- Hollywood, Los Angeles, California
Hollywood is a
districtin the city of Los Angeles, California, situated west-northwest of Downtown Los Angeles. [ [http://www.laalmanac.com/LA/lamap2.htm City of Los Angeles Map - Larger View ] ] Due to its fame and cultural identityas the historical center of movie studios and movie stars, the word "Hollywood" is often used as a metonymof cinema of the United States. Tinseltown is sometimes used as a sneering nickname. Today, much of the movie industry has dispersed into surrounding areas such as Burbank and the Los Angeles Westside[ [http://www.muniservices.com/consulting/LA_Final%20Evaluation%20Report%20January%2015.pdf] ] but significant auxiliary industries, such as editing, effects, props, post-production and lighting companies, remain in Hollywood.
Many historic Hollywood
theaters are used as venues and concert stages to premiere major theatrical releases and host the Academy Awards. It is a popular destination for nightlife and tourism and home to the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Although it is not the typical practice of the city of Los Angeles to establish specific boundaries for districts or neighborhoods, Hollywood is a recent exception. On February 16, 2005,
AssemblyMembers Goldbergand Koretzintroduced a bill to require Californiato keep specific records on Hollywood as though it were independent. For this to be done, the boundaries were defined. This bill was unanimously supported by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerceand the LA City Council. Assembly Bill 588 was approved by the Governor on August 28, 2006 and now the district of Hollywood has official borders. The border can be loosely described as the area east of Beverly Hills and West Hollywood, south of Mulholland Drive, Laurel Canyon, Cahuenga Blvd. and Barham Blvd. and the cities of Burbankand Glendale, north of Melrose Avenueand west of the Golden State Freewayand Hyperion Avenue. Note that this includes all of Griffith Parkand Los Feliz—two areas that were hitherto generally considered separate from Hollywood by most Angelenos. The population of the district, including Los Feliz, as of the 2000 census was 167,664 and the medianhousehold income was $33,409 in 1999.cite web|url=http://www.laalmanac.com/LA/la00c25.htm|title=LA Almanac|accessdate=2007-05-24]
As a portion of the city of Los Angeles, Hollywood does not have its own municipal government, but does have an official, appointed by the [http://www.hollywoodchamber.net] Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, who serves as "
Honorary Mayor of Hollywood" for ceremonial purposes only. Johnny Grantheld this position for decades, until his death on January 9, 2008. [Scott, Allen J. (2005). "On Hollywood: The Place, The Industry." Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691116830] cite web|url=http://www.cnn.com/2008/SHOWBIZ/TV/01/10/grant.obit|title=Johnny Grant, honorary Hollywood mayor, dies|publisher= CNN.com|accessdate=2008-01-12]
In 1853, one
adobehut stood on the site that became Hollywood. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished in the area with thriving crops.A locally popular etymology is that the name "Hollywood" traces to the ample stands of native Toyonor "California Holly", that cover the hillsides with clusters of bright red berries each winter. But this and accounts of the name coming from imported hollythen growing in the area, are not confirmed. The name Hollywood was coined by H. J. Whitley,Keith, Gaelyn Whitley. (2006). "The Father of Hollywood: The True Story." BookSurge Publishing. ISBN 1419641948] the Father of Hollywood. He and his wife, Gigi, came up with the name while on their honeymoon, according to Margaret Virginia Whitley's memoir.By 1900, the community then called Cahuengahad a post office, newspaper, hotel and two markets, along with a population of 500. Los Angeles, with a population of 100,000 people at the time, lay 10 miles east through the citrus groves. A single-track streetcar lineran down the middle of Prospect Avenuefrom it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit packing house would be converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood.
The first section of the famous
Hollywood Hotel, the first major hotel in Hollywood, was opened in 1902, by H. J. Whitley, the President of the Los Pacific Bolevard and Development Company of which he was a major shareholder. He was eager to sell residential lots among the lemon ranches then lining the foothills. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue. Still a dusty, unpaved road, it was regularly graded and graveled.
