Ennio Morricone

Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone

Morricone at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival
Background information
Also known as Maestro
Born November 10, 1928 (1928-11-10) (age 83)
Origin Rome, Italy
Genres Film music, Classical music, Pop music, Jazz, Lounge music, Easy listening
Occupations Composer, orchestrator, music director, conductor, trumpeter
Years active 1946 – present
Associated acts Bruno Nicolai, Alessandro Alessandroni, Mina, Yo-Yo Ma, Mireille Mathieu, Joan Baez, Andrea Bocelli, Roger Waters, Sarah Brightman, Amii Stewart, Paul Anka, Milva, Gianni Morandi, Dalida, Catherine Spaak, Pet Shop Boys, Hayley Westenra, and others
Website http://www.enniomorricone.it

Ennio Morricone, Grand Officer OMRI, Italian pronunciation: [ˈɛnnjo moɾiˈkoːne], (born November 10, 1928) is an Italian composer and conductor, who wrote music to more than 500 motion pictures and television series, in a career lasting over 50 years.[1] His scores have been included in over 20 award-winning film's as well as several symphonic and choral pieces. Morricone is most famous for his work in the Spaghetti Westerns directed by his friend Sergio Leone, including A Fistful of Dollars (1964), For a Few Dollars More (1965), The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966), and Once Upon a Time in the West (1968).

Born in Rome, Italy Morricone took up the trumpet as a child and attended the National Academy of Santa Cecilia to take lessons on the instrument at the age of nine. He formally entered a conservatory at the age of 12, enrolling in a four-year harmony programme. He received his trumpet diploma in 1946 and started working professionally, composing the music to "Il Mattino" ("The Morning"). Morricone soon gained popularity by writing his first background music for radio dramas and quickly moved into film.

In the 1950s he received the "Diploma in Instrumentation for Band" (fanfare) where he won a diploma in Composition under the composer Goffredo Petrassi. In 1955, Morricone started to ghost write and arrange music for other, already established film composers. Morricone soon came to the attention of his former school friend Sergio Leone, who hired Morricone,to compose the music to some of his best known films. Together they created a distinctive score to accompany Leone's different version of the Western, A Fistful of Dollars.

In the 80s and 90s, Morricone continued to write the music for Leone's later films, including Once Upon a Time in America (1984) He also composed the music to Joffé's The Mission (1986), De Palma's The Untouchables (1987) and Tornatore's Cinema Paradiso (1988). His more recent compositions include the scores for Malèna (2000), Fateless (2005), and Baaria - La porta del vento (2009).

Morricone has received two Grammy Awards, two Golden Globes, five BAFTAs during 1979–1992, seven David di Donatello, eight Nastro d'Argento, and the Polar Music Prize in 2010. In 2007, he received the Academy Honorary Award "for his magnificent and multifaceted contributions to the art of film music" and has been nominated for a further five Oscars in the category of Best Original Score during 1979–2001, but has never won competitively.



Early career

Ennio Morricone was born in Rome, the son of Libera and Mario Morricone, a jazz trumpeter.[2] Morricone wrote his first compositions when he was six years old and was encouraged to develop his natural talents.[3] Compelled to take up the trumpet, he attended the National Academy of Santa Cecilia to take lessons on the instrument at the age of nine. Morricone formally entered the conservatory in 1940 at the age of 12, enrolling in a four-year harmony program. According to various reports, he completed it in either two years or six months (date approximate).[4] He studied the trumpet, composition, choral music, and choral direction under Goffredo Petrassi, who deeply influenced him and to whom Morricone has dedicated concert pieces.

These were the difficult years of World War II in the heavily bombed "open city"; the composer remarked that what he mostly remembered of those years was the hunger. His wartime experiences influenced many of his scores for films set in that period.

After he graduated, he continued to work in classical composition and arrangement. In 1946, Morricone received his trumpet diploma and in the same year he composed "Il Mattino" ("The Morning") for voice and piano on a text by Fukuko, first in a group of 7 "youth" Lieder. Other serious compositions are "Imitazione" (1947) for voice and piano on a text by Giacomo Leopardi and "Intimità" for voice and piano on a text by Olinto Dini.

