For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation).
OzoneTrioxygen Identifiers CAS number 10028-15-6 PubChem 24823 ChemSpider 23208 UNII 66H7ZZK23N EC number 233-069-2 MeSH Ozone ChEBI CHEBI:25812 RTECS number RS8225000 Gmelin Reference 1101 Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties Molecular formula O3 Molar mass 48 g mol−1 Exact mass 47.984743866 g mol−1 Appearance Pale, blue gas Density 0.002144 g cm-3 (at 0 °C) Melting point
-192 °C, 81 K, -314 °F
-112 °C, 161 K, -170 °F
Solubility in water 1.05 g dm-3 (at 0 °C) Refractive index (nD) 1.2226 (liquid) Structure Space group C2v Coordination
Digonal Molecular shape Dihedral Hybridisation sp2 for O1 Dipole moment 0.53 D Thermochemistry Std enthalpy of
o298 142.67 kJ mol−1 Standard molar
o298 238.92 J K−1 mol−1 Hazards EU classification O NFPA 704 Related compounds Related compounds Sulfur dioxide
(verify) (what is: /?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Ozone (O3, pronounced /ˈoʊzoʊn/), or trioxygen, is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope (O2). Ozone in the lower atmosphere is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals and will burn sensitive plants; however, the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is beneficial, preventing potentially damaging electromagnetic radiation from reaching the Earth's surface. Ozone is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere. It has many industrial and consumer applications.
- 1 History
- 2 Physical properties
- 3 Structure
- 4 Reactions
- 5 Ozone in Earth's atmosphere
- 6 Health effects
- 7 Production
- 8 Applications
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Ozone, the first allotrope of a chemical element to be recognized, was proposed as a distinct chemical substance by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1840, who named it after the Greek verb ozein (ὄζειν, "to smell"), from the peculiar odor in lightning storms. The formula for ozone, O3, was not determined until 1865 by Jacques-Louis Soret and confirmed by Schönbein in 1867.
Ozone is a pale blue gas, slightly soluble in water and much more soluble in inert non-polar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or fluorocarbons, where it forms a blue solution. At 161 K (–112 °C), it condenses to form a dark blue liquid. It is dangerous to allow this liquid to warm to its boiling point, because both concentrated gaseous ozone and liquid ozone can detonate. At temperatures below 80 K (–193 °C), it forms a violet-black solid.
Most people can detect about 0.01 μmol/mol of ozone in air where it has a very specific sharp odor somewhat resembling chlorine bleach. Exposure of 0.1 to 1 μmol/mol produces headaches, burning eyes, and irritation to the respiratory passages. Even low concentrations of ozone in air are very destructive to organic materials such as latex, plastics, and animal lung tissue.
Ozone is diamagnetic, which means that its electrons are all paired. In contrast, O2 is paramagnetic, containing two unpaired electrons.
According to experimental evidence from microwave spectroscopy, ozone is a bent molecule, with C2v symmetry (similar to the water molecule). The O – O distances are 127.2 pm. The O – O – O angle is 116.78°. The central atom is sp² hybridized with one lone pair. Ozone is a polar molecule with a dipole moment of 0.53 D. The bonding can be expressed as a resonance hybrid with a single bond on one side and double bond on the other producing an overall bond order of 1.5 for each side.
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent, far stronger than O2. It is also unstable at high concentrations, decaying to ordinary diatomic oxygen (with a half-life of about half an hour in atmospheric conditions):
- 2 O3 → 3 O2
This reaction proceeds more rapidly with increasing temperature and increased pressure. Deflagration of ozone can be triggered by a spark, and can occur in ozone concentrations of 10 wt% or higher.
Ozone will oxidize most metals (except gold, platinum, and iridium) to oxides of the metals in their highest oxidation state. For example:
- 2 Cu+ + 2 H3O+ + O3 → 2 Cu2+ + 3 H2O + O2
With nitrogen and carbon compounds
Ozone also oxidizes nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide:
- NO + O3 → NO2 + O2
This reaction is accompanied by chemiluminescence. The NO2 can be further oxidized:
- NO2 + O3 → NO3 + O2
The NO3 formed can react with NO2 to form N2O5:
Solid nitryl perchlorate can be made from NO2, ClO2, and O3 gases:
- 2 NO2 + 2 ClO2 + 2 O3 → 2 NO2ClO4 + O2
Ozone does not react with ammonium salts but it oxidizes with ammonia to ammonium nitrate:
- 2 NH3 + 4 O3 → NH4NO3 + 4 O2 + H2O
Ozone reacts with carbon to form carbon dioxide, even at room temperature:
- C + 2 O3 → CO2 + 2 O2
With sulfur compounds
Ozone oxidizes sulfides to sulfates. For example, lead(II) sulfide is oxidised to lead(II) sulfate:
- PbS + 4 O3 → PbSO4 + 4 O2
Sulfuric acid can be produced from ozone, water and either elemental sulfur or sulfur dioxide:
- S + H2O + O3 → H2SO4
- 3 SO2 + 3 H2O + O3 → 3 H2SO4
In the gas phase, ozone reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur dioxide:
- H2S + O3 → SO2 + H2O
In an aqueous solution, however, two competing simultaneous reactions occur, one to produce elemental sulfur, and one to produce sulfuric acid:
- H2S + O3 → S + O2 + H2O
- 3 H2S + 4 O3 → 3 H2SO4
All three atoms of ozone may also react, as in the reaction of tin(II) chloride with hydrochloric acid and ozone:
- 3 SnCl2 + 6 HCl + O3 → 3 SnCl4 + 3 H2O
Iodine perchlorate can be made by treating iodine dissolved in cold anhydrous perchloric acid with ozone:
- I2 + 6 HClO4 + O3 → 2 I(ClO4)3 + 3 H2O
Ozone can be used for combustion reactions and combusting gases; ozone provides higher temperatures than combusting in dioxygen (O2). The following is a reaction for the combustion of carbon subnitride which can also cause higher temperatures:
- 3 C4N2 + 4 O3 → 12 CO + 3 N2
Ozone can react at cryogenic temperatures. At 77 K (−196 °C), atomic hydrogen reacts with liquid ozone to form a hydrogen superoxide radical, which dimerizes:
- H + O3 → HO2 + O
- 2 HO2 → H2O4
Reduction to ozonides
Reduction of ozone gives the ozonide anion, O3– . Derivatives of this anion are explosive and must be stored at cryogenic temperatures. Ozonides for all the alkali metals are known. KO3, RbO3, and CsO3 can be prepared from their respective superoxides:
- KO2 + O3 → KO3 + O2
Although KO3 can be formed as above, it can also be formed from potassium hydroxide and ozone:
- 2 KOH + 5 O3 → 2 KO3 + 5 O2 + H2O
NaO3 and LiO3 must be prepared by action of CsO3 in liquid NH3 on an ion exchange resin containing Na+ or Li+ ions:
- CsO3 + Na+ → Cs+ + NaO3
A solution of calcium in ammonia reacts with ozone to give to ammonium ozonide and not calcium ozonide:
- 3 Ca + 10 NH3 + 6 O3 → Ca·6NH3 + Ca(OH)2 + Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH4O3 + 2 O2 + H2
Ozone can be used to remove manganese from water, forming a precipitate which can be filtered:
- 2 Mn2+ + 2 O3 + 4 H2O → 2 MnO(OH)2 (s) + 2 O2 + 4 H+
Ozone will also detoxify cyanides by converting them to cyanates, which are a thousand times less toxic.
