- Steve Reich
Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American
composerwho pioneered the style of minimalism. His innovations include using tape loops to create phasingpatterns (examples are his early compositions, " It's Gonna Rain" and "Come Out"), and the use of simple, audible processes to explore musical concepts (for instance, " Pendulum Music" and " Four Organs"). These compositions, marked by their use of repetitive figures, slow harmonic rhythm and canons, have significantly influenced contemporary music, especially in the US. Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewishheritage. " Different Trains" (1988) has been called "the only adequate musical response—one of the few adequate artistic responses in any medium—to the Holocaust", and was credited with earning Reich a place among the great composers of the 20th century. [cite news |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE4D91F3FF937A1575BC0A961958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all |last=Taruskin |first=Richard |authorlink=Richard Taruskin |title=A Sturdy Musical Bridge to the 21st Century |work= The New York Times|date=August 24, 1997 |accessdate=September 27, 2008]
Reich's style of composition has influenced many other composers and musical groups, John Adams, the
progressive rockband King Crimson, and the art-pop and electronic musician Brian Eno. Reich has been described by " The Guardian" as one of "a handful of living composers who can legitimately claim to have altered the direction of musical history", [cite web |url=http://www.whitney.org/www/exhibition/stevereich.jsp |title=STEVE REICH @ THE WHITNEY – A Celebration of the Composer’s 70th Birthday |date=October 2006 |publisher= Whitney Museum of American Art|accessdate=September 27, 2008] and the " Village Voice"'s Kyle Gannhas said Reich "may [...] be considered, by general acclamation, America's greatest living composer." [cite news |url=http://www.villagevoice.com/1999-07-13/music/grand-old-youngster |last=Gann |first=Kyle |authorlink=Kyle Gann |title=Grand Old Youngster |work= The Village Voice|date=July 13, 1999 |accessdate=September 27, 2008] On January 25, 2007, Reich was named the 2007 recipient of the Polar Music Prize, together with Sonny Rollins.
Reich was born in
New York Cityto the Broadway lyricist June Sillman. When he was one year old his parents divorced and Reich divided his time between New York and California. He was given piano lessons as a child and describes growing up with the "middle-class favorites", having no exposure to music written before 1750 or after 1900. At the age of 14 he began to study music in earnest, after hearing music from the Baroque period and earlier, as well as music of the 20th century, and he began studying drums with Roland Kohloffin order to play jazz. He attended Cornell University; he took some music courses there, but graduated in 1957 with a B.A. in philosophy. Reich's B.A. thesis was on Ludwig Wittgenstein; later he would set texts by that philosopher to music in "Proverb" (1995) and "You Are (variations)" (2006).
For a year following graduation he studied composition privately with
Hall Overtonbefore he enrolled at Juilliard to work with William Bergsmaand Vincent Persichetti(1958 to 1961). Subsequently he attended Mills Collegein Oakland where he studied with Luciano Berioand Darius Milhaud(1961–63) and earned a master's degree in composition, where Reich composed "Melodica" for melodicaand tape, which appeared in 1986 on the three-LP release "Music from Mills". [ [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:fifixqqhldhe allmusic ((( Music from Mills > Overview ))) ] ]
Reich worked with the
california Tape Music Centeralong with Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Morton Subotnickand Terry Riley(he was involved with the premiere of Riley's " In C" and suggested the use of the eighth note pulse which is now standard in performance of the piece).
Reich's early forays into composition involved experimentation with
twelve-tone composition, but he found the rhythmic aspects of the twelve-tone series more interesting than the melodic aspects [Malcolm Ball, [http://www.oliviermessiaen.org/malcolmball/reich.htm on Steve Reich] ] . Reich also composed film soundtracks for " The Plastic Haircut" and " Oh Dem Watermelons", two films by Robert Nelson. The soundtrack for "Oh Dem Watermelons", composed in 1965, involved basic tape work, using repeated phrasing together in a large five-part canon.
Reich was influenced by fellow minimalist
Terry Riley, whose work " In C" combines simple musical patterns, offset in time, to create a slowly shifting, cohesive whole. Reich adopted this approach to compose his first major work, " It's Gonna Rain". Written in 1965, "It's Gonna Rain" used recordings of a sermonabout the end of the world given by a black Pentecostalstreet-preacher known as Brother Walter. Reich built on his early tape work, transferring the sermon to multiple tape loops played in and out of phase, with segments of the sermon cut and rearranged.
