- Dizzy Gillespie
Gillespie in concert, Deauville, Normandy, France
Background information Birth name John Birks Gillespie Born October 21, 1917
Cheraw, South Carolina, U.S.
Died January 6, 1993(aged 75)
Englewood, New Jersey, U.S.
Occupations Trumpeter, bandleader, singer, composer Instruments Trumpet, piano, trombone Years active 1935–1993 Labels Pablo Records, Verve Records, Savoy Records, RCA Victor Records, Milan Records, Douglas Records Associated acts Charlie Parker
Together with Charlie Parker, he was a major figure in the development of bebop and modern jazz. He taught and influenced many other musicians, including trumpeters Miles Davis, Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown, Arturo Sandoval, Lee Morgan, Jon Faddis and Chuck Mangione.
Allmusic's Scott Yanow wrote that "Dizzy Gillespie's contributions to jazz were huge. One of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time (some would say the best), Gillespie was such a complex player that his contemporaries ended up copying Miles Davis and Fats Navarro instead, and it was not until Jon Faddis's emergence in the 1970s that Dizzy's style was successfully recreated . . . Arguably Gillespie is remembered, by both critics and fans alike, as one of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time."
In addition to featuring in the epochal moments in bebop, he was instrumental in founding Afro-Cuban jazz, the modern jazz version of what early-jazz pioneer Jelly Roll Morton referred to as the "Spanish Tinge". Gillespie was a trumpet virtuoso and gifted improviser, building on the virtuoso style of Roy Eldridge but adding layers of harmonic complexity previously unknown in jazz. Dizzy's beret and horn-rimmed spectacles, his scat singing, his bent horn, pouched cheeks and his light-hearted personality were essential in popularizing bebop.
Early life and career
He was born in Cheraw, South Carolina, the youngest of nine children born to James and Lottie Gillespie. James was a local bandleader, so instruments were made available to Dizzy. He started to play the piano at the age of four. Dizzy's father died when the boy was only ten years old. Dizzy taught himself how to play the trombone as well as the trumpet by the age of twelve. From the night he heard his idol, Roy Eldridge, play on the radio, he dreamed of becoming a jazz musician. He received a music scholarship to the Laurinburg Institute in Laurinburg, North Carolina He attended for two years before accompanying his family when they moved to Philadelphia.
Dizzy's first professional job was with the Frank Fairfax Orchestra in 1935, after which he joined the respective orchestras of Edgar Hayes and Teddy Hill, essentially replacing Roy Eldridge as first trumpet in 1937. Teddy Hill’s band was where Dizzy Gillespie made his first recording, King Porter Stomp. At this time Dizzy met a young woman named Lorraine from the Apollo Theatre, whom he married in 1940. They remained married until his death in 1993. Dizzy stayed with Teddy Hill’s band for a year, then left and free-lanced with numerous other bands. In 1939, Dizzy joined Cab Calloway's orchestra, with which he recorded one of his earliest compositions, the instrumental Pickin' the Cabbage, in 1940. (Originally released on Paradiddle, a 78rpm backed with a co-composition with Cozy Cole, Calloway's drummer at the time, on the Vocalion label, #5467).
Dizzy was fired by Calloway in late 1941, after a notorious altercation between the two. The incident is recounted by Dizzy, along with fellow Calloway band members Milt Hinton and Jonah Jones, in Jean Bach's 1997 film, The Spitball Story. Calloway did not approve of Dizzy's mischievous humor, nor of his adventuresome approach to soloing; according to Jones, Calloway referred to it as “Chinese music.” During one performance, Calloway saw a spitball land on the stage, and accused Dizzy of having thrown it. Dizzy denied it, and the ensuing argument led to Calloway striking Dizzy, who then pulled out a switchblade knife and charged Calloway. The two were separated by other band members, during which scuffle Calloway was cut on the hand.