Hollywood was incorporated as a
municipalityin 1903. Among the town ordinances was one prohibiting the sale of liquorexcept by pharmacists and one outlawing the driving of cattle through the streets in herds of more than two hundred. In 1904, a new trolley car track running from Los Angeles to Hollywood up Prospect Avenue was opened. The system was called "the Hollywood Boulevard." It cut travel time to and from Los Angeles drastically.
By 1910, because of an ongoing struggle to secure an adequate
watersupply, the townsmen voted for Hollywood to be annexedinto the City of Los Angeles, as the water system of the growing city had opened the Los Angeles Aqueductand was piping water down from the Owens Riverin the Owens Valley. Another reason for the vote was that Hollywood could have access to drainage through Los Angeles´ sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue was changed to Hollywood Boulevardand all the street numbers in the new district changed. For example, 100 Prospect Avenue, at VermontAvenue, became 6400 Hollywood Boulevard; and 100 Cahuenga Boulevard, at Hollywood Boulevard, changed to 1700 Cahuenga Boulevard.
Motion picture industry
Filmmaking in the greater Los Angeles area preceded the establishment of filmmaking in Hollywood. The Biograph Company filmed the short film "A Daring Hold-Up in Southern California" in Los Angeles in 1906. [Kemp R. Niver (1971). "Biograph Bulletins, 1896–1908". Los Angeles: Locare Research Group, 262.] The first studio in the Los Angeles area was established by the
Selig Polyscope Companyin Edendale, with construction beginning in August 1909. [Patrick Robertson, "Film Facts", Billboard Books, 2001, p. 21.]
In early 1910, director
D. W. Griffithwas sent by the Biograph Company to the west coast with his troupe, consisting of actors Blanche Sweet, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymoreand others. They started filming on a vacant lot in downtown Los Angeles. The company decided to explore new territories and traveled five miles north to the little village Hollywood, which was friendly and enjoyed the movie company filming there. Griffith then filmed the first movie ever shot in Hollywood called "In Old California", a melodrama set in Mexican-owned California in the 1800s. The movie company stayed there for months and made several films before returning to New York.
The first studio in Hollywood was established by the New Jersey-based Centaur Co., which wanted to make westerns in California. They rented an unused roadhouse at 6121
Sunset Boulevardat the corner of Gower, and converted it into a movie studio in October 1911, calling it Nestor Studio after the name of the western branch of their company. [Patrick Robertson, "Film Facts", Billboard Books, 2001, p. 21. The facility later became the Hollywood Film Laboratory, which is now called the Hollywood Digital Laboratory.] The first feature filmmade specifically in a Hollywood studio, in 1914, was "The Squaw Man", directed by Cecil B. DeMilleand Oscar Apfel. [Feature-length films made in the Los Angeles area before "The Squaw Man" include "From Dusk to Dawn" (1913) and "The Sea Wolf" (1913). "American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures".]
By 1915, the majority of American films were being produced in the Los Angeles area. [Richard Koszarski, "An Evening's Entertainment: The Age of the Silent Feature Picture", University of California Press, 1994, p. 99. ISBN 0520085353.] — had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios.
On January 22, 1947, the first commercial
televisionstation west of the Mississippi River, KTLA, began operating in Hollywood. In December of that year, "The Public Prosecutor" became the first network television series to be filmed in Hollywood. And in the 1950s, music recording studios and offices began moving into Hollywood. Other businesses, however, continued to migrate to different parts of the Los Angeles area, primarily to Burbank. Much of the movie industry remained in Hollywood, although the district's outward appearance changed.
CBSbuilt CBS Television Cityon the corner of Fairfax Avenue and Beverly Boulevard, on the former site of Gilmore Stadium. CBS's expansion into the Fairfax District pushed the unofficial boundary of Hollywood further south than it had been. CBS's slogan for the shows taped there was "From Television City in Hollywood..."
During the early 1950s the famous
Hollywood Freewaywas constructed from The Stack interchange in downtown Los Angeles, past the Hollywood Bowl, up through Cahuenga Passand into the San Fernando Valley. In the early days, streetcars ran up through the pass, on rails running along the central reservation
Capitol Recordsbuilding on Vine St.just north of Hollywood Boulevard was built in 1956. The building houses offices and recording studios which are not open to the public, but its circular design looks like a stack of 7-inch vinyl records.