The 13-minute "Come Out" (1966) uses similarly manipulated recordings of a single spoken line given by an injured survivor of a
race riot. The survivor, who had been beaten, punctured a bruise on his own body to convince police about his beating. The spoken line includes the phrase "to let the bruise blood come out to show them." Reich rerecorded the fragment "come out to show them" on two channels, which are initially played in unison. They quickly slip out of sync; gradually the discrepancy widens and becomes a reverberation. The two voices then split into four, looped continuously, then eight, and continues splitting until the actual words are unintelligible, leaving the listener with only the speech's rhythmic and tonal patterns.
A similar, lesser known example of
process musicis "Pendulum Music" (1968), which consists of the sound of several microphones swinging over the loudspeakers to which they are attached, producing feedbackas they do so. "Pendulum Music" has never been recorded by Reich himself, but was introduced to rock audiences by Sonic Youthin the late 1990s.
Reich's first attempt at translating this phasing technique from recorded tape to live performance was the 1967 "
Piano Phase", for two pianos. In "Piano Phase" the performers repeat a rapid twelve-note melodic figure, initially in unison. As one player keeps tempo with robotic precision, the other speeds up very slightly until the two parts line up again, but one sixteenth note apart. The second player then resumes the previous tempo. This cycle of speeding up and then locking in continues throughout the piece; the cycle comes full circle three times, the second and third cycles using shorter versions of the initial figure. '
'Violin Phase", also written in 1967, is built on these same lines. Reich also tried to create the phasing effect in a piece "that would need no instrument beyond the human body". He found that the idea of phasing was inappropriate for the simple ways he was experimenting to make sound. Instead, he composed "
Clapping Music" (1972), in which the players do not phase in and out with each other, but instead one performer keeps one line of a 12-quaver-long phrase and the other performer shifts by one quaverbeat every 12 bars, until both performers are back in unison 144 bars later. "Piano Phase" and "Violin Phase" both premiered in a series of concerts given in New York art galleries.
The 1967 prototype piece "
Slow Motion Sound" was never performed, but the idea it introduced of slowing down a recorded sound until many times its original length without changing pitch or timbre was applied to " Four Organs" (1970), which deals specifically with augmentation. The piece has maracas playing a fast eighth note pulse, while the four organs stress certain eighth notes using an 11th chord. This work therefore dealt with repetitionand subtle rhythmic change. It is unique in the context of Reich's other pieces in being linear as opposed to cyclic like his earlier works— the superficially similar " Phase Patterns", also for four organs but without maracas, is (as the name suggests) a phase piece similar to others composed during the period. "Four Organs" was performed as part of a Boston Symphony Orchestraprogram, and was Reich's first composition to be performed in a large traditional setting.
In 1971, Reich embarked on a five-week trip to study music in
Ghana, during which he learned from the master drummer Gideon Alerwoyie. He also studied Balinese gamelanin Seattle. From his African experience, as well as A. M. Jones's "Studies in African Music" about the music of the Ewe people, Reich drew inspiration for his 90-minute piece "Drumming", which he composed shortly after his return. Composed for a 9-piece percussion ensemble with female voices and piccolo, "Drumming" marked the beginning of a new stage in his career, for around this time he formed his ensemble, Steve Reich and Musicians, and increasingly concentrated on composition and performance with them. Steve Reich and Musicians, which was to be the sole ensemble to interpret his works for many years, still remains active with many of its original members.
After "Drumming", Reich moved on from the "phase shifting" technique that he had pioneered, and began writing more elaborate pieces. He investigated other musical processes such as augmentation (the temporal lengthening of phrases and melodic fragments). It was during this period that he wrote works such as "
Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ" (1973) and " Six Pianos" (1973).