During his time in Calloway's band, Dizzy Gillespie started writing big band music for bandleaders like Woody Herman and Jimmy Dorsey. He then freelanced with a few bands - most notably Ella Fitzgerald's orchestra, composed of members of the late Chick Webb's band, in 1942.
In 1943, Dizzy joined the Earl Hines orchestra. The legendary big band of Billy Eckstine gave his unusual harmonies a better setting and it was as a member of Eckstine's band that he was reunited with Parker, a fellow member of Hines's more conventional band. In 1945, Dizzy left Eckstine's band because he wanted to play with a small combo. A "small combo" typically comprised no more than five musicians, playing the trumpet, saxophone, piano, bass and drums.He was a world renowned figure and was a major influence on modern day jazz.
The rise of bebop
Bebop was known as the first modern jazz style. However, it was unpopular in the beginning and was not viewed as positively as swing music was. Bebop was seen as an outgrowth of swing, not a revolution. Swing introduced a diversity of new musicians in the bebop era like Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell, Kenny Clarke, Oscar Pettiford, and Gillespie. Through these musicians, a new vocabulary of musical phrases was created. With Charlie Parker, Gillespie jammed at famous jazz clubs like Minton's Playhouse and Monroe's Uptown House, where the first seeds of bebop were planted. Charlie Parker's system also held methods of adding chords to existing chord progressions and implying additional chords within the improvised lines.
Gillespie compositions like "Groovin' High", "Woody n' You" and "Salt Peanuts" sounded radically different, harmonically and rhythmically, from the swing music popular at the time. "A Night in Tunisia", written in 1942, while Gillespie was playing with Earl Hines' band, is noted for having a feature that is common in today's music, a non-walking bass line. The song also displays Afro-Cuban rhythms. One of their first (and greatest) small-group performances together was only issued in 2005: a concert in New York's Town Hall on June 22, 1945. Gillespie taught many of the young musicians on 52nd Street, including Miles Davis and Max Roach about the new style of jazz. After a lengthy gig at Billy Berg's club in Los Angeles, which left most of the audience ambivalent or hostile towards the new music, the band broke up. Unlike Parker, who was content to play in small groups and be an occasional featured soloist in big bands, Gillespie aimed to lead a big band himself; his first, unsuccessful, attempt to do this was in 1945.
After his work with Parker, Gillespie led other small combos (including ones with Milt Jackson, John Coltrane, Lalo Schifrin, Ray Brown, Kenny Clarke, James Moody, J.J. Johnson, and Yusef Lateef) and finally put together his first successful big band. Dizzy Gillespie and his band tried to popularize bop and make Dizzy Gillespie a symbol of the new music. He also appeared frequently as a soloist with Norman Granz's Jazz at the Philharmonic. He also headlined the 1946 independently-produced musical revue film Jivin' in Be-Bop.
In 1948 Dizzy was involved in a traffic accident when the bicycle he was riding was bumped by an automobile. He was slightly injured, and found that he could no longer hit the B-flat above high C. He won the case, but the jury awarded him only $1000, in view of his high earnings up to that point.
In 1956 he organized a band to go on a State Department tour of the Middle East and earned the nickname "the Ambassador of Jazz". During this time, he also continued to lead a big band that performed throughout the United States and featured musicians including Pee Wee Moore and others. This band recorded a live album at the 1957 Newport jazz festival that featured Mary Lou Williams as a guest artist on piano.
In the late 1940s, Gillespie was also involved in the movement called Afro-Cuban music, bringing Afro-Latin American music and elements to greater prominence in jazz and even pop music, particularly salsa. Afro-Cuban jazz is based on traditional Afro-Cuban rhythms. Dizzy Gillespie was introduced to Chano Pozo in 1947 by Mario Bauza, a Latin jazz trumpet player. Chano Pozo became Gillespie's conga drummer for his band. Dizzy Gilespie also worked with Mario Bauza in New York jazz clubs on 52nd street and several famous dance clubs such as Palladium and the Apollo Theater in Harlem. They played together in the Chick Webb band and Cab Calloway's band, where Gillespie and Bauza became life-long friends. Dizzy helped develop and mature the Afro-Cuban jazz style.