In the early 1950s, Morricone began writing his first background music for radio dramas. Nonetheless he continued composing classical pieces as "Distacco I e Distacco II" for voice and piano on a text by Ranieri Gnoli, "Verrà la Morte" for contralto and piano on a text by Cesare Pavese, "Oboe Sommerso" for baritone and five instruments on a text by Salvatore Quasimodo.[5]

Although the composer had received the "Diploma in Instrumentation for Band" (fanfare) in 1952, his studies concluded in 1954, obtaining a diploma in Composition under the composer Goffredo Petrassi. In 1955, Morricone started to write or arrange music for films credited to other already well-known composers (ghost writing). He occasionally adopted Anglicized pseudonyms, such as Dan Savio and Leo Nichols.

Morricone wrote more works in the climate of the Italian avant-garde. A few of these compositions have been made available on CD, such as "Ut", his trumpet concerto dedicated to the soloist Mauro Maur, one of his favorite musicians; some have yet to be premiered. From the mid-sixties and onwards, he was part of Gruppo di Improvvisazione di Nuova Consonanza, a group of composers who performed and recorded avant garde free improvisations, even scoring a few films during the 1970s.

Leone film scores

Well-versed in a variety of musical idioms from his RCA experience, Morricone began composing film scores in the early 1960s.[4] Though his first films were undistinguished, Morricone's arrangement of an American folk song intrigued director and former schoolmate Sergio Leone. Leone hired Morricone, and together they created a distinctive score to accompany Leone's different version of the Western, A Fistful of Dollars (1964).[4] As budget strictures limited Morricone's access to a full orchestra, he used gunshots, cracking whips, whistle, voices, guimbarde (jaw harp), trumpets, and the new Fender electric guitar, instead of orchestral arrangements of Western standards à la John Ford. Morricone used his special effects to punctuate and comically tweak the action—cluing in the audience to the taciturn man's ironic stance.[4] Though sonically bizarre for a movie score, Morricone's music was viscerally true to Leone's vision.

As memorable as Leone's close-ups, harsh violence, and black comedy, Morricone's work helped to expand the musical possibilities of film scoring.[4] Morricone was initially billed on the film as Dan Savio.[4]

Morricone composed music for over 40 Westerns (the last was North Star (1996)), most of them Spaghetti Westerns. He scored Sergio Leone's Spaghetti Westerns, from A Fistful of Dollars (1964) and including For a Few Dollars More (1965), The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966), and Once Upon a Time in the West (1968), as well as later films such as A Fistful of Dynamite (1971), My Name Is Nobody (1973), and A Genius, Two Partners and a Dupe (1975). The collaboration with Leone is considered one of the exemplary collaborations between a director and a composer.

With the score of A Fistful of Dollars, Morricone began his 10-year collaboration with his childhood friend Alessandro Alessandroni and his Cantori Moderni. Alessandroni provided the whistling and the twanging guitar on the film scores, while his Cantori Moderni were a flexible troupe of modern singers. Morricone specifically exploited the solo soprano of the group, Edda Dell'Orso, at the height of her powers—"an extraordinary voice at my disposal".

In addition, Morricone composed music for many other, not so popular Spaghetti Westerns, including Duello nel Texas (1963), Le pistole non discutono (1964), A Pistol for Ringo (1965), The Return of Ringo (1965), Navajo Joe (1966), The Big Gundown, (1966), Face to Face (1967), Death Rides a Horse (1967), The Hellbenders (1967), A Bullet for the General (1967), The Mercenary (1968), Tepepa (1968), The Great Silence (1968), Guns for San Sebastian (1968), …And for a Roof a Sky Full of Stars (1968), The Five Man Army (1969), Queimada! (1969), Vamos a matar, compañeros (1970), Two Mules for Sister Sara (1970), Sonny and Jed (1972), and Buddy Goes West (1981).

