- Wheat allergy
Wheat allergy, also known as wheat hypersensitivity is most commonly a food allergy, but can also be a respiratory or contact allergy resulting from occupational exposure. Like all allergies wheat allergy involves IgEand mast cellresponse. Typically the allergy is limited to the seed storage proteins of wheat, some reactions are restricted to wheat proteins, while others can react across many varieties of seeds and other plant tissues. Wheat allergy may be a misnomer since there are many allergenic components in wheat, for example serine proteinaseinhibitors, glutelins and prolamins and different responses are often attributed to different proteins. The most severe response is exercise/aspirin induced anaphylaxis attributed to one omega gliadin that is a relative of the protein that causes coeliac disease.cite journal |author=Akagawa M, Handoyo T, Ishii T, Kumazawa S, Morita N, Suyama K |title=Proteomic analysis of wheat flour allergens |journal=J. Agric. Food Chem. |volume=55 |issue=17 |pages=6863–70 |year=2007 |pmid=17655322 |doi=10.1021/jf070843a |issn=] Other more common symptoms include nausea, urticaria, atopy.cite journal |author=Perr HA |title=Novel foods to treat food allergy and gastrointestinal infection |journal=Current allergy and asthma reports |volume=6 |issue=2 |pages=153–9 |year=2006 |pmid=16566866 |doi= |issn=]
Types of allergens
There are four major classes of seed storage proteins:
albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins. Within wheat prolamins are called gliadins and glutelins are called glutenins. These two protein groups form the classic glutens. While gluten is a causative agent of Coeliac disease(CD), coeliac disease can be contrasted to gluten allergy by the involvement of different immune cells and antibody types (See Comparative pathophysiology of gluten sensitivities), and because the list of allergens extend beyond the classic gluten category of proteins.
Prolamins and the closely related glutelins, a recent study in Japan found that glutinins are a more frequent allergen, however gliadins are associated with the most severe disease. A proteomics based study found a γ-gliadin isoform gene.cite journal |author=Akagawa M, Handoyo T, Ishii T, Kumazawa S, Morita N, Suyama K |title=Proteomic analysis of wheat flour allergens |journal=J. Agric. Food Chem. |volume=55 |issue=17 |pages=6863–70 |year=2007 |pmid=17655322 |doi=10.1021/jf070843a |issn=] Wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is primarily mediated by ω-5 gliadin which is encoded by the Gli-1B gene derived from the "Aegilops speltoides" B genome within wheat.
Albumin and globulin allergy
At present many of the allergens of wheat have not been characterized; however, the early studies found many to be in the albumin classcite journal | author = Sutton R, Hill DJ, Baldo BA, Wrigley CW | title = Immunoglobulin E antibodies to ingested cereal flour components: studies with sera from subjects with asthma and eczema | journal = Clin. Allergy | volume = 12 | issue = 1 | pages = 63–74 | year = 1982 | pmid = 7067068 | doi = ] . A recent study in Europe confirmed the increased presence of allergies to amylase/trypsin inhibitors (serpins)cite journal | author = Armentia A, Sanchez-Monge R, Gomez L, Barber D, Salcedo G | title = "In vivo" allergenic activities of eleven purified members of a major allergen family from wheat and barley flour | journal = Clin. Exp. Allergy | volume = 23 | issue = 5 | pages = 410–5 | year = 1993 | pmid = 8334538 | doi = ] and lipid transfer protein (LPT).cite journal |author=Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Conti A, "et al" |title=Wheat IgE-mediated food allergy in European patients: alpha-amylase inhibitors, lipid transfer proteins and low-molecular-weight glutenins. Allergenic molecules recognized by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge |journal=Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. |volume=144 |issue=1 |pages=10–22 |year=2007 |pmid=17496422 |doi=10.1159/000102609 |issn=] but less reactivity to the globulin fractioncite journal | author = Walsh BJ, Wrigley CW, Musk AW, Baldo BA | title = A comparison of the binding of IgE in the sera of patients with bakers' asthma to soluble and insoluble wheat-grain proteins | journal = J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. | volume = 76 | issue = 1 | pages = 23–8 | year = 1985 | pmid = 3839248 | doi = ] The allergies tend to differ between populations (Italian, Japanese, Danish or Swiss)Fact|date=July 2008, indicating a potential genetic component to these reactivities.