Afro-Cuban jazz was considered bebop-oriented, and some musicians classified it as a modern style. Afro-Cuban jazz was successful because it never decreased in popularity and it always attracted people to dance to its unique rhythms. Gillespie's most famous contributions to Afro-Cuban music are the compositions "Manteca" and "Tin Tin Deo" (both co-written with Chano Pozo); he was responsible for commissioning George Russell's "Cubano Be, Cubano Bop", which featured the great but ill-fated Cuban conga player, Chano Pozo. In 1977, Gillespie discovered Arturo Sandoval while researching music during a tour of Cuba.
His biographer Alyn Shipton quotes Don Waterhouse approvingly that Dizzy in the fifties "had begun to mellow into an amalgam of his entire jazz experience to form the basis of new classicism". Another opinion is that, unlike his contemporary Miles Davis, Gillespie essentially remained true to the bebop style for the rest of his career.
During the 1964 United States presidential campaign the artist, with tongue in cheek, put himself forward as an independent write-in candidate. He promised that if he were elected, the White House would be renamed "The Blues House," and a cabinet composed of Duke Ellington (Secretary of State), Miles Davis, (Director of the CIA), Max Roach (Secretary of Defense), Charles Mingus (Secretary of Peace), Ray Charles (Librarian of Congress), Louis Armstrong (Secretary of Agriculture), Mary Lou Williams (Ambassador to the Vatican), Thelonious Monk (Travelling Ambassador) and Malcolm X (Attorney General). He said his running mate would be Phyllis Diller. Campaign buttons had been manufactured years ago by Gillespie's booking agency "for publicity, as a gag", but now proceeds from them went to benefit the Congress of Racial Equality, Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr.; in later years they became a collector's item. In 1971 Gillespie announced he would run again but withdrew before the election for reasons connected to the Baha'i faith.
Gillespie published his autobiography, To Be or Not to Bop, in 1979.
In the 1980s, Dizzy Gillespie led the United Nation Orchestra. For three years Flora Purim toured with the Orchestra and she credits Gillespie with evolving her understanding of jazz after being in the field for over two decades. David Sánchez also toured with the group and was also greatly influenced by Gillespie. Both artists later were nominated for Grammy awards. Gillespie also had a guest appearance on The Cosby Show as well as Sesame Street and The Muppet Show.
In 1982, Dizzy Gillespie had a cameo appearance on Stevie Wonder's hit "Do I Do". Gillespie's tone gradually faded in the last years in life, and his performances often focused more on his proteges such as Arturo Sandoval and Jon Faddis; his good-humoured comedic routines became more and more a part of his live act.
In 1988, Gillespie had worked with Canadian flautist and saxophonist Moe Koffman on their prestigious album Oo Pop a Da. He did fast scat vocals on the title track and a couple of the other tracks were played only on trumpet.
In 1989 Gillespie gave 300 performances in 27 countries, appeared in 100 U.S. cities in 31 states and the District of Columbia, headlined three television specials, performed with two symphonies, and recorded four albums. He was also crowned a traditional chief in Nigeria, received the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres; France's most prestigious cultural award. He was named Regent Professor by the University of California, and received his fourteenth honorary doctoral degree, this one from the Berklee College of Music. In addition, he was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award the same year. The next year, at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts ceremonies celebrating the centennial of American jazz, Gillespie received the Kennedy Center Honors Award and the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers Duke Ellington Award for 50 years of achievement as a composer, performer, and bandleader. In 1993 he received the Polar Music Prize in Sweden.