Notable film scores

Most of Morricone's film scores of the 1960s were composed outside the Spaghetti Western genre, while still using Alessandroni's team. Their music included the themes for Il Malamondo (1964), Slalom (1965), The Battle of Algiers (1965), and Listen, Let's Make Love (1967). In 1968, Morricone reduced his work outside the movie business and wrote scores for 20 films in the same year. The scores included psychedelic accompaniment for Mario Bava's superhero romp Danger: Diabolik (1968). The next year marked the start of a series of evocative scores for Dario Argento's stylized thrillers, including The Bird with the Crystal Plumage (1969), The Cat o' Nine Tails (1971), and Four Flies on Grey Velvet (1974).[4] In 1970, Morricone wrote the score for Violent City. That same year, he received his first Nastro d'Argento for the music in Metti una sera a cena (Giuseppe Patroni Griffi, 1969) and his second only a year later for Sacco e Vanzetti (Giuliano Montaldo, 1971), in which he had made a memorable collaboration with the legendary American folk singer and activist Joan Baez. In 1973, he scored a theme for the crime film Revolver (1973). Morricone composed the score for John Carpenter's science-fiction/horror movie The Thing (1982)[6] as well as Brian De Palma's war drama Casualties of War (1989).[7]

Morricone has worked for television, from a single title piece to variety shows and documentaries to TV series, including the US TV Western The Virginian (1971), Moses (1974) and Marco Polo (1982). One notable composition, "Chi Mai" was used in the films, Maddalena (1971) and Le Professionnel (1981) as well as the TV series The Life and Times of David Lloyd George (1981). It was a surprise hit in the UK, almost topping the charts. He wrote the score for the Mafia television series La piovra seasons 2 to 10 from 1985 to 2001, including the themes "Droga e sangue" ("Drugs and Blood"), "La morale", and "L'immorale".[8] Morricone worked as the conductor of seasons 3 to 5 of the series. He also worked as the music supervisor for the television project La bibbia ("The Bible"). In the late 1990s, he collaborated with his son, Andrea, on the Ultimo crime dramas. Their collaboration yielded the BAFTA-winning Nuovo cinema Paradiso. In 2003, Ennio Morricone scored another epic, for Japanese television, called Musashi and was the Taiga drama about Miyamoto Musashi, Japan's legendary warrior. A part of his "applied music" is now applied to Italian television films.

Concerts and live orchestrations

Since 2001, Morricone has been on a world tour, the latter part sponsored by Giorgio Armani, with the Orchestra Roma Sinfonietta, touring London (Barbican 2001; 75th birthday Concerto, Royal Albert Hall 2003), Paris, Verona, and Tokyo. Morricone performed his classic film scores at the Munich Philharmonie in 2005 and Hammersmith Apollo Theatre in London, UK, on 2006-12-01 and 2006-12-02.

Ennio Morricone at the United Nations Headquarters

He made his North American concert debut on January 29, 2007 Auditorio Nacional in Mexico City and four days later at Radio City Music Hall in New York City. The previous evening, Morricone had already presented at the United Nations a concert comprising some of his film themes, as well as the cantata Voci dal silenzio to welcome the new Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon. A Los Angeles Times review bemoaned the poor acoustics and opined of Morricone: "His stick technique is adequate, but his charisma as a conductor is zero." Morricone, though, has said: "Conducting has never been important to me. If the audience comes for my gestures, they had better stay outside."

On December 12, 2007, Morricone conducted the Roma Sinfonietta at the Wiener Stadthalle in Vienna, presenting a selection of his own works. Together with the Roma Sinfonietta and the Belfast Philharmonic Choir, Morricone performed at the Opening Concerts of the Belfast Festival at Queen's, in the Waterfront Hall on October 17 and 18, 2008. Morricone and Roma Sinfonietta also held a concert at the Belgrade Arena (Belgrade, Serbia) on February 14, 2009.