Wheat pollen and grass allergies
Respiratory allergies are an occupational disease that develop in food service workers. Previous studied detected 40 allergens from wheat; some cross-reacted with rye proteins and a few cross-reacted with grass pollens.cite journal | author = Blands J, Diamant B, Kallós P, Kallós-Deffner L, Lowenstein H | title = Flour allergy in bakers. I. Identification of allergenic fractions in flour and comparison of diagnostic methods | journal = Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. | volume = 52 | issue = 1-4 | pages = 392–406 | year = 1976 | pmid = 65335 | doi = ] A later study showed that baker's allergy extend over a broad range of cereal grasses (wheat, durum wheat, triticale, cereal rye, barley, rye grass, oats, canary grass, rice, maize, sorghum and Johnson grass) though the greatest similarities were seen between wheat and rye cite journal | author = Baldo BA, Krilis S, Wrigley CW | title = Hypersensitivity to inhaled flour allergens. Comparison between cereals | journal = Allergy | volume = 35 | issue = 1 | pages = 45–56 | year = 1980 | pmid = 6154431 | doi = ] and that these allergies show cross reactivity between seed proteins and pollen proteinscite journal | author = Valero Santiago A, Amat Par P, Sanosa Valls J, Sierra Martínez P, Malet Casajuana A, García Calderón PA | title = Hypersensitivity to wheat flour in bakers | journal = Allergologia et immunopathologia | volume = 16 | issue = 5 | pages = 309–14 | year = 1988 | pmid = 3228051 | doi = ] including a prominent crossreactivity between the common environment rye pollen and wheat glutencite journal | author = Donovan GR, Baldo BA | title = Crossreactivity of IgE antibodies from sera of subjects allergic to both ryegrass pollen and wheat endosperm proteins: evidence for common allergenic determinants | journal = Clin. Exp. Allergy | volume = 20 | issue = 5 | pages = 501–9 | year = 1990 | pmid = 2253081 | doi = ] cite journal | author = Yazicioglu M, Oner N, Celtik C, Okutan O, Pala O | title = Sensitization to common allergens, especially pollens, among children with respiratory allergy in the Trakya region of Turkey | journal = Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol. | volume = 22 | issue = 4 | pages = 183–90 | year = 2004 | pmid = 15783130 | doi = | issn = .]
Proteins are made of a chain of dehydrated amino acids. When enzymes cut proteins into pieces they add water back to the site at which they cut, called enzymatic hydrolysis, for proteins it is called proteolysis. The initial products of this hydrolysisare polypeptides, and smaller products are called simply peptides; these are called "wheat protein hydrolysates". These hydrolysates can create allergens out of wheat proteins that previously did not exist by the exposure of buried antigenic sites in the proteins.
When proteins are cut into polypeptides, buried regions are exposed to the surface, and these buried regions may possibly be antigenic. Such hydrolyzed wheat protein is used as an additive in foods and
cosmetics. The peptides are often 1 kD in size (9 amino acid residues in length) and may increase the allergic response. cite journal | author = Akiyama H, Sakata K, Yoshioka Y, "et al" | title = Profile analysis and immunoglobulin E reactivity of wheat protein hydrolysates | journal = Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. | volume = 140 | issue = 1 | pages = 36–42 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16534217 | doi = 10.1159/000092000 | issn = ] These wheat polypeptides can cause immediate contact urticaria in susceptible people.cite journal | author = Laurière M, Pecquet C, Bouchez-Mahiout I, "et al" | title = Hydrolysed wheat proteins present in cosmetics can induce immediate hypersensitivities | journal = Contact Derm. | volume = 54 | issue = 5 | pages = 283–9 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16689814 | doi = 10.1111/j.0105-1873.2006.00830.x | issn = ]
igns and Symptoms
Wheat allergies are not altogether different from other food allergies or respiratory allergies. However two conditions, exercise/aspirin induced anaphylaxis and
urticariaoccur more frequently with wheat allergies.