November 26, 1992 at Carnegie Hall in New York, following the Second Bahá'í World Congress was Dizzy's 75th birthday concert and his offering to the celebration of the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. Gillespie was to appear at Carnegie Hall for the 33rd time. The line-up included: Jon Faddis, Marvin "Doc" Holladay, James Moody, Paquito D'Rivera, and the Mike Longo Trio with Ben Brown on bass and Mickey Roker on drums. But Gillespie didn't make it because he was in bed suffering from cancer of the pancreas. "But the musicians played their real hearts out for him, no doubt suspecting that he would not play again. Each musician gave tribute to their friend, this great soul and innovator in the world of jazz."
Gillespie also starred in a film called The Winter in Lisbon released in 2004. He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7057 Hollywood Boulevard in the Hollywood section of the City of Los Angeles. He is honored by the December 31, 2006 - A Jazz New Year's Eve: Freddy Cole & the Dizzy Gillespie All-Star Big Band at The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.
Death and legacy
A longtime resident of Englewood, New Jersey, he died of pancreatic cancer January 6, 1993, aged 75, and was buried in the Flushing Cemetery, Queens, New York. Mike Longo delivered a eulogy at his funeral. He was also with Gillespie on the night he died, along with Jon Faddis and a select few others.
At the time of his death, Dizzy Gillespie was survived by his widow, Lorraine Willis Gillespie; a daughter, jazz singer Jeanie Bryson; and a grandson, Radji Birks Bryson-Barrett. Gillespie had two funerals. One was a Bahá'í funeral at his request, at which his closest friends and colleagues attended. The second was at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York open to the public.
Dizzy Gillespie, a Bahá'í since 1970, was one of the most famous adherents of the Bahá'í Faith which helped him make sense of his position in a succession of trumpeters as well as turning his life from knife-carrying roughneck to global citizen, and from alcohol to soul force, in the words of author Nat Hentoff, who knew Gillespie for forty years. He spoke about the Baha'i Faith frequently on his trips abroad. He is often called the Bahá'í Jazz Ambassador. He is honored with weekly jazz sessions at the New York Bahá'í Center.
Gillespie has been described as the "Sound of Surprise". The Rough Guide to Jazz describes his musical style:The whole essence of a Gillespie solo was cliff-hanging suspense: the phrases and the angle of the approach were perpetually varied, breakneck runs were followed by pauses, by huge interval leaps, by long, immensely high notes, by slurs and smears and bluesy phrases; he always took listeners by surprise, always shocking them with a new thought. His lightning reflexes and superb ear meant his instrumental execution matched his thoughts in its power and speed. And he was concerned at all times with swing — even taking the most daring liberties with pulse or beat, his phrases never failed to swing. Gillespies’s magnificent sense of time and emotional intensity of his playing came from childhood roots. His parents were Methodists, but as a boy he used to sneak off every Sunday to the uninhibited Sanctified Church. He said later, ‘The Sanctified Church had deep significance for me musically. I first learned the significance of rhythm there and all about how music can transport people spiritually.'"
In Dizzy's obituary, Peter Watrous describes his performance style:In the naturally effervescent Mr. Gillespie, opposites existed. His playing — and he performed constantly until nearly the end of his life — was meteoric, full of virtuosic invention and deadly serious. But with his endlessly funny asides, his huge variety of facial expressions and his natural comic gifts, he was as much a pure entertainer as an accomplished artist."
Wynton Marsalis summed up Gillespie as a player and teacher:His playing showcases the importance of intelligence. His rhythmic sophistication was unequaled. He was a master of harmony — and fascinated with studying it. He took in all the music of his youth — from Roy Eldridge to Duke Ellington — and developed a unique style built on complex rhythm and harmony balanced by wit. Dizzy was so quick-minded, he could create an endless flow of ideas at unusually fast tempo. Nobody had ever even considered playing a trumpet that way, let alone had actually tried. All the musicians respected him because, in addition to outplaying everyone, he knew so much and was so generous with that knowledge..."
