Bursitis Classification and external resources
Example of Elbow Bursitis
ICD-10 M70-M71 ICD-9 727.3 DiseasesDB 31623 MedlinePlus 000419 eMedicine emerg/74 MeSH D002062
Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of synovial fluid in the body. The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone. Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless. When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying upon the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem.
Signs and symptoms
Bursitis symptoms vary from local joint pain and stiffness, to burning pain that surrounds the joint around the inflamed bursa. In this condition, the pain usually is worse during and after activity, and then the bursa and the surrounding joint become stiff the next day in the morning.
Bursitis is commonly caused by repetitive movement and excessive pressure. Elbows and knees are the most commonly affected. Inflammation of the bursae might also be caused by other inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Although infrequent, scoliosis might cause bursitis of the shoulders; however, shoulder bursitis is more commonly caused by overuse of the shoulder joint and related muscles.
Traumatic injury is another cause of bursitis. The inflammation irritates because the bursa no longer fits in the original small area between the bone and the functionary muscle or tendon. When the bone increases pressure upon the bursa, bursitis results. Sometimes the reason is unknown. It can also be associated with some chronic systemic diseases.
The most common examples of this condition:
- Prepatellar bursitis, "housemaid's knee"
- Infrapatellar bursitis, "clergyman's knee"
- Trochanteric bursitis, giving hip pain
- Olecranon bursitis, "student's elbow", characterised by pain and swelling in the elbow
- Subacromial bursitis, giving shoulder pain
Bursae that are not infected can be treated with rest, ice, elevation, physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and pain medication. Since bursitis is caused by increased friction from the adjacent structures, a compression bandage is contraindicated because compression would create more friction on movement (passive and active). Advanced massage therapy techniques can also be employed to help with the inflammatory process of bursitis.
Bursae that are infected requires further investigation and antibiotic therapy. In cases when all conservative treatment fails, surgical therapy may be necessary. In a bursectomy the bursa is cut out either endoscopically or with open surgery. The bursa grows back in place after a couple of weeks but without any inflammatory component.
- Calcific bursitis
- American College of Rheumatology
- Bursitis treatment from NHS Direct
- General Bursitis Information at About.com
- Information from the Mayo Clinic
- Bursitis information and treatment options from Bursitis.ws
- Bursitis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Types and Diagnosis from MedicineNet.com
Soft tissue disorders / Rheumatism / Connective tissue arthropathy (M65–M79, 725–728) Capsular jointSynovitis/Tenosynovitis (Calcific tendinitis, Stenosing tenosynovitis, Trigger finger, DeQuervain's syndrome) · Transient synovitis · Ganglion cystvillonodular synovitis (Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath)BursopathyBursitis (Olecranon, Prepatellar, Trochanteric, Subacromial) · Synovial cyst (Baker's cyst) · Calcific bursitis Noncapsular jointEnthesopathy/Enthesitis
(and general tendinopathy)upper limb (Adhesive capsulitis of shoulder, Impingement syndrome Rotator cuff tear, Golfer's elbow, Tennis elbow)lower limb (Iliotibial band syndrome, Patellar tendinitis, Achilles tendinitis, Calcaneal spur, Metatarsalgia) · Bone spurother/general: Tendinitis · Tendinosis
NonjointDupuytren's contracture · Plantar fibromatosis · Aggressive fibromatosis · Knuckle pads
anat(h/c, u, t, l)/phys
noco(arth/defr/back/soft)/cong, sysi/epon, injr
proc, drug(M01C, M4)Categories:
- Soft tissue disorders
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