- CN- + O3 → CNO− + O2
Ozone will also completely decompose urea:
- (NH2)2CO + O3 → N2 + CO2 + 2 H2O
Ozone will cleave alkenes to form carbonyl compounds in the ozonolysis process.
Ozone in Earth's atmosphere
The standard way to express total ozone levels (the amount of ozone in a vertical column) in the atmosphere is by using Dobson units. Point measurements are reported as mole fractions in nmol/mol (parts per billion, ppb) or as concentrations in μg/m3.
Ozone layerMain article: Ozone layer
The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in the stratosphere, in a region also known as the ozone layer between about 10 km and 50 km above the surface (or between about 6 and 31 miles). Here it filters out photons with shorter wavelengths (less than 320 nm) of ultraviolet light, also called UV rays, (270 to 400 nm) from the Sun that would be harmful to most forms of life in large doses. These same wavelengths are also among those responsible for the production of vitamin D in humans. Ozone in the stratosphere is mostly produced from ultraviolet rays reacting with oxygen:
- O2 + photon (radiation < 240 nm) → 2 O
- O + O2 + M → O3 + M
It is destroyed by the reaction with atomic oxygen:
- O3 + O → 2 O2
The latter reaction is catalysed by the presence of certain free radicals, of which the most important are hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and atomic chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br). In recent decades the amount of ozone in the stratosphere has been declining mostly because of emissions of CFCs and similar chlorinated and brominated organic molecules, which have increased the concentration of ozone-depleting catalysts above the natural background. Ozone only makes up 0.00006% of the atmosphere.See also: Ozone-oxygen cycle and Ozone depletion
Low level ozoneMain articles: Tropospheric ozone and Photochemical smog
Low level ozone (or tropospheric ozone) is an atmospheric pollutant. It is not emitted directly by car engines or by industrial operations, but formed by the reaction of sunlight on air containing hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides that react to form ozone directly at the source of the pollution or many kilometers down wind.
Ozone reacts directly with some hydrocarbons such as aldehydes and thus begins their removal from the air, but the products are themselves key components of smog. Ozone photolysis by UV light leads to production of the hydroxyl radical OH and this plays a part in the removal of hydrocarbons from the air, but is also the first step in the creation of components of smog such as peroxyacyl nitrates which can be powerful eye irritants. The atmospheric lifetime of tropospheric ozone is about 22 days; its main removal mechanisms are being deposited to the ground, the above mentioned reaction giving OH, and by reactions with OH and the peroxy radical HO2· (Stevenson et al., 2006).
There is evidence of significant reduction in agricultural yields because of increased ground-level ozone and pollution which interferes with photosynthesis and stunts overall growth of some plant species. The United States Environmental Protection Agency is proposing a secondary regulation to reduce crop damage, in addition to the primary regulation designed for the protection of human health.
Certain examples of cities with elevated ozone readings are Houston, Texas, and Mexico City, Mexico. Houston has a reading of around 41 nmol/mol, while Mexico City is far more hazardous, with a reading of about 125 nmol/mol.
Ozone gas attacks any polymer possessing olefinic or double bonds within its chain structure, such as natural rubber, nitrile rubber, and styrene-butadiene rubber. Products made using these polymers are especially susceptible to attack, which causes cracks to grow longer and deeper with time, the rate of crack growth depending on the load carried by the product and the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere. Such materials can be protected by adding antiozonants, such as waxes, which bond to the surface to create a protective film or blend with the material and provide long term protection. Ozone cracking used to be a serious problem in car tires for example, but the problem is now seen only in very old tires. On the other hand, many critical products like gaskets and O-rings may be attacked by ozone produced within compressed air systems. Fuel lines are often made from reinforced rubber tubing and may also be susceptible to attack, especially within engine compartments where low levels of ozone are produced from electrical equipment. Storing rubber products in close proximity to DC electric motors can accelerate the rate at which ozone cracking occurs. The commutator of the motor creates sparks which in turn produce ozone.
Ozone as a greenhouse gas
Although ozone was present at ground level before the Industrial Revolution, peak concentrations are now far higher than the pre-industrial levels, and even background concentrations well away from sources of pollution are substantially higher. This increase in ozone is of further concern because ozone present in the upper troposphere acts as a greenhouse gas, absorbing some of the infrared energy emitted by the earth. Quantifying the greenhouse gas potency of ozone is difficult because it is not present in uniform concentrations across the globe. However, the most widely accepted scientific assessments relating to climate change (e.g. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report) suggest that the radiative forcing of tropospheric ozone is about 25% that of carbon dioxide.