Common symptoms of a wheat allergy Fact|date=May 2008 include
eczema, ( atopic dermatitis), hives (urticaria), asthma, "Hay fever" (allergic rhinitis), angioedema(tissue swelling due to fluid leakage from blood vessels), and abdominal cramps. Rarer symptoms include Fact|date=May 2008 anaphylactic shock, arthritis, bloated stomach, chest pains, depression or mood swings, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, joint and muscle aches and pains (may be associated with progressive arthritis), nausea, vomiting, palpitations, psoriasis, sneezing, irritable bowel syndrome(IBS), swollen throat or tongue, tiredness and lethargy, unexplained cough, unexplained runny nose, watery or itchy eyes.
Asthma, Anaphylaxis, Nasal Allergies
Wheat gliadins and potentially oat avenins are associated with another disease, known as wheat- dependent exercise Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA) which is similar to Baker's Allergy as both are mediated by IgE responses.cite journal | author = Mittag D, Niggemann B, Sander I, Reese I, Fiedler EM, Worm M, Vieths S, Reese G. | title = Immunoglobulin E-reactivity of wheat-allergic subjects (baker's asthma, food allergy, wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis) to wheat protein fractions with different solubility and digestibility. | journal = Mol Nutr Food Res. | volume = 48 | issue = 5 | pages = 380–389 | year = 2004 | pmid = 15672478 | doi = 10.1002/mnfr.200400016] In WDEIA, however, the ω-gliadinscite journal | author = Matsuo H, Morita E, Tatham AS, Morimoto K, Horikawa T, Osuna H, Ikezawa Z, Kaneko S, Kohno K, and Dekio S. | title = Identification of the IgE-binding epitope in omega-5 gliadin, a major allergen in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. | journal = J Biol Chem. | volume = 279 | issue = 13 | pages = 12135–12140 | year = 2004 | pmid = 14699123 | doi = 10.1074/jbc.M311340200] or a high molecular weight glutenin subunit, and similar proteins in other "Triticeae" genera enter the blood stream during exercise where they cause acute asthmatic or allergic reaction.cite journal | author = Matsuo H, Morimoto K, Akaki T, Kaneko S, Kusatake K, Kuroda T, Niihara H, Hide M, and Morita E. | title = Exercise and aspirin increase levels of circulating gliadin peptides in patients with wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. | journal = Clin Exp Allergy. | volume = 35 | issue = 4 | pages = 461–466 | year = 2005 | pmid = 15836754 | doi = 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02213.x] One recent study of ω-gliadins demonstrated these gliadins are more similar to the bulk of oat avenins than α/β or γ gliadins but, so far, oat avenins have not been linked to WDEIA. Wheat may specifically induce WDEIA and certain chronic
urticariabecause the anti-gliadin IgE detects ω5-gliadins expressed by most of the Gli-B1 alleles but almost no responses prolamins extracted from rye or wheat/rye translocates. The Gli-B1 gene in wheat, " Triticum aestivum" comes from one of three progenitor species, " Aegilops speltoides", indicating that nascent mutations on the B genome of wheat or from a small number of cultivated triticeaespecies.cite journal | author = Denery-Papini S, Lauriére M, Branlard G, "et al" | title = Influence of the allelic variants encoded at the Gli-B1 locus, responsible for a major allergen of wheat, on IgE reactivity for patients suffering from food allergy to wheat | journal = J. Agric. Food Chem. | volume = 55 | issue = 3 | pages = 799–805 | year = 2007 | pmid = 17263477 | doi = 10.1021/jf062749k] .
Aspirin senstivity and wheat allergy
Recent study of WDEIA shows that both aspirin and exercise increase the presence of gliadin in the blood streamcite journal |author=Morita E, Kunie K, Matsuo H |title=Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis |journal=J. Dermatol. Sci. |volume=47 |issue=2 |pages=109–17 |year=2007 |pmid=17507204 | doi=10.1016/ j.jdermsci.2007.03.004] and the chronic induced behavior may extend to NSAIDs, MSG, Benzoate and other synthetic chemical food additives.
Baker's allergy has a ω-gliadin component and thioredoxin hB component.cite journal | author = Weichel M, Glaser AG, Ballmer-Weber BK, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Crameri R | title = Wheat and maize thioredoxins: a novel cross-reactive cereal allergen family related to baker's asthma | journal = J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. | volume = 117 | issue = 3 | pages = 676–81 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16522470 | doi = 10.1016/j.jaci.2005.11.040] In addition, a gluten-extrensic allergen has been identified as
aspergillus amylase, added to flour to increase its baking properties.