On April 10, 2010, Morricone conducted a concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London with the Roma Sinfonietta and (as in all of his previous London concerts) the Crouch End Festival Chorus. On August 27, 2010, he conducted a concert in Hungary. Two other concerts took place in Verona and Sofia (Bulgaria) on 11 and 17 September 2010.[9]

Recent works

Morricone provided the string arrangements on Morrissey's "Dear God Please Help Me" from the album Ringleader of the Tormentors in 2006.[10]

Quentin Tarantino originally wanted Morricone to compose the soundtrack for his most recent film, Inglourious Basterds. However, Morricone refused because of the sped-up production schedule of the film.[11][12][13] Tarantino did use several Morricone tracks from previous films in the soundtrack.

Morricone instead wrote the music for Baaria - La porta del vento, the most recent movie by Giuseppe Tornatore. The composer is also writing music for Tornatore's upcoming movie Leningrad.

In spring and summer 2010, Morricone worked with Hayley Westenra for a collaboration on her album Paradiso.[14] The album features new songs written by Morricone, as well as some of his best known film compositions of the last 50 years.[15][16] Hayley recorded the album with Morricone's orchestra in Rome during the summer of 2010.[17][18][19]

Public reputation

In 1956, Morricone started to support his family by playing in a jazz band and arranging pop songs for the Italian broadcasting service RAI.[4] He was hired by RAI in 1958, but quit his job on his first day at work when he was told that broadcasting of music composed by employees was forbidden by a company rule. Subsequently, Morricone became a top studio arranger at RCA, working with Renato Rascel, Rita Pavone, and Mario Lanza.[4] A particular success was one of his own songs, "Se telefonando".[20][21]

Performed by Mina, it was a standout track of Studio Uno 66, the fifth-biggest-selling album of the year 1966 in Italy.[22] Morricone's sophisticated arrangement of "Se telefonando" was a combination of melodic trumpet lines, Hal Blaine–style drumming, a string set, a '60s Europop female choir, and intensive subsonic-sounding trombones. The Italian Hitparade #7 song had eight transitions of tonality building tension throughout the chorus.[20][21]

During the following decades, the song was covered by several performers in Italy and abroad—most notably by Françoise Hardy and Iva Zanicchi (1966), Delta V (2005), Vanessa and the O's (2007), and Neil Hannon (2008).[23] In the reader's poll conducted by the la Repubblica newspaper to celebrate Mina's 70th anniversary in 2010, 30,000 voters picked the track as the best song ever recorded by Mina.[24] Throughout the '60s Morricone composed songs for other artists including Milva, Gianni Morandi, Paul Anka, Amii Stewart, and Mireille Mathieu.

Personal life

On 13 October 1956, he married Maria Travia and had his first son, Marco, in 1957. Travia has written lyrics to complement her husband's pieces. Her works include the Latin texts for The Mission. They have three sons and a daughter, in order of birth: Marco, Alessandra, the conductor and film composer Andrea (Andrew), and Giovanni (a filmmaker[25] who lives in New York City).

Influence and modern references

Morricone at the 2009 Venice film festival.

Morricone's influence also extends into the realm of pop music. Hugo Montenegro had a hit with a version of the main theme from The Good, the Bad and the Ugly in both the United Kingdom and the United States. This was followed by his album of Morricone's music in 1968.

Aside from his music having been sampled by everyone from rappers (Jay-Z) to electronic outfits (the Orb), Morricone wrote "Se Telefonando", which became Italy's fifth biggest-selling record of 1966 and has since been re-recorded by Françoise Hardy, among many others, and scored the strings for "Dear God, Please Help Me" on Morrissey's 2006 "Ringleader of the Tormentors" album.

Morricone's film music was also recorded by many artists. John Zorn recorded an album of Morricone's music, The Big Gundown, with Keith Rosenberg in the mid-1980s. Lyricists and poets have helped convert some of his melodies into a songbook.

Morricone collaborated with world music artists, like Portuguese fado singer Dulce Pontes (in 2003 with Focus, an album praised by Paulo Coelho and where his songbook can be sampled) and virtuoso cellist Yo-Yo Ma (in 2004), who both recorded albums of Morricone classics with the Roma Sinfonietta Orchestra and Morricone himself conducting.