The annual global warming potential of tropospheric ozone is between 918-1022 tons carbon dioxide equivalent/tons tropospheric ozone. This means on a per-molecule basis, ozone in the troposphere has a radiative forcing effect roughly 1,000 times as strong as carbon dioxide. However, tropospheric ozone is a short-lived greenhouse gas, which decays in the atmosphere much more quickly than carbon dioxide. This means that over a 20 year horizon, the global warming potential of tropospheric ozone is much less, roughly 62 to 69 tons carbon dioxide equivalent / tons tropospheric ozone.
Because of its short-lived nature, tropospheric ozone does not have strong global effects, but has very strong radiative forcing effects on regional scales. In fact, there are regions of the world where tropospheric ozone has a radiative forcing up to 150% of carbon dioxide.
Ground-level ozone is created near the Earth's surface by the action of daylight UV rays on a group of pollutants called ozone precursors. There is a great deal of evidence to show that ground level ozone can harm lung function and irritate the respiratory system. Exposure to ozone and the pollutants that produce it is linked to premature death, asthma, bronchitis, heart attack, and other cardiopulmonary problems.
Long-term exposure to ozone has been shown to increase risk of death from respiratory illness. A study of 450,000 people living in United States cities showed a significant correlation between ozone levels and respiratory illness over the 18-year follow-up period. The study revealed that people living in cities with high ozone levels such as Houston or Los Angeles had an over 30% increased risk of dying from lung disease.
Air quality guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union are based on detailed studies designed to identify the levels that can cause measurable ill health effects.
According to scientists with the EPA, susceptible people can be adversely affected by ozone levels as low as 40 nmol/mol.
In the EU, the current target value for ozone concentrations is 120 µg/m³ which is about 60 nmol/mol. This target applies to all member states in accordance with Directive 2008/50/EC. Ozone concentration is measured as a maximum daily mean of 8 hour averages and the target should not be exceeded on more than 25 calendar days per year, starting from January 2010. Whilst the directive requires in the future a strict compliance with 120 µg/m³ limit (i.e. mean ozone concentration not to be exceeded on any day of the year), there is no date set for this requirement and this is treated as a long-term objective. 
The Clean Air Act directs the EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for several pollutants, including ground-level ozone, and counties out of compliance with these standards are required to take steps to reduce their levels. In May 2008, the EPA lowered its ozone standard from 80 nmol/mol to 75 nmol/mol. This proved controversial, since the Agency's own scientists and advisory board had recommended lowering the standard to 60 nmol/mol, and the World Health Organization recommends 51 nmol/mol. Many public health and environmental groups also supported the 60 nmol/mol standard. On January 7, 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant ozone, the principal component of smog:
- ... EPA proposes that the level of the 8-hour primary standard, which was set at 0.075 μmol/mol in the 2008 final rule, should instead be set at a lower level within the range of 0.060 to 0.070 μmol/mol, to provide increased protection for children and other ‘‘at risk’’ populations against an array of O3- related adverse health effects that range from decreased lung function and increased respiratory symptoms to serious indicators of respiratory morbidity including emergency department visits and hospital admissions for respiratory causes, and possibly cardiovascular-related morbidity as well as total non- accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality....
The EPA has developed an Air Quality Index (AQI) to help explain air pollution levels to the general public. Under the current standards, eight-hour average ozone mole fractions of 85 to 104 nmol/mol are described as "unhealthy for sensitive groups," 105 nmol/mol to 124 nmol/mol as "unhealthy," and 125 nmol/mol to 404 nmol/mol as "very unhealthy."
Ozone can also be present in indoor air pollution, partly as a result of electronic equipment such as photocopiers. A connection has also been known to exist between the increased pollen, fungal spores, and ozone caused by thunderstorms and hospital admissions of asthma sufferers.
In the Victorian era, one British folk myth held that the smell of the sea was caused by ozone. In fact, the characteristic "smell of the sea" is caused by dimethyl sulfide a chemical generated by phytoplankton. Victorian British folk considered the resulting smell "bracing," but in high concentrations, dimethyl sulfide is actually toxic.
PhysiologySee also: trioxidane
Ozone, along with reactive forms of oxygen such as superoxide, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite ions, is naturally produced by white blood cells and other biological systems (such as the roots of marigolds) as a means of destroying foreign bodies. Ozone reacts directly with organic double bonds. Also, when ozone breaks down to dioxygen it gives rise to oxygen free radicals, which are highly reactive and capable of damaging many organic molecules. Moreover, it is believed that the powerful oxidizing properties of ozone may be a contributing factor of inflammation. The cause-and-effect relationship of how the ozone is created in the body and what it does is still under consideration and still subject to various interpretations, since other body chemical processes can trigger some of the same reactions. A team headed by Dr. Paul Wentworth Jr. of the Department of Chemistry at the Scripps Research Institute has shown evidence linking the antibody-catalyzed water-oxidation pathway of the human immune response to the production of ozone. In this system, ozone is produced by antibody-catalyzed production of trioxidane from water and neutrophil-produced singlet oxygen.
When inhaled, ozone reacts with compounds lining the lungs to form specific, cholesterol-derived metabolites that are thought to facilitate the build-up and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaques (a form of heart disease). These metabolites have been confirmed as naturally occurring in human atherosclerotic arteries and are categorized into a class of secosterols termed atheronals, generated by ozonolysis of cholesterol's double bond to form a 5,6 secosterol as well as a secondary condensation product via aldolization.
Ozone has been implicated to have an adverse effect on plant growth: "... ozone reduced total chlorophylls, carotenoid and carbohydrate concentration, and increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene production. In treated plants, the ascorbate leaf pool was decreased, while lipid peroxidation and solute leakage were significantly higher than in ozone-free controls. The data indicated that ozone triggered protective mechanisms against oxidative stress in citrus."
Due to the strongly oxidizing properties of ozone, ozone is a primary irritant, affecting especially the eyes and respiratory systems and can be hazardous at even low concentrations. The Canadian Center for Occupation Safety and Health reports that:
"Even very low concentrations of ozone can be harmful to the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. The severity of injury depends on both by the concentration of ozone and the duration of exposure. Severe and permanent lung injury or death could result from even a very short-term exposure to relatively low concentrations." 