In 1974, Reich began writing what many would call his seminal work, "
Music for 18 Musicians". This piece involved many new ideas, although it also hearkened back to earlier pieces. It is based on a cycle of eleven chords introduced at the beginning (called "Pulses"), followed by a small section of music based around each chord ("Sections I-XI"), and finally a return to the original cycle ("Pulses"). This was Reich's first attempt at writing for larger ensembles. The increased number of performers resulted in more scope for psychoacoustic effects, which fascinated Reich, and he noted that he would like to "explore this idea further". Reich remarked that this one work contained more harmonic movement in the first five minutes than any other work he had written. Reich's recording of the work was the first release in ECM Records' "New Series".
Reich explored these ideas further in his frequently recorded pieces "
Music for a Large Ensemble" (1978) and "Octet" (1979). In these two works, Reich experimented with "the human breath as the measure of musical duration … the chords played by the trumpets are written to take one comfortable breath to perform" (liner notes for "Music for a Large Ensemble"). Human voices are part of the musical palette in "Music for a Large Ensemble" but the wordless vocal parts simply form part of the texture (as they do in "Drumming"). With "Octet" and his first orchestral piece " Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards" (also 1979), Reich's music showed the influence of Biblical cantillation, which he had studied in Israelsince the summer of 1977. After this, the human voice singing a text would play an increasingly important role in Reich's music.In the late 1970s Reich published a book, "Writings About Music", containing essays on his philosophy, aesthetics, and musical projects written between 1963 and 1974. An updated collection, "Writings On Music (1965–2000)", was published in 2002.
Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his
Jewishheritage. "Tehillim" (1981), Hebrew for " psalms", is the first of Reich's works to draw explicitly on his Jewish background. The work is in four parts, and is scored for an ensemble of four women's voices (one high soprano, two lyric sopranos and one alto), piccolo, flute, oboe, english horn, two clarinets, six percussion (playing small tuned tambourines without jingles, clapping, maracas, marimba, vibraphoneand crotales), two electronic organs, two violins, viola, celloand double bass, with amplified voices, strings, and winds. A setting of texts from psalms 19:2–5 (19:1–4 in Christian translations), 34:13–15 (34:12–14), 18:26–27 (18:25–26), and 150:4–6, "Tehillim" is a departure from Reich's other work in its formal structure; the setting of texts several lines long rather than the fragments used in previous works makes melody a substantive element. Use of formal counterpointand functional harmonyalso contrasts with the loosely structured minimalist works written previously.
Different Trains" (1988), for string quartetand tape, uses recorded speech, as in his earlier works, but this time as a melodic rather than a rhythmic element. In "Different Trains" Reich compares and contrasts his childhood memories of his train journeys between New York and California in 1939-1941 with the very different trains being used to transport contemporaneous European children to their deaths under Nazi rule. The Kronos Quartetrecording of "Different Trains" was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Classical Contemporary Compositionin 1990.
1990s to present
In 1993, Reich collaborated with his wife, the video artist
Beryl Korot, on an opera, "The Cave", which explores the roots of Judaism, Christianityand Islamthrough the words of Israelis, Palestinians, and Americans, echoed musically by the ensemble. The work, for percussion, voices, and strings, is a musical documentary, named for the Cave of Machpelahin Hebron, where a mosquenow stands and Abrahamis said to have been buried. The two collaborated again on the opera "Three Tales", which concerns the Hindenburg disaster, the testing of nuclear weapons on Bikini Atoll, and other more modern concerns, specifically Dolly the sheep, cloning, and the technological singularity.
As well as pieces using sampling techniques, like "Three Tales" and "City Life" (1994), Reich also returned to composing purely instrumental works for the concert hall, starting with "Triple Quartet" (1998) written for the
Kronos Quartetthat can either be performed by string quartet and tape, three string quartets or 36-piece string orchestra. According to Reich, the piece is influenced by Bartók's and Alfred Schnittke's string quartets. This series continued with "Dance Patterns" (2002), "Cello Counterpoint" (2003), and sequence of works centered around Variations: "You Are (Variations)" (2004), a work which looks back to the vocal writing of works like "Tehillim" or "The Desert Music", " Variations for Vibes, Pianos, and Strings" (2005, for the London Sinfonietta) and "Daniel Variations" (2006).