Urticaria, Atopy, Eczema
Contact Sensitivitycite journal | author = Langeland T, Nyrud M | title = Contact urticaria to wheat bran bath: a case report | journal = Acta Derm. Venereol. | volume = 62 | issue = 1 | pages = 82–3 | year = 1982 | pmid = 6175150 | doi = ] , Atopic Dermatitiscite journal | author = Barnetson RS, Wright AL, Benton EC | title = IgE-mediated allergy in adults with severe atopic eczema | journal = Clin. Exp. Allergy | volume = 19 | issue = 3 | pages = 321–5 | year = 1989 | pmid = 2736432 | doi = ] , Eczema, and Urticaria appear to be related phenomena the cause is generally the believed to be the hydrophobic prolamin components of certain Triticeae, Aveneae cultivars, in wheat one of these proteins is ω-gliadin (Gli-B1 gene product). A study of mothers and infants on an allergen-free diet demonstrated that these conditions can be avoided if wheat sensitive cohort in the population avoid wheat in the first year of lifecite journal | author = Zeiger RS, Heller S, Mellon MH, "et al" | title = Effect of combined maternal and infant food-allergen avoidance on development of atopy in early infancy: a randomized study | journal = J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. | volume = 84 | issue = 1 | pages = 72–89 | year = 1989 | pmid = 2754147 | doi = ] . As with exercise induced anaphylaxis aspirin (also: tartrazine, sodium benzoate, sodium glutamate (MSG), sodium metabisulfite, tyramine) may be sensitizing factors for reactivity.cite journal | author = Van Bever HP, Docx M, Stevens WJ | title = Food and food additives in severe atopic dermatitis | journal = Allergy | volume = 44 | issue = 8 | pages = 588–94 | year = 1989 | pmid = 2610332 | doi = ] Studies of the wheat-dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis demonstrate that atopy and EIA can be triggered from the ingestion of that aspirin and probably NSAIDs allow the entry of wheat proteins into the blood, where IgE reacts within allergens in the dermal tissues. Some individuals may be so sensitive that low dose aspirin therapy can increase risk for both atopy and WDEIA.
Wheat allergies were also common with contact dermatitis. A primary cause was the
donning agentused for latexgloves prior to the 1990s, however most gloves now use protein free starch as donning agents.
Autoimmune (Rheumatoid) arthritis
There appears to be an association of autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis (ARA) both with GSE and gluten allergiescite journal | author = Hvatum M, Kanerud L, Hällgren R, Brandtzaeg P | title = The gut-joint axis: cross reactive food antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis | journal = Gut | volume = 55 | issue = 9 | pages = 1240–7 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16484508 | doi = 10.1136/gut.2005.076901] . ARA in GSE/CD may be secondary to tTG autoimmunity. In a recent study in Turkey, 8 of 20 ARA patients had wheat reactivities on the RAST tests. When this allergic food and all other patient specific RAST+ foods were removed half of the patients had improved ARA by serological markers. In patients with wheat allergies, rye was effectively substituted.cite journal | author = Karatay S, Erdem T, Kiziltunc A, "et al" | title = General or personal diet: the individualized model for diet challenges in patients with rheumatoid arthritis | journal = Rheumatol. Int. | volume = 26 | issue = 6 | pages = 556–60 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16025333 | doi = 10.1007/s00296-005-0018-y] This may indicate that some proportion of RA in GSE/CD is due to downstream effects of allergic responses. In addition, cross-reactive anti-beef-collagen antibodies (IgG) may explain some "
rheumatoid arthritis" (RA) incidences.cite journal | author = Dieterich W, Esslinger B, Trapp D, Hahn E, Huff T, Seilmeier W, Wieser H, and Schuppan D. | title = Cross linking to tissue transglutaminase and collagen favours gliadin toxicity in coeliac disease. | journal = Gut. | volume = 55 | issue = 4 | pages = 478–84 | year = 2006 | pmid = 16188922 | doi = 10.1136/gut.2005.069385]
Migraines. In the late 70s it was reported that people with