In 1990 the American singer Amii Stewart, best known for the 1979 disco hit "Knock On Wood", recorded a tribute album entitled Pearls - Amii Stewart Sings Ennio Morricone for the RCA label, including a selection of the composer's best known songs. Since the mid 1980s Stewart resides in Italy, the Pearls album features Rome's Philharmonic Orchestra and was co-produced by Morricone himself.

The 2003 Quentin Tarantino film Kill Bill Volumes 1 & 2 makes extensive use of several Morricone pieces from several 1960s film scores. The 2009 film Inglourious Basterds also uses many Morricone pieces, as well as sharing "Il Mercenario (Ripresa)" with Kill Bill.

Metallica uses Morricone's The Ecstasy of Gold as an intro at their concerts (shock jocks Opie and Anthony also use the song at the start of their XM Satellite Radio and CBS Radio shows.) The San Francisco Symphony Orchestra also played it on Metallica's Symphonic rock album S&M. Ramones used the theme from The Good, the Bad and the Ugly as a concert intro. The theme from A Fistful Of Dollars is also used as a concert intro by The Mars Volta.

His influence extends from Michael Nyman to Muse. He even has his own tribute band, a large group which started in Australia, touring as The Ennio Morricone Experience.

Morricone is mentioned by Myles, a musician/scorer (played by Jack Black in "The Holiday" [2006 film]), as creator of magical sounds that formed a character as much as lines of music in his films. This played out in a scene at a video rental store between Black and actress Kate Winslett.

In 2007, the tribute album We All Love Ennio Morricone was released. It features performances by various artists, including Sarah Brightman, Andrea Bocelli, Celine Dion, Bruce Springsteen and Metallica.

On their 2008 album "Red of Tooth and Claw" the independent rock band, Murder by Death, composed and included a song as a theme/tribute to Morricone entitled "Theme (for Ennio Morricone)."

British band Muse cites Morricone as an influence for the songs "City of Delusion", "Hoodoo", and "Knights of Cydonia" on their album Black Holes and Revelations.[citation needed]. The band has recently started playing the song "Man With A Harmonica" live played by Chris Wolstenholme, as an intro to "Knights of Cydonia".[26]

In January 2010, tenor Donald Braswell II released his album "We Fall and We Rise Again" on which he presented his tribute to Ennio Morricone with his original composition entitled "Ennio".

The score for The Thing 2011 prequel film composed by Marco Beltrami was inspired and uses several elements from Morricone's original soundtrack from the 1982 film of the same name.


Ennio Morricone has sold over 50 million records worldwide,[27][28] including 6.5 million copies in France[29] and more than two million albums in Korea.[30]

Top worldwide film grosses

Ennio Morricone has been involved with eight movies grossing over $25 million at the box office:[31]

Year Title Director Gross
1966 The Good, The Bad & The Ugly Sergio Leone $25,100,000
1977 Exorcist II: The Heretic John Boorman $30,749,142
1987 The Untouchables Brian De Palma $76,270,454
1991 Bugsy Barry Levinson $49,114,016
1993 In the Line of Fire Wolfgang Petersen $176,997,168
1994 Wolf Mike Nichols $131,002,597
1994 Disclosure Barry Levinson $214,015,089
2000 Mission to Mars Brian De Palma $110,983,407

Other successful movies with Morricone's work are Kill Bill Vol. 1 & 2 (2003, 2004) and Inglourious Basterds (2009), though the tracks used are sampled from older pictures.


He received his first Academy Award nomination in 1979, for the score to Days of Heaven (Terrence Malick, 1978)[32]. He was later nominated for a further two awards; in 1986 for The Mission[33] and in 1987 for The Untouchables.[34] He later nominated for the score to Bugsy (Barry Levinson) (1991). His last nomination was for Malèna (2000).

Morricone and Alex North are the only composers to receive the Honorary Oscar since the award's introduction in 1928.[35] North was nominated for fifteen Oscars, but like Morricone, he never won competitively.