In an interview with "
The Guardian", Reich stated that he continues to follow this direction with a yet unnamed piece commissioned by eighth blackbird, an American ensemble consisting of the instrumental quintet ( flute, clarinet, violinor viola, celloand piano) of Schoenberg's piece " Pierrot Lunaire" (1912) plus percussion. Reich thinks that it will again be with tape, and he also states that he is thinking about Stravinsky's "Agon" (1957) as a model for the instrumental writing.
Reich's style of composition has influenced many other composers and musical groups, including John Adams, the
progressive rockband King Crimson, the new-age guitarist Michael Hedges, the art-pop and electronic musician Brian Eno, the composers associated with the Bang on a Canfestival (including David Lang, Michael Gordon, and Julia Wolfe), and numerous indie rockmusicians including songwriter Sufjan Stevens[cite web |url=http://www.wnyc.org/music/articles/66792 |last=Wise |first=Brian |title=Steve Reich @ 70 on WNYC |year=2006 |publisher= WNYCRetrieved on September 27, 2008.] [cite news |url=http://dn.sapo.pt/2006/11/12/artes/o_passado_presente_steve_reich_porto.html |author=Joana de Belém |title=O passado e o presente de Steve Reich no Porto |date=November 12, 2006 |work= Diário de Notícias|language=Portuguese Retrieved on September 27, 2008.] and instrumental ensembles Tortoise, [cite web |url=http://www.stylusmagazine.com/reviews/tortoise/a-lazarus-taxon.htm |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060917055800/http://www.stylusmagazine.com/reviews/tortoise/a-lazarus-taxon.htm |archivedate=2006-09-17 |last=Hutlock |first=Todd |title=Tortoise – A Lazarus Taxon |work= Stylus Magazine|date=September 1, 2006 Retrieved on September 27, 2008.] [cite web |url=http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/album/230069/review/5941937/tnt |last=Ratliff |first=Ben |title=TNT : Tortoise : Review |date=March 23, 1998 |work= Rolling StoneRetrieved on September 27, 2008.] [cite web |url=http://www.guelphjazzfestival.com/2008_season/performers/tortoise_illinois |title=Performers: Tortoise (Illinois) |year=2008 |publisher=Guelph Jazz Festival Retrieved on September 27, 2008.] The Mercury Program(themselves influenced by Tortoise), [cite news |url=http://www.browardpalmbeach.com/2001-05-10/music/we-have-liftoff |last=Stratton |first=Jeff |title=We Have Liftoff |work= Broward-Palm Beach New Times|date=May 10, 2001 Retrieved on September 27, 2008.] So Many Dynamos, Do Make Say Thinkand A Silver Mt. Zion.Fact|date=July 2007 Godspeed You! Black Emperorcomposed a song, unreleased, entitled "Steve Reich". [ [http://brainwashed.com/godspeed/music.html sad ] ] His music has also been a source of inspiration to ambient and techno musicians.
A melodic line from his 1987 work "
Electric Counterpoint" was used by The Orbin their 1991 hit Little Fluffy Clouds. This connection has been honored in a 1999 album by DJs and electronic musicians, "Reich Remixed", released on Nonesuch Records. Reich's "Come Out" and " It's Gonna Rain" are cited as early examples of how minimalist musicevolved in tandem with advances in technology, and have served as templates for the application of loops and delay in contemporary electronic dance music. [Philip Sherburne, "Digital Discipline: Minimalism in House and Techno," in "Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music", Christoph Cox and Daniel Warner, Eds. (New York: Continuum, 2006), p. 322] An additional parallel between Reich's work and that of electronic dance musicartists is an emphasis on a minimum of form (as opposed to a minimum of material) in which sonic elements such as timbreand texture are used to 'amass' sound in a vertical direction.
Massification has evolved into a movement of
electronic dance musicin which extreme densities are created with a relatively limited number of sonic elements. This evolution echoes similar developments in Reich's work, as he and other minimalist composers moved from simplicity to more complex combinations of pulses and polyrhythms. [Sherburne (2006), p. 324–325] Electronic dance musicpractitioners have also adopted the "rhythm as melody" aesthetic that Reich embraced after studying West African drumming in Ghanaand encountering the "chiming" timbres produced by Indonesian gamelan orchestras. [Simon Reynolds, "Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture" (New York: Routledge, 1999), p.254.]