To protect workers potentially exposed to ozone, U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 μmol/mol (29 CFR 1910.1000 table Z-1), calculated as an 8 hour time weighted average. Higher concentrations are especially hazardous and NIOSH has established an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Limit (IDLH) of 5 μmol/mol. Work environments where ozone is used or where it is likely to be produced should have adequate ventilation and it is prudent to have a monitor for ozone that will alarm if the concentration exceeds the OSHA PEL. Continuous monitors for ozone are available from several suppliers.
Elevated ozone exposure can occur on passenger aircraft, with levels depending on altitude and atmospheric turbulence. United States Federal Aviation Authority regulations set a limit of 250 nmol/mol with a maximum four-hour average of 100 nmol/mol. Some planes are equipped with ozone converters in the ventilation system to reduce passenger exposure.
Ozone often forms in nature under conditions where O2 will not react. Ozone used in industry is measured in μmol/mol (ppm, parts per million), nmol/mol (ppb, parts per billion), μg/m3, mg/hr (milligrams per hour) or weight percent. The regime of applied concentrations ranges from 1 to 5% in air and from 6 to 14% in oxygen for older generation methods. New electrolytic methods can achieve up 20 to 30% dissolved ozone concentrations in output water.
Temperature and humidity plays a large role in how much ozone is being produced using traditional generation methods such as corona discharge and ultraviolet light. Old generation methods will produce less than 50% its nominal capacity if operated with humid ambient air than when it operates in very dry air. New generators using electrolytic methods can achieve higher purity and dissolution through using water molecules as the source of ozone production.
Corona discharge method
This is the most common type of ozone generator for most industrial and personal uses. While variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators, these units usually work by means of a corona discharge tube. They are typically cost-effective and do not require an oxygen source other than the ambient air to produce ozone concentrations of 3-6%. Fluctuations in ambient air, due to weather or other environmental conditions, cause variability in ozone production. However, they also produce nitrogen oxides as a by-product. Use of an air dryer can reduce or eliminate nitric acid formation by removing water vapor and increase ozone production. Use of an oxygen concentrator can further increase the ozone production and further reduce the risk of nitric acid formation by removing not only the water vapor, but also the bulk of the nitrogen.
UV ozone generators, or vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ozone generators, employ a light source that generates a narrow-band ultraviolet light, a subset of that produced by the Sun. The Sun's UV sustains the ozone layer in the stratosphere of Earth.
While standard UV ozone generators tend to be less expensive,[clarification needed] they usually produce ozone with a concentration of about 0.5% or lower. Another disadvantage of this method is that it requires the air (oxygen) to be exposed to the UV source for a longer amount of time, and any gas that is not exposed to the UV source will not be treated. This makes UV generators impractical for use in situations that deal with rapidly moving air or water streams (in-duct air sterilization, for example). Production of ozone is one of the potential dangers of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. VUV ozone generators are used in swimming pool and spa applications ranging to millions of gallons of water. VUV ozone generators, unlike corona discharge generators, do not produce harmful nitrogen by-products and also unlike corona discharge systems, VUV ozone generators work extremely well in humid air environments. There is also not normally a need for expensive off-gas mechanisms, and no need for air driers or oxygen concentrators which require extra costs and maintenance.
In the cold plasma method, pure oxygen gas is exposed to a plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge. The diatomic oxygen is split into single atoms, which then recombine in triplets to form ozone.
Cold plasma machines utilize pure oxygen as the input source and produce a maximum concentration of about 5% ozone. They produce far greater quantities of ozone in a given space of time compared to ultraviolet production. However, because cold plasma ozone generators are very expensive, they are found less frequently than the previous two types.
The discharges manifest as filamentary transfer of electrons (micro discharges) in a gap between two electrodes. In order to evenly distribute the micro discharges, a dielectric insulator must be used to separate the metallic electrodes and to prevent arcing.
Some cold plasma units also have the capability of producing short-lived allotropes of oxygen which include O4, O5, O6, O7, etc. These species are even more reactive than ordinary O3.
Electrolytic ozone generation (EOG) splits water molecules into H2, O2, and O3. In most EOG methods, the hydrogen gas will be removed to leave oxygen and ozone as the only reaction products. Therefore, EOG can achieve higher dissolution in water without other competing gases found in corona discharge method, such as nitrogen gases present in ambient air. This method of generation can achieve concentrations of 20-30% and is independent of air quality because water is used as the starting substrate.
Ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site. Available ozone generators vary in the arrangement and design of the high-voltage electrodes. At production capacities higher than 20 kg per hour, a gas/water tube heat-exchanger may be utilized as ground electrode and assembled with tubular high-voltage electrodes on the gas-side. The regime of typical gas pressures is around 2 bar absolute in oxygen and 3 bar absolute in air. Several megawatts of electrical power may be installed in large facilities, applied as one phase AC current at 50 to 8000 Hz and peak voltages between 3,000 and 20,000 volts. Applied voltage is usually inversely related to the applied frequency.
The dominating parameter influencing ozone generation efficiency is the gas temperature, which is controlled by cooling water temperature and/or gas velocity. The cooler the water, the better the ozone synthesis. The lower the gas velocity, the higher the concentration (but the lower the net ozone produced). At typical industrial conditions, almost 90% of the effective power is dissipated as heat and needs to be removed by a sufficient cooling water flow.
Because of the high reactivity of ozone, only few materials may be used like stainless steel (quality 316L), titanium, aluminium (as long as no moisture is present), glass, polytetrafluorethylene, or polyvinylidene fluoride. Viton may be used with the restriction of constant mechanical forces and absence of humidity (humidity limitations apply depending on the formulation). Hypalon may be used with the restriction that no water come in contact with it, except for normal atmospheric levels. Embrittlement or shrinkage is the common mode of failure of elastomers with exposure to ozone. Ozone cracking is the common mode of failure of elastomer seals like O-rings.