The now derelict lot at the corner of Hollywood Boulevard and Serrano Avenue was once the site of the illustrious
Hollywood Professional School, whose alumni reads like a Hollywood Who's Who of household "names". Many of these former child stars attended a "farewell" party at the commemorative sealing of a time capsule buried on the lot.
Hollywood Walk of Famewas created in 1958 and the first star was placed in 1960 as a tribute to artists working in the entertainment industry. Honorees receive a star based on career and lifetime achievements in motion pictures, live theatre, radio, television, and or music, as well as their charitable and civic contributions.
In 1985, the Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District was officially listed in the
National Register of Historic Placesprotecting important buildings and ensuring that the significance of Hollywood's past would always be a part of its future.
In June 1999, the long-awaited Hollywood extension of the
Los Angeles County Metro RailRed Line subway opened, running from Downtown Los Angelesto the Valley, with stops along Hollywood Boulevard at Western Avenue, Vine Street and Highland Avenue.
Kodak Theatre, which opened in 2001 on Hollywood Boulevard at Highland Avenue, where the historic Hollywood Hotelonce stood, has become the new home of the Oscars.
While motion picture production still occurs within the Hollywood district, most major studios are actually located elsewhere in the Los Angeles region.
Paramount Picturesis the only major studio still physically located within Hollywood. Other studios in the district include the aforementioned Jim Henson (formerly Chaplin) Studios, Sunset Gower Studios, and Raleigh Studios.
While Hollywood and the adjacent neighborhood of Los Feliz served as the initial homes for all of the early television stations in the Los Angeles market, most have now relocated to other locations within the metropolitan area.
KNBCbegan this exodus in 1962, when it moved from the former NBC Radio City Studioslocated at the northeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and Vine Street to NBC Studiosin Burbank. KTTVpulled up stakes in 1996 from its former home at Metromedia Squarein the 5700 block of Sunset Boulevard to relocate to Bundy Drive in West Los Angeles. KABC-TVmoved from its original location at ABC Television Center (now branded The Prospect Studios) just east of Hollywood to Glendale in 2000, though the Los Angeles bureau of ABC News still resides at Prospect. After being purchased by 20th Century Foxin 2001, KCOPleft its former home in the 900 block of North La Brea Avenue to join KTTV on the Fox lot. The CBS Corporation-owned duopolyof KCBS-TVand KCAL-TVmoved from its longtime home at CBS Columbia Squarein the 6100 block of Sunset Boulevard to a new facility at CBS Studio Centerin Studio City. KTLA, located in the 5800 block of Sunset Boulevard, and KCET, in the 4400 block of Sunset Boulevard, are the last broadcasters (television or radio) with Hollywood addresses.
Additionally, Hollywood once served as the home of nearly every radio station in
Los Angeles, all of which have now moved into other communities. KNX was the last station to broadcast from Hollywood, when it left CBS Columbia Squarefor a studio in the Miracle Milein 2005.
In 2002, a number of Hollywood citizens began a campaign for the district to secede from Los Angeles and become, as it had been a century earlier, its own incorporated municipality. Secession supporters argued that the needs of their community were being ignored by the leaders of Los Angeles. In June of that year, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors placed secession referendums for both, Hollywood and the Valley, on the ballots for a "citywide election." To pass, they required the approval of a majority of voters in the proposed new municipality as well as a majority of voters in all of Los Angeles. In the November election, both referendums failed by wide margins in the citywide vote.
After many years of serious decline, when many Hollywood landmarks were threatened with demolition, [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,950674-1,00.html In California: A Fading Hollywood, TIME magazine, June 14, 1982] ] Hollywood is now undergoing rapid
gentrificationand revitalization with the goal of urban density in mind. Many new developments have been completed, and many more are planned, and several are centered on Hollywood Boulevard itself. In particular, the Hollywood & Highland complex, which is also the site of the Kodak Theater, has been a major catalyst for the redevelopment of the area. In addition, numerous trendy bars, clubs, and retail businesses have opened on or surrounding the boulevard, allowing it to become one of the main nighttime spots in all of Los Angeles. Many older buildings have also been converted to lofts and condominiums, and a W Hotel is currently under construction at the famous intersection of Hollywood and Vine.
