin[49] HLA-DQB1*0602 [50]
Neuromyelitis optica (Also Devic's Disease) II? NMO-IgG aquaporin 4.[51][52]
Neuromyotonia Suspected[53] II? voltage-gated potassium channels.[53]
Occular cicatricial pemphigoid II? BP-1, BP-2 C3 deposition
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome Suspected IV? Lymphocyte recruitment to CSF [54]
Ord thyroiditis
Palindromic rheumatism anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and antikeratin antibodies (AKA)[55]
PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus) Suspected II? antibodies against streptococcal infection serve as auto-antibodies
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration IV?[56] II? anti-Yo[57] (anti-cdr-2[58] in purkinje fibers) anti-Hu, anti-Tr, antiglutamate receptor
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Sometimes(?) complement attacks RBCs
Parry Romberg syndrome ANA
Parsonnage-Turner syndrome
Pars planitis
Pemphigus vulgaris Accepted[4] II Anti-Desmoglein 3
Pernicious anaemia Accepted[59] II anti-parietal cell antibody
Perivenous encephalomyelitis
POEMS syndrome interleukin 1β, interleukin 6 and TNFα. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), given the .[60]
Polyarteritis nodosa
Polymyalgia rheumatica
Polymyositis Accepted[61] IFN-gamma, IL-1, TNF-alpha
Primary biliary cirrhosis Accepted[62] Anti-p62, Anti-sp100, Anti-Mitochondrial(M2)Anti-Ro aka SSA.[63] Also, they are often present in Sjögren's syndrome.[64][65]
Primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap with primary biliary cirrhosis?
Progressive inflammatory neuropathy Suspected
Psoriasis Accepted[66] IV? CD-8 T-cells, HLA-Cw6, IL-12b, IL-23b]], TNFalpha, nfKb
Psoriatic arthritis Accepted[67] IV? HLA=B27
Pyoderma gangrenosum
Pure red cell aplasia
Rasmussen's encephalitis
Raynaud phenomenon Suspected
Relapsing polychondritis Accepted[68]
Reiter's syndrome
Restless leg syndrome Suspected
Retroperitoneal fibrosis
Rheumatoid arthritis Accepted[4] III Rheumatoid factor, Anti-MCV
Rheumatoid fever
Sarcoidosis Suspected
Schizophrenia Suspected[69][70][71]
Schmidt syndrome
Schnitzler syndrome
Scleroderma Suspected[44] Scl-70 Anti-topoisomerase
Serum Sickness III
Sjögren's syndrome Accepted[4] Anti-ro]].[72] Also, they are often present in Sjögren's syndrome.[73] [74]
Spondyloarthropathy HLA-B27
Still's disease
Stiff person syndrome Suspected
Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE)
Susac's syndrome
Sweet's syndrome
Sydenham chorea seePANDAS
Sympathetic ophthalmia
Systemic Lupus Erythematosis III
Takayasu's arteritis
Temporal arteritis (also known as "giant cell arteritis") Accepted[4] IV
Thrombocytopenia II
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
Transverse myelitis Accepted Transverse Myelitis is a rare neurological disorder that is part of a spectrum of neuroimmunologic diseases of the central nervous system.
Ulcerative colitis (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted[4] IV
Undifferentiated connective tissue disease Accepted
Undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy
Urticarial_vascuitis anti C1q antibodies[75]
Vasculitis Accepted[76] III
Vitiligo Suspected[77][78]
Wegener's granulomatosis Accepted[79] Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic(cANCA)

Development of therapies

In both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases the condition arises through aberrant reactions of the human adaptive or innate immune systems. In autoimmunity, the patient’s immune system is activated against the body's own proteins. In inflammatory diseases, it is the overreaction of the immune system, and its subsequent downstream signaling (TNF, IFN, etc.), which causes problems.

A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than eighty illnesses caused by autoimmunity.[80] It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years.[81]

See also


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