Silicone rubbers are usually adequate for use as gaskets in ozone concentrations below 1 wt%, such as in equipment for accelerated aging of rubber samples.
Ozone may be formed from O2 by electrical discharges and by action of high energy electromagnetic radiation. Unsuppressed arcing breaks down the chemical bonds of the atmospheric oxygen surrounding the contacts [O2 → 2O]. Free ions of oxygen in and around the arc recombine to create ozone [O3]. Certain electrical equipment generate significant levels of ozone. This is especially true of devices using high voltages, such as ionic air purifiers, laser printers, photocopiers, tasers and arc welders. Electric motors using brushes can generate ozone from repeated sparking inside the unit. Large motors that use brushes, such as those used by elevators or hydraulic pumps, will generate more ozone than smaller motors. Ozone is similarly formed in the Catatumbo lightning storms phenomenon on the Catatumbo River in Venezuela, which helps to replenish ozone in the upper troposphere. It is the world's largest single natural generator of ozone, lending calls for it to be designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In the laboratory, ozone can be produced by electrolysis using a 9 volt battery, a pencil graphite rod cathode, a platinum wire anode and a 3 molar sulfuric acid electrolyte. The half cell reactions taking place are:
- 3 H2O → O3 + 6 H+ + 6 e− (ΔEo = −1.53 V)
- 6 H+ + 6 e− → 3 H2 (ΔEo = 0 V)
- 2 H2O → O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e− (ΔEo = −1.23 V)
In the net reaction, three equivalents of water are converted into one equivalent of ozone and three equivalents of hydrogen. Oxygen formation is a competing reaction.
It can also be "prepared" by high voltage arc. This can be done with an apparatus consisting of two concentric glass tubes sealed together at the top, with in and out spigots at the top and bottom of the outer tube. The inner core should have a length of metal foil inserted into it connected to one side of the power source. The other side of the power source should be connected to another piece of foil wrapped around the outer tube. Dry O2 should be run through the tube in one spigot. As the O2 is run through one spigot into the apparatus and high voltage is applied to the foil leads, electricity will discharge between the dry dioxygen in the middle and form O3 and O2 out the other spigot. The reaction can be summarized as follows:
- 3 O2 — electricity → 2 O3
The largest use of ozone is in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, synthetic lubricants, and many other commercially useful organic compounds, where it is used to sever carbon-carbon bonds. It can also be used for bleaching substances and for killing microorganisms in air and water sources. Many municipal drinking water systems kill bacteria with ozone instead of the more common chlorine. Ozone has a very high oxidation potential. Ozone does not form organochlorine compounds, nor does it remain in the water after treatment. Ozone can form the suspected carcinogen [bromate] in source water with high bromide concentrations. The Safe Drinking Water Act mandates that these systems introduce an amount of chlorine to maintain a minimum of 0.2 μmol/mol residual free chlorine in the pipes, based on results of regular testing. Where electrical power is abundant, ozone is a cost-effective method of treating water, since it is produced on demand and does not require transportation and storage of hazardous chemicals. Once it has decayed, it leaves no taste or odor in drinking water.
Although low levels of ozone have been advertised to be of some disinfectant use in residential homes, the concentration of ozone in dry air required to have a rapid, substantial effect on airborne pathogens exceeds safe levels recommended by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency. Humidity control can vastly improve both the killing power of the ozone and the rate at which it decays back to oxygen (more humidity allows more effectiveness). Spore forms of most pathogens are very tolerant of atmospheric ozone in concentrations where asthma patients start to have issues.
Industrially, ozone is used to:
- Disinfect laundry in hospitals, food factories, care homes etc.;
- Disinfect water in place of chlorine
- Deodorize air and objects, such as after a fire. This process is extensively used in fabric restoration
- Kill bacteria on food or on contact surfaces;
- Sanitize swimming pools and spas
- Kill insects in stored grain
- Scrub yeast and mold spores from the air in food processing plants;
- Wash fresh fruits and vegetables to kill yeast, mold and bacteria;
- Chemically attack contaminants in water (iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites, and complex organics lumped together as "colour");
- Provide an aid to flocculation (agglomeration of molecules, which aids in filtration, where the iron and arsenic are removed);
- Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis
- Clean and bleach fabrics (the former use is utilized in fabric restoration; the latter use is patented);
- Assist in processing plastics to allow adhesion of inks;
- Age rubber samples to determine the useful life of a batch of rubber;
- Eradicate water borne parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in surface water treatment plants.
Ozone is a reagent in many organic reactions in the laboratory and in industry. Ozonolysis is the cleavage of an alkene to carbonyl compounds.
Many hospitals in the U.S. and around the world use large ozone generators to decontaminate operating rooms between surgeries. The rooms are cleaned and then sealed airtight before being filled with ozone which effectively kills or neutralizes all remaining bacteria.
Ozone is used as an alternative to chlorine or chlorine dioxide in the bleaching of wood pulp. It is often used in conjunction with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate the need for chlorine-containing compounds in the manufacture of high-quality, white paper.
Ozone can be used to detoxify cyanide wastes (for example from gold and silver mining) by oxidizing cyanide to cyanate and eventually to carbon dioxide.
Devices generating high levels of ozone, some of which use ionization, are used to sanitize and deodorize uninhabited buildings, rooms, ductwork, woodsheds, and boats and other vehicles.
In the U.S., air purifiers emitting low levels of ozone have been sold. This kind of air purifier is sometimes claimed to imitate nature's way of purifying the air without filters and to sanitize both it and household surfaces. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that there is "evidence to show that at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone is not effective at removing many odor-causing chemicals" or "viruses, bacteria, mold, or other biological pollutants." Furthermore, its report states that "results of some controlled studies show that concentrations of ozone considerably higher than these [human safety] standards are possible even when a user follows the manufacturer’s operating instructions." The government successfully sued one company in 1995, ordering it to stop repeating health claims without supporting scientific studies.