Morricone received an honorary Academy Award on February 25, 2007, presented by Clint Eastwood, "for his magnificent and multifaceted contributions to the art of film music." With the statuette came a standing ovation. Though nominated five times, he had not previously received an Oscar. In conjunction with the honor, Morricone released a tribute album, We All Love Ennio Morricone, that featured as its centerpiece Celine Dion's rendition of "I Knew I Loved You" (based on "Deborah's Theme" from Once Upon a Time in America), which she performed at the ceremony. Behind-the-scenes studio production and recording footage of "I Knew I Loved You" can be viewed in the debut episode of the QuincyJones.com Podcast.[36] The lyric, as with Morricone's Love Affair, had been penned by Oscar-winning husband-and-wife duo Marilyn and Alan Bergman. Morricone's acceptance speech was in his native Italian tongue and was interpreted by Clint Eastwood, who stood to his left. Eastwood and Morricone had in fact met two days earlier—for the first time in 40 years—at a reception.

List of prizes and awards

  • 1965 — Nastro d'Argento for A Fistful of Dollars
  • 1967 — Diapason d'Or
  • 1969 — Premio Spoleto Cinema
  • 1970 — Nastro d'argento for Metti una sera a cena
  • 1971 — Nastro d'argento for Sacco e Vanzetti
  • 1972 — Cork Film International for La califfa
  • 1979 — Academy Awards nomination for Days of Heaven
  • 1979 — Premio Vittorio de Sica
  • 1981 — Premio della critica discografica for Il prato
  • 1984 — Premio Zurlini
  • 1985 — Nastro d'argento and BAFTA for Once Upon A Time In America
  • 1986 — Academy Awards Nomination, BAFTA and Golden Globe Awards for The Mission
  • 1986 — Premio Vittorio de Sica
  • 1988 — Academy Awards nomination, Nastro d'argento, BAFTA and Grammy Awards for The Untouchables
  • 1988 — David di Donatello for Gli occhiali d'oro
  • 1989 — David di Donatello for Nuovo Cinema Paradiso
  • 1989 — Ninth Annual Ace Winner for Il Giorno prima
  • 1989 — Pardo d'Oro alla carriera Locarno Film Festival
  • 1990 — BAFTA, Prix Fondation Sacem del XLIII Cannes Film Festival and David di Donatello for Nuovo Cinema Paradiso
  • 1991 — David di Donatello for Stanno tutti bene
  • 1992 — Academy Award nomination for Bugsy
  • 1992 — Pentagramma d'oro
  • 1992 — Premio Michelangelo
  • 1992 — Grolla d'oro alla carriera (Saint Vincent)
  • 1993 — David di Donatello and Efebo d'Argento for Jonas che visse nella balena
  • 1993 — Globo d'oro Stampa estera in Italia
  • 1993 — Gran Premio SACEM audiovisivi
  • 1994 — ASCAP Golden Soundtrack Award (Los Angeles)
  • 1995 — Premio Rota
  • 1995 — Golden Lion Honorary Award by the Venice Film Festival
  • 1996 — Premio citta' di Roma
  • 1996 — Premio Cappelli
  • 1996 — Premio Accademia di Santa Cecilia
  • 1997 — Premio Flaiano
  • 1998 — Columbus Prize
  • 1999 — Erich Wolfgang Korngold Internationaler Preis für Film
  • 1999 — Exsquibbidles Film Academy lifetime achievement award
  • 2000 — Golden Globe for The Legend of 1900 (1998)
  • 2000 — David di Donatello and Nastro d'argento for Canone Inverso
  • 2000 — Academy Awards nomination for Malèna
  • 2000 — Nastro d'argento for Malèna
  • 2001 — Mikeldi de Honor at "Zinebi - International Festival of Documentary and Short Films" of Bilbao
  • 2002 — Honorary Degree by the "Seconda Università" of Rome
  • 2003 — Golden Eagle Award by the Russian National Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences of Russia for 72 Meters (film)
  • 2003 — Honorary Senator of the Filmscoring Class of the Hochschule für Musik und Theater München
  • 2006 — Grand Officer OMRI, nominated by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
  • 2007 — Honorary Academy Award for career achievement
  • 2007 — The Film & TV Music Award for Lifetime Achievement
  • 2007 — David di Donatello and Nastro d'argento for La sconosciuta
  • 2008 — Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental, performed by Bruce Springsteen
  • 2008 — Knight of the Legion of Honour
  • 2009 — Medal of Merits for Macedonia[37]
  • 2009 — America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation
  • 2010 — Polar Music Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of the Arts