Hollywood history books
*Gaelyn Whitley Keith. (2006) The Father of Hollywood: The True Story (Hardcover), Book Surge, An Amazon.com Company. (ISBN 1-4196-4194-8)
* Nudelman, Robert & Wanamaker, Marc. (2005) Historic Hollywood: An Illustrated History (Hardcover), Texas: Historical Pub Network. (ISBN 978-1893619463)
* R. Jezek, George & Wanamaker, Marc. (2003) Hollywood: Now and Then (Hardcover), California: George Ross Jezek Photography & Publishing. (ISBN 978-0970103611)
*Gregory Paul Williams. (2005) The Story of Hollywood: An Illustrated History (Hardcover), BL Press LLC. (ISBN 0-9776299-0-2)
Hollywood neighborhoods & communities
*Hollywood Downtown/Civic area
As of the 2000 census, there were 210,777 people residing in the Community Plan Area of Hollywood. The population density was 8,443 people per square mile (3,261/km²). The racial makeup of the community was 59.84% White (47.27% White Non-Hispanic), 9.44% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 4.28% African American, 0.62% Native American, 19.10% from other races, and 6.59% from two or more races. 34.51% of the population were Hispanic of any race. 49.63% of the population was foreign born; of this, 46.24% came from Latin America, 32.73% from Asia, 17.80% from Europe and 3.23% from other parts of the world. [ [http://cityplanning.lacity.org/DRU/C2K/C2KPfl.cfm?geo=CP&loc=Hwd&yrx=06 City of Los Angeles Census 2000 Statistical Profile, Community Plan Area: Hollywood ] ]
Students who live in Hollywood are zoned to schools in the
Los Angeles Unified School District.
*Vineyard Street Elementary School
* [http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/Ramona_EL Ramona Elementary School]
* [http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/Gardner_EL/ Gardner Elementary School]
*Valley View Elementary School
*Cheremoya Elementary School
*Bancroft Middle School
Le Conte Middle School
Taylor Middle School Hollywood High Schoolis the sole zoned public high school in Hollywood.
Christ the King Elementary School is a private school in the area.
For many years, the motion picture Industry had its own private Industry-run institution for child actors, the
Hollywood Professional School.
Frances Howard Goldwyn – Hollywood Regional Branch of the
Los Angeles Public Libraryis in Hollywood.
*Bob Hope Square (Hollywood and Vine)
CBS Columbia Square
Charlie Chaplin Studios
Crossroads of the World
El Capitan Theatre
Frederick's of Hollywood
Grauman's Chinese Theatre
Grauman's Egyptian Theatre
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Hollywood and Highland
Hollywood & Western Building
Hollywood Heritage Museum
Hollywood High School
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Wax Museum
The Laugh Factory
The Magic Castle
Musso & Frank Grill
Pink's Hot Dogs
The Prospect Studios(ABC Television Center)
*Ripley's Believe It Or Not! Odditorium
Rock 'n' Roll Ralphs
Runyon Canyon Park
Sunset Gower Studios
Hollywood Christmas Parade: The 2006 parade on Nov 26th, was the 75th edition of the Christmas Parade. The parade goes down Hollywood Boulevardand is broadcast in the LA area on KTLA, and around the United States on Tribune-owned stations and the WGN superstation. [http://hollywoodchamber.net/icons/parade.asp]
* [http://www.cinecon.org/ CINECON Classic Film Festival & Exposition] (Annual timing is five days --connected to Labor Day weekend) Classic film memorabilia, expert presentations, author signings, and movie screenings with celebrity guests.
WeddingBanquet / DinnerPrivate PartyCorporate EventPR / Marketing EventMeetingConferenceConventionStage Performance
History of cinema
Cinema of the United States
List of movie-related topics
List of Hollywood novels
List of movies set in Los Angeles
List of television shows set in Los Angeles
West Hollywood, California
2007-2008 Writers Guild of America strike
Other film production locations
* [http://www.hollywoodchamber.net/ Hollywood Chamber of Commerce]
* [http://www.everythinglosangeles.org Hollywood Travel Guide]
* [http://www.voyagecalifornie.com/los-angeles/hollywood/hollywood/ Hollywood Pictures]
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