migraineshad reactions to food allergens, like ARA, the most common reaction was to wheat (78%), Orange, eggs, tea, coffee, chocolate, milk, beef, corn, cane sugar, and yeast. When 10 foods causing the most reactions were removed migranes fell precipitously, hypertension declined.cite journal | author = Grant EC | title = Food allergies and migraine | journal = Lancet | volume = 1 | issue = 8123 | pages = 966–9 | year = 1979 | pmid = 87628 | doi = ] Some specific instances are attributed to wheat.cite journal | author = Pascual J, Leno C | title = A woman with daily headaches | journal = The journal of headache and pain : official journal of the Italian Society for the Study of Headaches | volume = 6 | issue = 2 | pages = 91–2 | year = 2005 | pmid = 16362649 | doi = 10.1007/s10194-005-0158-1]
Infantile Autism. Worsening of neurological symptoms in autistic patients with milk and wheat consumption has been reported.cite journal | author = Lucarelli S, Frediani T, Zingoni AM, "et al" | title = Food allergy and infantile autism | journal = Panminerva medica | volume = 37 | issue = 3 | pages = 137–41 | year = 1995 | pmid = 8869369 | doi = ] However, a Swedish study reported a negative impact of a gluten free diet. cite journal | author = Sponheim E | title = [Gluten-free diet in infantile autism. A therapeutic trial] | language = Norwegian | journal = Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. | volume = 111 | issue = 6 | pages = 704–7 | year = 1991 | pmid = 2008691 | doi = ]
Acute psychosis. Wheat and rye allergy (IgE) antibodies have also been found in acute
psychosispatients.cite journal | author = Rix KJ, Ditchfield J, Freed DL, Goldberg DP, Hillier VF | title = Food antibodies in acute psychoses | journal = Psychological medicine | volume = 15 | issue = 2 | pages = 347–54 | year = 1985 | pmid = 4023138 | doi = ]
Diagnoses of wheat allergy may deserve special consideration. Omega-5 gliadin, the most potent wheat allergen, cannot be detected in whole wheat preparations, it must be extracted and partially digested (similar to how it degrades in the intestine) to reach full activity. Other studies show that digestion of wheat proteins to about 10 amino acids can increase the allergic response 10 fold. Certain allergy test may not be suitable to detect all wheat allergies, resulting in cryptic allergies.
Gluten-free diet. Wheat allergies differ from gluten-diet exclusion in that some types of allergensdo not create species crossreactive responses, and individual may be able to consume barleyand ryesafely, although more than likely they will be allergic to other wheat such as spelt and Kamut. Wheat is often a cryptic contaminant of many foods more obvious items are bread crumbs, bran, cereal extract, couscous, cracker meal, enriched flour, gluten, high-gluten flour, high-protein flour, seitan, semolinawheat, vital gluten, wheat bran, wheat germ, wheat gluten, wheat malt, wheat starch or whole wheat flour. Less obvious sources of wheat could be gelatinized starch, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, modified food starch, modified starch, natural flavoring, soy sauce, soy bean paste, hoisin sauce, starch, vegetable gum, specifically Beta-glucan, vegetable starch.People with wheat allergy who are gluten sensitive may also need to avoid related cereals, ryeand barley, which have similar glutinous proteins.
Triticeae gluten-free oats (free of Wheat, rye or barley) may be a useful source of cereal fiber. Some wheat allergies allow the use of rye bread as a substitute. Wheat-free Millet flour, buckwheat, flax seed meal, corn meal, quinoa flour, and
chia seedflour can also be used a substitutes. Speltand kamutare grains closely related to common wheat, and are not usually a suitable substitute for people with wheat allergy or coeliac disease. Rice flouris a commonly used alternative for those allergic to wheat.
Famous People Allergic to Wheat and/or Gluten
Famous people allergic to wheat and/or gluten include:
* NFL player
Drew Brees[cite web |url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2007/players/01/09/nfl.workout0115/index.html
title=NFL Workout: Strapped In A system designed by a Navy SEAL got the Saints' Drew Brees in shape to succeed
* [http://www.aafa.org Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America]
* [http://www.nih.gov The National Institutes of Health]
* [http://www.wheat-free.org Wheat-free.org]
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