Gillespie's trademark trumpet featured a bell which bent upward at a 45-degree angle rather than pointing straight ahead as in the conventional design. In honor of this trademark, the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History has collected Gillespie's B-flat trumpet. According to Gillespie's autobiography, this was originally the result of accidental damage caused by someone sitting on it during a job on January 6, 1953, but the constriction caused by the bending altered the tone of the instrument, and Gillespie liked the effect. Gillespie's biographer Alyn Shipton writes that Gillespie likely got the idea when he saw a similar instrument in 1937 in Manchester, England while on tour with the Teddy Hill Orchestra. According to this account (from British journalist Pat Brand) Gillespie was able to try out the horn and the experience led him, much later, to commission a similar horn for himself.
Whatever the origins of Gillespie's upswept trumpet, by June, 1954, Gillespie was using a professionally manufactured horn of this design, and it was to become a visual trademark for him for the rest of his life.
- 1937-49 The Complete RCA Victor Recordings
- 1941: The Immortal Charlie Christian (with Christian, Thelonious Monk, Delta Music re-released on Laserlight cassette)
- 1950: Bird & Diz
- 1952: Dee Gee Days - The Savoy Sessions
- 1953: Jazz at Massey Hall
- 1953: Diz & Getz (with Stan Getz, Oscar Peterson, Ray Brown, Max Roach, Herb Ellis)
- 1954: Afro
- 1956: Modern Jazz Sextet
- 1957: Sittin' In (with Stan Getz, Coleman Hawkins)
- 1957: Dizzy Gillespie at Newport
- 1957: Sonny Side Up (with Sonny Rollins, Sonny Stitt)
- 1957: Dizzy in Greece
- 1958: Birks' Works (Dizzy Gillespie Big Band)
- 1959: Have Trumpet, Will Excite!
- 1959: The Ebullient Mr. Gillespie
- 1960: A Portrait of Duke Ellington
- 1960/1961: Gillespiana/Carnegie Hall Conert (Verve Records)
- 1961: An Electrifying Evening with the Dizzy Gillespie Quintet
- 1961: Perceptions (Verve Records) (written by J.J. Johnson, conducted by Gunther Schuller)
- 1962: Dizzy on the French Riviera (Philips Records)
- 1963: New Wave (Philips) (with Lalo Schifrin, Bola Sete)
- 1963: Something Old, Something New
- 1963: Dizzy Gillespie and the Double Six of Paris
- 1964: The Cool World (Philips)
- 1964: Dizzy Goes Hollywood (Philips)
- 1964: Jambo Caribe (Limelight Records)
- 1965: The New Continent (Limelight)
- 1964: The Melody Lingers On (Limelight)
- 1967: Swing Low, Sweet Cadillac (Impulse!)
- 1968: Live at the Village Vanguard (produced by Sonny Lester
- 1968: Reunion Big Band In Berlin (MPS Records)
- 1969: Strictly Bebop (with Babs Gonzalez, Tad Dameron, Sonny Rollins, Miles Davis, John Coltrane), rec. 1949 EMI Capitol
- 1969: Real Thing (Perception Records)
- 1970: Portrait of Jenny (Perception)
- 1971: Giants (Perception, with Bobby Hackett)
- 1971: Dizzy Gillespie and the Mitchell Ruff Duo In Concert (Mainstream Records)
- 1974: Oscar Peterson and Dizzy Gillespie (Pablo Records)
- 1975: Afro-Cuban Jazz Moods (with Machito, Chico O'Farrill, Mario Bauza)
- 1975: Jazz Maturity...Where It's Coming From (Pablo)
- 1975: Oscar Peterson and The Trumpet Kings - Jousts (Pablo)
- 1975: The Trumpet Kings at Montreux '75 (Pablo)
- 1976: Dizzy's Party
- 1977: The Gifted Ones (with Count Basie) (Pablo)