Ozonated water is used to launder clothes and to sanitize food, drinking water, and surfaces in the home. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it is "amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ozone in gaseous and aqueous phases as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry." Studies at California Polytechnic University demonstrated that 0.3 μmol/mol levels of ozone dissolved in filtered tapwater can produce a reduction of more than 99.99% in such food-borne microorganisms as salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, and Campylobacter. This quantity is 20,000 times the WHO recommended limits stated above. Ozone can be used to remove pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables.
Ozone is used in homes and hot tubs to kill bacteria in the water and to reduce the amount of chlorine or bromine required by reactivating them to their free state. Since ozone does not remain in the water long enough, ozone by itself is ineffective at preventing cross-contamination among bathers and must be used in conjunction with halogens. Gaseous ozone created by ultraviolet light or by corona discharge is injected into the water.
Ozone is also widely used in treatment of water in aquariums and fish ponds. Its use can minimize bacterial growth, control parasites, eliminate transmission of some diseases, and reduce or eliminate "yellowing" of the water. Ozone must not come in contact with fish's gill structures. Natural salt water (with life forms) provides enough "instantaneous demand" that controlled amounts of ozone activate bromide ion to hypobromous acid, and the ozone entirely decays in a few seconds to minutes. If oxygen fed ozone is used, the water will be higher in dissolved oxygen, fish's gill structures will atrophy and they will become dependent on higher dissolved oxygen levels.
Ozone can be used in aquaculture to facilitate organic breakdown. It is added to recirculating systems to reduce nitrite levels through conversion into nitrate. If nitrite levels in the water are high, nitrites will also accumulate in the blood and tissues of fish, where it interferes with oxygen transport (it causes oxidation of the heme-group of haemoglobin from ferrous(Fe2+) to ferric (Fe3+), making haemoglobin unable to bind O2). Despite these apparent positive effects, ozone use in recirculation systems has been linked to reducing the level of bioavailable iodine in salt water systems, resulting in iodine deficiency symptoms such as goitre and decreased growth in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae.
Ozonate seawater is used for surface disinfection of haddock and Atlantic halibut eggs against nodavirus. Nodavirus is a lethal and vertically transmitted virus which causes severe mortality in fish. Haddock eggs should not be treated with high ozone level as eggs so treated did not hatch and died after 3–4 days.
Ozone application on freshly cut pineapple and banana shows increase in flavonoids and total phenol contents when exposure is up to 20 minutes. Decrease in ascorbic acid content is observed but the positive effect on total phenol content and flavonoids can overcome the negative effect. Tomatoes upon treatment with ozone shows an increase in β-carotene, lutein and lycopene. However, ozone application on strawberries in pre-harvest period shows decrease in ascorbic acid content.
Ozone facilitates the extraction of some heavy metals from soil using EDTA. EDTA forms strong, water-soluble coordination compounds with some heavy metals (Pb, Zn) thereby making it possible to dissolve them out from contaminated soil. If contaminated soil is pre-treated with ozone, the extraction efficacy of Pb, Am and Pu increases by 11-28.9%, 43.5% and 50.7% respectively.
- Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS)
- Greenhouse gas
- International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer (September 16)
- Ozone Action Day
- Ozone depletion, including the phenomenon known as the ozone hole.
- Ozone therapy
- Polymer degradation
- ^ Ozone - Good Up High Bad Nearby http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/gooduphigh/
- ^ Ground-level Ozone http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution
- ^ a b Rubin, Mordecai B. (2001). "The History of Ozone. The Schönbein Period, 1839–1868" (PDF). Bull. Hist. Chem. 26 (1). http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mainzv/HIST/awards/OPA%20Papers/2001-Rubin.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-28.
- ^ "Today in Science History". http://www.todayinsci.com/10/10_18.htm#Schonbein. Retrieved 2006-05-10.
- ^ Jacques-Louis Soret (1865). "Recherches sur la densité de l'ozone". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences 61: 941. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3018b/f941.table.
- ^ "Ozone FAQ". Global Change Master Directory. http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Resources/FAQs/ozone.html. Retrieved 2006-05-10.
- ^ "Oxygen". WebElements. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/scholar/print/oxygen/key.html. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- ^ a b c d e Nicole Folchetti, ed (2003) . "22". Chemistry: The Central Science (9th ed.). Pearson Education. pp. 882–883. ISBN 0-13-066997-0.
- ^ Tanaka, Takehiko; Morino, Yonezo (1970). "Coriolis interaction and anharmonic potential function of ozone from the microwave spectra in the excited vibrational states". Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 33 (3): 538–551. doi:10.1016/0022-2852(70)90148-7.
- ^ Mack, Kenneth M.; Muenter, J. S. (1977). "Stark and Zeeman properties of ozone from molecular beam spectroscopy". Journal of Chemical Physics 66 (12): 5278–5283. doi:10.1063/1.433909.
- ^ Earth Science FAQ: Where can I find information about the ozone hole and ozone depletion? Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, March 2008.
- ^ Koike, K; Nifuku, M; Izumi, K; Nakamura, S; Fujiwara, S; Horiguchi, S (2005). "Explosion properties of highly concentrated ozone gas". Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 18 (4–6): 465. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2005.07.020. http://www.iitk.ac.in/che/jpg/papersb/full%20papers/K-106.pdf.
- ^ a b Horvath M., Bilitzky L., Huttner J. (1985). Ozone. pp. 44–49.
- ^ Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2004). Inorganic Chemistry (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 439. ISBN 978-0130399137.
- ^ Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2004). Inorganic Chemistry (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 265. ISBN 978-0130399137.
- ^ Horvath M., Bilitzky L., Huttner J. (1985). Ozone. pp. 259, 269–270.
- ^ a b WHO-Europe reports: Health Aspects of Air Pollution (2003) (PDF)
- ^ Stevenson et al. (2006). "Multimodel ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone". American Geophysical Union. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2006/2005JD006338.shtml. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
- ^ "Rising Ozone Levels Pose Challenge to U.S. Soybean Production, Scientists Say". NASA Earth Observatory. 2003-07-31. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/MediaAlerts/2003/2003073015111.html. Retrieved 2006-05-10.
