- Heart disease
Name = PAGENAME
eMedicineSubj = |oo
MeshID = D006331
Heart disease is an
umbrella termfor a variety for different diseases affecting the heart. As of 2007, it is the leading cause of death in the United States, [ cite journal
last = Division of Vital Statistics
coauthors = Arialdi M. Miniño, M.P.H., Melonie P. Heron, Ph.D., Sherry L. Murphy, B.S., Kenneth D. Kochanek, M.A.
title = Deaths: Final data for 2004
journal = National Vital Statistics Reports
volume = 55
issue = 19
pages = 7
publisher = Center for Disease Control
location = United States
url = http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr55/nvsr55_19.pdf
accessdate = 2007-12-30 ] [Citation
last = White House News
title = American Heart Month, 2007
accessdate = 2007-07-16]
England, Canadaand Wales, [ [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/hsq0506.pdf National Statistics Press Release] 25 May 2006] killing one person every 34 seconds in the United States alone. [cite news
last = Hitti
first = Miranda
title = Heart Disease Kills Every 34 Seconds in U.S.
publisher = Fox News - WebMD
url = http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,142436,00.html
accessdate = 2007-12-30 ]
Types of heart disease
Coronary heart disease
"Coronary artery disease" is a disease of the artery caused by the accumulation of
atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium. Angina pectoris(chest pain) and myocardial infarction (heart attack) are symptoms of and conditions caused by coronary heart disease.
Over 451,000 Americans die of coronary heart disease every yearAmerican Heart Association:And if they didnt smoke that number would be way way way down!?! [http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3000090 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics] -2008 Update. AHA, Dallas, Texas, 2008] . In the
United Kingdom, 101,000 deaths annually are due to coronary heart disease. [ [http://www.heartstats.org/uploads/documents%5C2007.chapter1.pdf British Heart Statistics report] ]
"Cardiomyopathy" literally means "heart muscle disease" (Myo= muscle, pathy= disease) It is the deterioration of the function of the
myocardium(i.e., the actual heart muscle) for any reason. People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmiaand/or sudden cardiac death.
* Extrinsic cardiomyopathies - cardiomyopathies where the primary
pathologyis outside the myocardium itself. Most cardiomyopathies are extrinsic, because by far the most common cause of a cardiomyopathy is ischemia. The World Health Organizationcalls these "specific cardiomyopathies"Fact|date=December 2007:
Coronary artery disease
Congenital heart disease- see below
** Nutritional diseases affecting the heart
** Ischemic (or ischaemic) cardiomyopathy
Valvular cardiomyopathy- see also "Valvular heart disease" below
Inflammatory cardiomyopathy- see also "Inflammatory heart disease" below
** Cardiomyopathy secondary to a systemic metabolic disease
* Intrinsic cardiomyopathies - weakness in the muscle of the heart that is not due to an identifiable external cause.
Dilated cardiomyopathy(DCM) - most common form, and one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In DCM the heart (especially the left ventricle) is enlarged and the pumping function is diminished.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM or HOCM) - genetic disordercaused by various mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. In HCM the heart muscle is thickened, which can obstruct blood flow and prevent the heart from functioning properly.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy(ARVC) - arises from an electrical disturbance of the heart in which heart muscle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue. The right ventricleis generally most affected.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy(RCM) - least common cardiomyopathy. The walls of the ventricles are stiff, but may not be thickened, and resist the normal filling of the heart with blood. ** Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy- the left ventricle wall has failed to properly grow from birth and such has a spongy appearance when viewed during an echocardiogram.
"Cardiovascular disease" is any of a number of specific diseases that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system, especially the veins and arteries leading to and from the heart. Research on disease dimorphism suggests that women who suffer with cardiovascular disease usually suffer from forms that affect the blood vessels while men usually suffer from forms that affect the heart muscle itself. Known or associated causes of cardiovascular disease include
diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemiaand hypercholesterolemia.
Types of cardiovascular disease include:
Ischaemic heart disease
Ischaemic heart disease- another disease of the heart itself, characterized by reduced blood supply to the organs.
"Heart failure", also called "congestive heart failure" (or "CHF"), and congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is a condition that can result from any structural or functional
cardiacdisorder that impairs the ability of the heartto fill with or pump a sufficient amount of bloodthroughout the body.
Cor pulmonale, a failure of the right side of the heart.
Hypertensive heart disease
"Hypertensive heart disease" is heart disease caused by high blood pressure, especially localised high blood pressure. Conditions that can be caused by hypertensive heart disease include:
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Coronary heart disease
* (Congestive) heart failure
Inflammatory heart disease
"Inflammatory heart disease" involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or the tissue surrounding it.
Endocarditis- inflammationof the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The most common structures involved are the heart valves.
Myocarditis- inflammationof the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart.
Valvular heart disease
"Valvular heart disease" is disease process that has one tube valves of the
heart. The valves in the right side of the heart are the tricuspid valveand the pulmonic valve. The valves in the left side of the heart are the mitral valveand the aortic valve.
Aortic valve stenosis
Mitral valve prolapse
Diet and heart disease
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor
* High blood pressure (Hypertension)
* [http://videos.med.wisc.edu/videoInfo.php?videoid=266 VIDEO - Heart Disease in the Female Population: Prevalence, Presentation and Pathophysiology] , Mary Zasadil, MD, speaks at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health (2007)
* [http://ww2.heartandstroke.ca/Page.asp?PageID=1969&CategoryID=1&Src=heart Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada] - Information Resource on Heart Disease
* [http://www.bhf.org.uk/ British Heart Foundation]
* [http://www.healthination.com/heart_disease.php VIDEO - What is Heart Disease?]
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