  • Horace, B. Music from the Movies, film music journal double issue 45/46, 2005: ISSN 0967-8131
  • Miceli, Sergio. Morricone, la musica, il cinema. Milan: Mucchi/Ricordi, 1994: ISBN 88-7592-398-1
  • Miceli, Sergio. "Morricone, Ennio". The Nesw Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
  • Poppi, R., M. Pecorari. Dizionario del cinema italiano. I film vol. 3. Dal 1960 al 1969. Gremese, 1993: ISBN 88-7605-593-2
  • Poppi, R., M. Pecorari. Dizionario del cinema italiano. I film vol. 4. Dal 1970 al 1979* A/L. Gremese, 1996: ISBN 88-7605-935-0
  • Poppi, R., M. Pecorari. Dizionario del cinema italiano. I film vol. 4. Dal 1970 al 1979** M/Z. Gremese, 1996: ISBN 88-7605-969-5
  • Poppi, R., M. Pecorari. Dizionario del cinema italiano. I film vol. 5. Dal 1980 al 1989* A/L. Gremese, 2000: ISBN 88-7742-423-0
  • Poppi, R., M. Pecorari. Dizionario del cinema italiano. I film vol. 5. Dal 1980 al 1989** M/Z. Gremese, 2000: ISBN 88-7742-429-X