- ^ a b Mutters, Randall (March 1999). "Statewide Potential Crop Yield Losses From Ozone Exposure". California Air Resources Board. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/abstracts/94-345.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-10.
- ^ "Tropospheric Ozone in EU - The consolidated report". European Environmental Agency. 1998. http://reports.eea.europa.eu/TOP08-98/en/page004.html. Retrieved 2006-05-10.
- ^ "Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/142.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-10.
- ^ "Climate Change 2001". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001. http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- ^ Life Cycle Assessment Methodology Sufficient to Support Public Declarations and Claims, Committee Draft Standard, Version 2.1. Scientific Certification Systems, February 2011. Annex B, Section 4.
- ^ NASA GODDARD HOMEPAGE FOR TROPOSPHERIC OZONE NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Code 613.3, Chemistry and Dynamics Branch.
- ^ Jeannie Allen (2003-08-22). "Watching Our Ozone Weather". NASA Earth Observatory. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/OzoneWx/. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
- ^ Answer to follow-up questions from CAFE (2004) (PDF)
- ^ Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T. and Pope, C. Arden, III and Ito, Kazuhiko and Thurston, George and Krewski, Daniel and Shi, Yuanli and Calle, Eugenia and Thun, Michael (March 12, 2009). "Long-Term Ozone Exposure and Mortality". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (11): 1085–1095. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0803894. PMID 19279340. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/360/11/1085.
- ^ Wilson, Elizabeth K. (March 16, 2009). "Ozone's Health Impact". Chemical & Engineering News (American Chemical Society Publications) 87 (11): 9. http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news/87/i11/8711notw9.html.
- ^ Weinhold B (2008). "Ozone nation: EPA standard panned by the people". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (7): A302–A305. doi:10.1289/ehp.116-a302. PMC 2453178. PMID 18629332. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2453178.
- ^ "DIRECTIVE 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe". EC. 2008-06-11. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:152:0001:0044:EN:PDF. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- ^ Comments of the American Lung Association Environmental Defense Sierra Club on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Proposed Revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 72 FR 37818 July 11, 2007 http://www.lungusa.org/get-involved/advocate/advocacy-documents/Comments-to-the-Environmental-Protection-Agency-re-National-Ambient-Air-Quality-Standard-for-Ozone.PDF
- ^ National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule] http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/fr/20100119.pdf
- ^ http://www.airinfonow.org/html/ed_ozone.html Fierro, O'Rourke, Burgess EPA/Pima County explanation of Ozone AQI.
- ^ Anderson, W.; G.J. Prescott, S. Packham, J. Mullins, M. Brookes, and A. Seaton (2001). "Asthma admissions and thunderstorms: a study of pollen, fungal spores, rainfall, and ozone". QJM: an International Journal of Medicine (Oxford Journals) 94 (8): 429–433. doi:10.1093/qjmed/94.8.429. PMID 11493720.
- ^ University of East Anglia press release, Cloning the smell of the seaside, February 2, 2007
- ^ Hoffmann, Roald (January 2004). "The Story of O". American Scientist 92 (1): 23. doi:10.1511/2004.1.23. Archived from the original on 2006-09-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20060925011907/http://www.americanscientist.org/template/AssetDetail/assetid/29647?&print=yes. Retrieved 2006-10-11.
- ^ Smith, LL (2004). "Oxygen, oxysterols, ouabain, and ozone: a cautionary tale". Free radical biology & medicine 37 (3): 318–24. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.04.024. PMID 15223065.
- ^ Paul Wentworth; Nieva, J; Takeuchi, C; Galve, R; Wentworth, AD; Dilley, RB; Delaria, GA; Saven, A et al. (2003). "Evidence for Ozone Formation in Human Atherosclerotic Arteries". Science 302 (5647): 1053. doi:10.1126/science.1089525. PMID 14605372.
- ^ Iglesias, Domingo J.; Ángeles Calatayuda, Eva Barrenob, Eduardo Primo-Milloa and Manuel Talon (2006). "Responses of citrus plants to ozone: leaf biochemistry, antioxidant mechanisms and lipid peroxidation". Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 44 (2–3): 125–131. doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2006.03.007. PMID 16644230.
- ^ 2-Health Effects of Ozone, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
- ^ Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH): NIOSH Chemical Listing and Documentation of Revised IDLH Values (as of 3/1/95)
- ^ a b http://www.portfolio.com/views/blogs/daily-brief/2008/05/08/airplane-air-heavy-on-the-ozone
- ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070905140105.htm
- ^ Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 3, p.673 (1955); Vol. 26, p.63 (1946). (Article)
- ^ Dohan, J. M.; W. J. Masschelein (1987). "Photochemical Generation of Ozone: Present State-of-the-Art". Ozone Sci. Eng. 9: 315–334.
- ^ "Lab Note #106 Environmental Impact of Arc Suppression". Arc Suppression Technologies. April 2011. http://arcsuppressiontechnologies.com/Documents/Lab%20Note%20106%20-%20APR2011%20-%20Environmental%20Impact.pdf. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- ^ "Fire in the Sky". http://www.meteogroup.co.uk/uk/home/weather/weather_news/news_archive/archive/2007/november/ch/f540146dcc/article/fire_in_the_sky.html. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- ^ Ibanez, Jorge G.; Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon and M. T. Moran-Moran (2005). "Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone". Journal of Chemical Education 82 (10): 1546. doi:10.1021/ed082p1546. http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Issues/2005/Oct/abs1546.html. Retrieved 2006-05-10.
- ^ "Ozone and Color Removal". Ozone Information. http://www.ozonesolutions.com/Ozone_Color_Removal.html. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- ^ Hoigné, J. (1998). Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 5 part C. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 83–141.