- 1977: Free Ride
- 1981: Digital at Montreux, 1980 (Toots Thielemans, Bernard Purdie) (Pablo)
- 1985: New Faces (with Robert Ameen, Branford Marsalis, Kenny Kirkland, Lonnie Plaxico, Charlie Christian)
- 1988: Oop Pop a Da (with Moe Koffman)
- 1989: Live at the Royal Festival Hall London July 10, 1989
- 1989: The Symphony Sessions (with Ron Holloway, Ed Cherry, John Lee, Ignacio Berroa)
- 1990: The Winter in Lisbon
- 1990: Rhythmstick (CTI Records)
- 1991: Live! at Blues Alley (with Ron Holloway, Ed Cherry, John Lee, Ignacio Berroa)
- 1992: Groovin' High
- 1992: To Bird With Love
- 1995: In Paris v.2 Vogue RCA 1995
- 2000: Dizzy For President Douglas Records
- 1983 Jazz in America (Embassy)
- 1986 In Redondo Beach/Jazz In America ( Embassy)
- 1991 Dizzy Gillespie: A Night in Tunisia (VIEW)
- 1993 Live in London (Kultur Video)
- 1998 Dizzy Gillespie & Charles Mingus (Vidjazz)
- 1998 Dizzy Gillespie: Ages (Vidjazz)
- 1999 Jazz Casual: Dizzy Gillespie (Rhino)
- 2001 Jivin'in Be-Bop (Jazz Classic Video)
- 2001 Dizzy Gillespie: A Night in Chicago (VIEW)
- 2001 Live at the Royal Festival Hall 1987 (Pioneer)
- 2002 Live in Montreal (Image)
- 2003 20th Century Jazz Masters
- 2003 Swing Era (with Mel Torme) (Idem)
- 2005 Norman Granz Jazz in Montreux: Presents Dizzy Gillespie Sextet '77 (Eagle Vision USA)
- 2005 Summer Jazz Live at New Jersey 1987 (FS World Jazz / Alpha Centauri Entertainment)
- 2005 A Night in Havana: Dizzy Gillespie in Cuba (New Video Group)
- 2006 Jazz Icons: Live in '58 & '70 (Universal)
- 2008 London Concerts 1965 & 1966 (Impro-Jazz Spain)
- To Be, or Not...to Bop. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.
- ^ Watrous, P. Dizzy Gillespie, Who Sounded Some of Modern Jazz's Earliest Notes, Dies at 75, The New York Times Obituary, January 7, 1993
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- ^ "chuckmangione.com". chuckmangione.com. http://www.chuckmangione.com/bio.html. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ Yanow, S. (2002) All Music Guide to Jazz. Backbeat Books.
- ^ To be or not to bop: Memoirs of Dizzy Gillespie by Dizzy Gillespie and Al Fraser. Published: Doubleday, New York, 1979. Pages: 552
- ^ Reich, Howard. "Dizzy's Legacy: James Moody Carries on the Tradition of His Mentor", Chicago Tribune, March 28, 1993
- ^ "Priestly, Brian. "The Definitive Dizzy Gillespie" May 2000. 2 Jun 2009". Vervemusicgroup.com. http://www.vervemusicgroup.com/dizzygillespie. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ Palmer, Richer. "The Greatest Jazzman of Them All? The Recorded Work of Dizzy Gillespie: An Appraisal" Jazz Journal, January, 2001, p. 8
- ^ a b "Kato, Lisa. "Charlie Parker and the Rise of Bebop". 2003. 29 Jun 2009". Theguitarschool.com. http://www.theguitarschool.com/CharlieParker.html. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ Yanow, Scott. "Afro-Cuban Jazz". Hal Leonard Publication. 2000
- ^ Yanow, Scott. "Yanow, Scott. "Dizzy Gillespie Biography". 2009. June 25, 2009". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p6576/biography. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ "'Jivin’ in Be-Bop (DVD)". Filmthreat.com. 2004-08-17. http://www.filmthreat.com/index.php?section=reviews&Id=6365. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ Ready for the Plaintiff! by Melvin Belli, 1956.
