- Oropharyngeal cancer
Oropharyngeal cancer Head and neck. Pharynx Gray's subject #244 1141 Artery pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery, ascending palatine, descending palatine, pharyngeal branches of inferior thyroid Vein pharyngeal veins Nerve pharyngeal plexus MeSH Pharynx
Oropharyngeal cancer is a disease which malignant cells form in the tissue of oropharynx. Oropharynx is a middle part of the throat which includes the base of the tongue, the tonsils, the soft palate, and the walls of the pharynx.
For patients with advanced oropharyngeal cancer the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy appears to be as efficient as surgical management. Shiley et al compared the maintenance of swallowing function with the two approaches. They studied 27 patients who underwent the advanced stage (III and IV) of oropharyngeal cancer. Among those patients, 67% had base of tongue lesions and 82% of them used gastrostomy tube either before or during the treatment. Three months after the chemoradiation, 33% of the patients were consuming all nutrition orally, 45% had some oral intake but still had the tube feeding, and 22% had no oral intake at all. The results showed that the short-term incidence of gastrostomy tube dependence after chemo radiation was similar to that after surgical management of oropharyngeal cancer at their institution.
- A sore throat that persists
- Pain or difficulty with swallowing
- Unexplained weight loss
- Voice changes
- Ear pain
- A lump in the back of the throat or mouth
- A lump in the neck
- A dull pain behind the sternum
Following are the risk factors that can increase the risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer. 
- Smoking and chewing tobacco.
- Heavy alcohol use.
- A diet low in fruits and vegetables.
- Chewing betel quid, a stimulant commonly used in parts of Asia.
- Being infected with human papilloma virus (HPV).
- EBV infection.
- plummer-Vinson syndrome.
- poor nutrition.
- P53 mutation
CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION HIGH-risk lesions
- speckled Erythroplakia
- Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis
Medium- risk lesions.
- oral submucosal fibrosis
- syphilitic glossitis
- sideropenic dysphagia (or paterson-kelly-brown syndrome)
- oral lichen planus
- discoid lupus erythematosus
- discoid keratosis congenita.
The prognosis for people with oropharyngeal cancer depends on the age and health of the person and the stage of the disease. It is important for people with oropharyngeal cancer to have follow-up exams for the rest of their lives as cancer can occur in nearby areas. In addition, it is important to eliminate risk factors such as smoking and drinking alcohol, which increase the risk for second cancers.
There are three ways of cancer spreading in the body.
- Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissues.
- Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
- Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
Stage 0 carcinoma in situ
Cancer has formed and is 2 centimeters or smaller and has not spread outside the oropharynx.
Cancer has formed and is larger than 2 centimeters, but not larger than 4 centimeters. Also it has not yet spread outside the oropharynx.
- Cancer is larger than 4 centimeters and has not spread outside the oropharynx
- Any size and has spread to only one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer. The lymph node with cancer is 3 centimeters or smaller.
- Cancer has spread to tissues near the oropharynx, including the voice box, roof of the mouth, lower jaw, muscle of the tongue, or central muscles of the jaw, and may have spread to one or more nearby lymph nodes, none larger than 6 centimeters.
- Cancer is any size and has spread to one lymph node that is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters on the same side of the neck as the cancer, or to more than one lymph node, none larger than 6 centimeters, on one of both sides of the neck.
- Cancer surrounds the main artery in the neck or has spread to bones in the jaw or skull, to muscle in the side of the jaw, or to the upper part of the throat behind the nose, and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes
- Cancer has spread to a lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters and may have spread to tissues around the oropharynx.
Cancer has spread to other parts of the body; the tumor may be any size and may have spread to lymph nodes.
Society and culture
- HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer
- Head and neck cancer
- Cancer of the larynx
- Thyroid cancer
- Human pharynx
- ^ a b c "Oropharyngeal Cancer Overview". Cleveland Clinic. 9/7/2007. http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/Oropharyngeal_Cancer/hic_Oropharyngeal_Cancer.aspx. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
- ^ Shiley SG; Hargunani CA; Skoner JM; Holland JM; Wax MK (March 2006). "Swallowing Function after Chemoradiation for Advanced Stage Oropharyngeal Cancer". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery 134 (3): 455–9. PMID 16500444.
- ^ a b c d "Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)". National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/oropharyngeal/patient/. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
- ^ DeNoon, Daniel J. (September 1, 2010). "Michael Douglas and Throat Cancer FAQ". WebMD Health News. WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/cancer/news/20100901/throat-cancer-faq. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
Pathology: Tumor, Neoplasm, Cancer, and Oncology (C00–D48, 140–239) ConditionsMalignant progressionTopographyHistologyOtherPrecancerous condition · Paraneoplastic syndrome Staging/grading Carcinogenesis Misc.
tumr, epon, para
Tumors of lip, oral cavity and pharynx / head and neck cancer (C00–C14/D10–D11, 140–149/210) Oral cancer Head and neck, upper RT: Nose (TA A06.1, TH H3.05.01, GA 10.992) External nose Nasal cavityOpeningsLateral wallMedial wall Paranasal sinuses Naso-pharynx Head and neck anatomy, digestive system: Mouth anatomy (TA A05.1–2, TH H3.04.01, GA 11.1110–2, 1125–1141) MouthTeethsee tooth anatomy Oro-pharynx/
Anatomy of torso, digestive system: Gastrointestinal tract, excluding mouth (TA A05.3–7, TH H3.04.02-04, GA 11.1141) Upper GIGoblet cell Lower GILayersno substructuresLayersTransverse folds of rectum • Rectal ampulla
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