- ^ "Oxidation Potential of Ozone". Ozone-Information.com. Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20080419034421/http://www.ozone-information.com/Oxidation_Potential_Ozone.html. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
- ^ "Decontamination: Ozone scores on spores". Hospital Development. Wilmington Media Ltd.. 2007-04-01. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929000438/http://www.hdmagazine.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=2043080. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- ^ a b c Montecalvo, Joseph; Doug Williams. "Application of Ozonation in Sanitizing Vegetable Process Washwaters" (PDF). California Polytechnic State University. http://www.cwtozone.com/files/articles/Food_Produce/Article%20-%20Veg.%20Process%20washwater.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- ^ Steeves, Susan A. (January 30, 2003). "Ozone may provide environmentally safe protection for grains". Purdue News. http://news.uns.purdue.edu/UNS/html4ever/030130.Mason.ozone.html.
- ^ "Chemical Synthesis with Ozone". Ozone-Information.com. Archived from the original on 2008-04-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20080410114619/http://www.ozone-information.com/Chemical_Synthesis_Ozone.html. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
- ^ de Boer, Hero E. L.; Carla M. van Elzelingen-Dekker; Cora M. F. van Rheenen-Verberg; Lodewijk Spanjaard (2006). "Use of Gaseous Ozone for Eradication of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus From the Home Environment of a Colonized Hospital Employee". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 27 (10): 1120–1122. doi:10.1086/507966. PMID 17006820.
- ^ Sjöström, Eero (1993). Wood Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.. ISBN 0126474818. http://books.google.com/?id=Sv3xcS6eS5QC&pg=PA187.
- ^ Su, Yu-Chang; Chen, Horng-Tsai (2001). "Enzone Bleaching Sequence and Color Reversion of Ozone-Bleached Pulps". Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 16 (2): 93–102. http://www.tfri.gov.tw/enu/pub_science_in.aspx?pid=339&catid0=37&catid1=64&pg0=&pg1=1.
- ^ Bollyky, L. J. (1977). Ozone Treatment of Cyanide-Bearing Wastes, EPA Report 600/2-77-104. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
- ^ "The Unknown Truth Regarding Ozone!". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ydb2_pyZeJk. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
- ^ EPA report on consumer ozone air purifiers
- ^ Long, Ron (2008). "POU Ozone Food Sanitation: A Viable Option for Consumers & the Food Service Industry" (pdf). http://www.purityintl.com/Article%20POU.pdf. (report also shows tapwater removes 99.95% of pathogens from lettuce; samples were first inoculated with pathogens before treatment)
- ^ Tersano Inc (2007). "lotus Sanitises Food without Chemicals". Archived from the original on 2007-02-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20070211025555/http://www.tersano.com/sanitizing_system_food.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-11.
- ^ Jongen, W (2005). Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables. Boca Raton: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1855739569.
- ^ "Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidant Guidance Manual" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. April 1999. http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/mdbp/upload/2001_07_13_mdbp_alternative_disinfectants_guidance.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
- ^ Noble, A.C.; Summerfelt, S.T. (1996). "Diseases encountered in rainbow trout cultured in recirculating systems". Annual Review of Fish Diseases 6: 65–92. doi:10.1016/S0959-8030(96)90006-X.
- ^ Ferreira, O; de Costa, O.T.; Ferreira, Santos; Mendonca, F. (2004). "Susceptibility of the Amazonian fish, Colossoma macropomum (Serrasalminae), to short-term exposure to nitrite". Aquaculture 232: 627–636. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00524-6.
- ^ Ribeiro, A.R.A.; Ribeiro, L.; Saele, Ø.; Hamre, K.; Dinis, M.T.; Moren, M. (2009). "Iodine-enriched rotifers andArtemiaprevent goitre in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae reared in a recirculation system". Aquaculture Nutrition 17 (3): 248–257. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00740.x.
- ^ Buchan, K.; Martin-Robinchaud, D.; Benfey, T.J.; MacKinnon, A; Boston, L (2006). "The efficacy of ozonated seawater for surface disinfection of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) eggs against piscine nodavirus". Aquacultural Engineering 35: 102–107. doi:10.1016/j.aquaeng.2005.10.001.
- ^ Alothman, M.; Kaur, B.; Fazilah, A.; Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, Alias A. (2010). "Ozone-induced changes of antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut tropical fruits". Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 11 (4): 666–671. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2010.08.008.
- ^ Tzortzakis, N.; Borland, A.; Singleton, I.; Barnes, J (2007). "Impact of atmospheric ozone-enrichment on quality-related attributes of tomato fruit". Postharvest Biology and Technology 45 (3): 317–325. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.03.004.
- ^ Keutgen, A.J.; Pawelzik, E. (2008). "Influence of pre-harvest ozone exposure on quality of strawberry fruit under simulated retail conditions". Postharvest Biology and Technology 49: 10–18. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.12.003.
- ^ Lestan, D.; Hanc, A.; Finzgar, N. (2005). "Influence of ozonation on extractability of Pb and Zn from contaminated soils". Chemosphere 61 (7): 1012–1019. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.03.005. PMID 16257321.
- ^ a b Plaue, J.W.; Czerwinski, K.R. (2003). "The influence of ozone on ligand-assisted extraction of 239Pu and 241Am from rocky flats soil". Radiochim. Acta 91 (6–2003): 309–313. doi:10.1524/ract.91.6.309.20026.
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419.
- Series in Plasma Physics: Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure. Edited by K.H. Becker, U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, R.J. Barker; Bristol and Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd; ISBN 0-7503-0962-8; 2005
- International Ozone Association
- European Environment Agency's near real-time ozone map (ozoneweb)
- NASA's Ozone Resource Page
- OSHA Ozone Information
- Paul Crutzen Interview Freeview video of Paul Crutzen Nobel Laureate for his work on decomposition of ozone talking to Harry Kroto Nobel Laureate by the Vega Science Trust.
- NASA's Earth Observatory article on Ozone
- International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer
- International Chemical Safety Card 0068
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Ozone Information
- Ground-level Ozone Air Pollution
- NASA Study Links "Smog" to Arctic Warming — NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) study shows the warming effect of ozone in the Arctic during winter and spring.
- US EPA report questioning effectiveness or safety of ozone generators sold as air cleaners
- Pesticides Database; Ozone
- Ground-level ozone information from the American Lung Association of New England
- Environmental chemistry
- Ozone depletion
- Oxidizing agents
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.