- ^ "from Ken Burns's Jazz, A Gillespie Biography". .wwnorton.com. http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/music/enj9/shorter/composers/dizzy.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ "Ken Burns's Jazz, A Gillespie Biography". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/jazz/biography/artist_id_gillespie_dizzy.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ a b [Yanow, Scott. "Afro-Cuban Jazz". Hal Leonard Publication. 2000]
- ^ Gillespie, Dizzy; Al Fraser (2000) . "Diz for President". To Be or Not to Bop. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 452–461. ISBN 978-0-8166-6547-1.
- ^ Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 161–162. ISBN 1-59213-493-9.
- ^ "BBC radio broadcast on Gillespie's 1964 presidential campaign". Bbc.co.uk. 2007-01-08. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/pip/4y7yo/?focuswin. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ "The Winter in Lisbon" CD booklet.
- ^ Gillespie 2000 , op. cit. p. 453.
- ^ Gillespie 2000 , op. cit. p. 460.
- ^ Gelly, Dave (8 May 2005). "Other Jazz CDs". The Observer: p. Observer Review: 13. Archived from the original on 29 January 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5w6RN0u19. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- ^ "Dizzy Wants to Blow Right Into White House". Jet 40 (17): 61. 22 July 1971. ISSN 0021-5996. http://books.google.com/books?id=oDcDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA61.
- ^ "Dizzy Gillespie Picks Two Cabinet Members: Duke Ellington, Muhammad Ali". Jet 40 (26): 56. 23 September 1971. ISSN 0021-5996. http://books.google.com/books?id=4zcDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA56.
- ^ Gillespie 2000 , op. cit. pp. 460-461.
- ^ Beatrice Richardson for JazzReview interviews Flora Purim - Queen of Brazilian Jazz.
- ^ Pop/Jazz; A Tribute For Gillespie And the Jazz He Created.
- ^ Jazz with Bob Parlocha - Biographies - Dizzy Gillespie.
- ^ Polar Music Prize - The Prizewinners of 1993[dead link].
- ^ The Spiritual Side of Dizzy by Lowell Johnson.
- ^ "The Winter in Lisbon" Dizzy Gillespie | Milan Records (2004).
- ^ The Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Schedule 2006-7.
- ^ Berman, Eleanor. "The jazz of Queens encompasses music royalty", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 1, 2006. Accessed October 1, 2009. "Mr. Knight shows the brick building that was the studio of Dizzie Gillespie, where other Corona residents like Cannonball Adderley used to come and jam."
- ^ Dizzy Gillespie Memorial.
- ^ "Remembering Dizzy". Jazztimes.com. http://jazztimes.com/columns_and_features/final_chorus/index.cfm?id=46. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- ^ Groovin' High The Life of Dizzy Gillespie by Alyn Shipton.
- ^ Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie Review by Brad Pokorny
- ^ "The Bahá'í Voice Presents:Dizzy Gileespie, Bahá'í Jazz Ambassador". Unbf.ca. http://www.unbf.ca/clubs/abs/dizzy.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-20. [dead link]
- ^ Jazz @ the Bahá'í Center[dead link].
- ^ Shipton, A. Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie (1999) New York: Oxford University Press.
- ^ Carr, I., Fairweather, D, Brian P, The rough guide to Jazz. page. 291
- ^ Watrous, Peter. "Dizzy Gillespie, Who Sounded Some of Modern Jazz's Earliest Notes, Dies at 75”, New York Times, January 7, 1993
- ^ Marsalis, W. with Geoffrey C. Ward. Moving to higher ground : how jazz can change your life. New York : Random House, 2008.
- ^ "Dizzy Gillespie's B-flat trumpet along with one of his Al Cass mouthpieces". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object.cfm?key=35&objkey=62. Retrieved 2008-09-08.
- ^ Shipton, Alyn. 'Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie' New York : Oxford University Press. (see pp.258-259)
- ^ Artist: Gillespie, Dizzy. "VIEW DVD Listing". View.com. http://www.view.com/dizzy_gillespie_a_night_in_chicago_dvd.aspx. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
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