  1. ^ Ennio Morricone at the Internet Movie Database
  2. ^ "Ennio Morricone Biography (1928-)". Filmreference.com. http://www.filmreference.com/film/23/Ennio-Morricone.html. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  3. ^ "Ennio Morricone, Critical profile by Sergio Miceli". Esz.it. http://www.esz.it/aut/eng/ennio_morricone/profilo.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "About Ennio Morricone". fancast.com. http://www.fancast.com/people/Ennio-Morricone/313734/biography. 
  5. ^ "Dante Alighieri, Ennio Morricone biography". Dantealighieri.net. 1911-12-03. http://www.dantealighieri.net/cambridge/Ital_music.html#Ennio%20Morricone. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  6. ^ [1] taken from AFI|The American Film Institute accessed September 2011
  7. ^ [2] taken from AFI (The American Film Institute), accessed September 2011
  8. ^ International Movie Data Base
  9. ^ All About Jazz (2010-04-01). "All About Jazz, Ennio Morricone tour 2010". Allaboutjazz.com. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/news.php?id=52896. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  10. ^ Goddard, S. Mozipedia, p.272. Ebury Press, Great Britain, 2009
  11. ^ "AICN". Aintitcool.com. http://www.aintitcool.com/node/39041. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  12. ^ IMDB
  13. ^ Barna, Daniel (2009-01-09). "Morricone u Basterd!". JoBlo.com. http://joblo.com/morricone-u-basterd. Retrieved 2011-03-08. 
  14. ^ http://www.famigliacristiana.it/costume-e-societa/cultura/ascoltato/articolo/westenra_200911113955.aspx
  15. ^ "Paradiso - Hayley Westenra". Marbecks. 2011-04-18. http://www.marbecks.co.nz/detail/index.lsd?catalogID=621881. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  16. ^ "In the studio with Morricone". classicfm.co.uk. 24 Aug 2011. http://www.classicfm.co.uk/shop/classic-fm-magazine/classic-fm-magazine-october-2011/. Retrieved 27 Aug 2011. 
  17. ^ "Decca Records | Classical | Hayley Westenra teams up with Ennio Morricone". Decca.com. http://www.decca.com/articles/hayley-westenra-teams-up-with-ennio-morricone-490. Retrieved 2011-03-08. 
  18. ^ "Message from Ennio Morricone". 18 Jul 2011. http://www.hayleywestenra.com/2011/07/18/a-message-from-ennio-morricone/. Retrieved 27 Aug 2011. 
  19. ^ "Paradiso on iTunes". 29 August 2011. http://itunes.apple.com/gb/preorder/paradiso/id445405933. Retrieved 27 Aug 2011. 
  20. ^ a b "Se telefonando. HitParadeItalia site". http://www.hitparadeitalia.it/schede/s/se_telefonando.htm. 
  21. ^ a b "Sounds: New Digs. Catalog of Cool site. Retrieved on 21 November 2007". Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20080501210836/http://www.catalog-of-cool.com/newdigssounds.html. 
  22. ^ "Top annuali album". HitParadeItalia.it. http://www.hitparadeitalia.it. 
  23. ^ Se telefonando Françoise Hardy - Mon amie la rose site
  24. ^ (Italian) Gino Castaldo (25 March 2010). "E Mamma Mina cestinò i complimenti dei Beatles". La Repubblica. http://www.repubblica.it/spettacoli-e-cultura/2010/03/25/news/mina-pani-2888803/. 
  25. ^ Giovanni Morricone in IMDB
  26. ^ Ryan, Gary (2006-07-07). "City Life, Muse: The matrix meets Clint Eastwood, 7 July 2006". Citylife.co.uk. http://www.citylife.co.uk/music/news/5048_muse__the_matrix_meets_clint_eastwood. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  27. ^ "Zammerumaskil, Roma". Zammerumaskil.com. http://www.zammerumaskil.com/rassegna-stampa-cattolica/formazione-e-catechesi/musica-western-si-ma-non-in-chiesa.html. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  28. ^ "Fondazione Italiani". Liturgia.diocesifrosinone.com. 2010-04-24. http://liturgia.diocesifrosinone.com/. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  29. ^ "EM single sales in France". Infodisc.fr. http://www.infodisc.fr/Artiste_Ventes.php. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  30. ^ "Korea Herald, Ennio Morricone comes to Korea, May 12, 2009" (in (Korean)). Koreaherald.co.kr. 2010-03-30. http://www.koreaherald.co.kr/NEWKHSITE/data/html_dir/2009/05/12/200905120060.asp. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  31. ^ Box Office Morricone
  32. ^ [3] The Academy of Motion Picture Arts And Sciences, accessed September 2011
  33. ^ [4] The Academy of Motion Picture Arts And Sciences, accessed September 2011
  34. ^ [5] The Academy of Motion Picture Arts And Sciences, accessed September 2011
  35. ^ [6] The Academy of Motion Picture Arts And Sciences, accessed September 2011
  36. ^ "Quincy Jones". Quincy Jones. http://quincyjones.com/. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  37. ^ "Macedonian Information Ageny". Mia.com.mk. http://www.mia.com.mk/default.aspx?mId=1&vId=66096033&lId=2&title=MACEDONIA+-+INTERNAL+AFFAIRS+. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 

Further reading

  • Lhassa, Anne, and Jean Lhassa: Ennio Morricone: biographie. Les Planches. Lausanne: Favre; [Paris]: [diff. Inter-forum], 1989. ISBN 2-8289-0418-0,
  • Wagner, Thorsten. "Improvisation als 'weiteste Ausdehnung des Begriffs der aleatorischen Musik': Franco Evangelisti und die Improvisationsgruppe Nuova Consonanza". In ...hin zu einer neuen Welt: Notate zu Franco Evangelisti, edited by Harald Muenz,.48-60, 2002. Saarbrücken: Pfau-Verlag. ISBN 3-89727-177-X.
  • Webb, Michael D. Italian 20th Century Music: The Quest for Modernity. London: Kahn & Averill. ISBN 978-1-871082-89-0

External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Robert Altman
Academy Honorary Award
Succeeded by
Robert F. Boyle

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

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