John Adams commented, "He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride." ["...For him, pulsation and tonality were not just cultural artifacts. They were the lifeblood of the musical experience, natural laws. It was his triumph to find a way to embrace these fundamental principles and still create a music that felt genuine and new. He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride." See for instance, cite web|url=http://rgable.typepad.com/aworks/2004/08/come_out_steve_.html|title="New" American classical music|accessdate=2006-10-25] He has also influenced visual artists such as
Bruce Nauman, and has expressed admiration of choreographer Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker's work set to his pieces.
Reich often cites
Pérotin, J.S. Bach, Debussy and Stravinsky as composers he admires, whose tradition he wished as a young composer to become part of. Jazz is a major part of the formation of Reich's musical style, and two of the earliest influences on his work were vocalists Ella Fitzgeraldand Alfred Deller, whose emphasis on the artistic capabilities of the voice alone with little vibrato or other alteration was an inspiration to his earliest works. John Coltrane's style, which Reich has described as "playing a lot of notes to very few harmonies", also had an impact; of particular interest was the album " Africa/Brass", which "was basically a half-an-hour in F." [http://musicmavericks.publicradio.org/features/interview_reich.html Steve Reich Interview with Gabrielle Zuckerman, July 2002] ] Reich's influence from jazz includes its roots, also, from the West African music he studied in his readings and visit to Ghana. Other important influences are Kenny Clarkeand Miles Davis, and visual artist friends such as Sol Lewittand Richard Serra.Reich recently contributed the introduction to "Sound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and Culture" (The MIT Press, 2008) edited by Paul D. Miller a.k.a. DJ Spooky.
Quotation| [...] I drove a cab in
San Francisco, and in New York I worked as a part-time social worker. Phil Glass and I had a moving company for a short period of time. I did all kinds of odd jobs [...] I started making a living as a performer in my own ensemble. I would never have thought that it was how I was going to survive financially. It was a complete wonder."
Quotation|The point is, if you went to Paris and dug up
Debussyand said, 'Excusez-moi Monsieur…are you an impressionist?' he'd probably say 'Merde!' and go back to sleep. That is a legitimate concern of musicologists, music historians, and journalists, and it's a convenient way of referring to me, Riley, Glass, La Monte Young[...] it's become the dominant style. But, anybody who's interested in French Impressionismis interested in how different Debussy and Ravel and Satieare—and ditto for what's called minimalism. [...] Basically, those kind of words are taken from painting and sculpture, and applied to musicians who composed at the same period as that painting and sculpture was made [...] .
—"From an Interview with Rebecca Y. Kim", 2000 [http://www.stevereich.com www.stevereich.com]
Quotation|All musicians in the past, starting with the middle ages were interested in popular music. (...)
Béla Bartók's music is made entirely of sources from Hungarian folk music. And Igor Stravinsky, although he lied about it, used all kinds of Russian sources for his early ballets. Kurt Weill's great masterpiece Dreigroschenoperis using the cabaret-style of the Weimar Republicand that's why it is such a masterpiece. Only artificial division between popular an classical music happened unfortunately through the blindness of Arnold Schoenbergand his followers to create an artificial wall, which never existed before him. In my generation we tore the wall down and now we are back to the normal situation, for example if Brian Enoor David Bowiecome to me, and if popular musicians remix my music like The Orbor DJ Spookyit is a good thing. This is a natural normal regular historical way.
—"From an Interview with Jakob Buhre" [ [http://www.planet-interview.de/interviews/pi.php?interview=reich-steve_en Steve Reich: We tore the wall down] Planet Interview (August 14, 2000), Accessed September 20, 2006]
*Soundtrack for "
The Plastic Haircut", tape (1963)
It's Gonna Rain", tape (1965)
*Soundtrack for "
Oh Dem Watermelons", tape (1965)
*"Come Out", tape (1966)
*"Melodica", melodica and tape (1966)
Piano Phase" for two pianos, or two marimbas (1967)
Slow Motion Sound" "concept piece" (1967)
Violin Phase" for violin and tape or four violins (1967)
*"My Name Is" for three tape recorders and performers (1967)
Pendulum Music" for 3 or 4 microphones, amplifiers and loudspeakers (1968) (revised 1973)*cite book
last = Reich
first = Steve
title = Writings on Music
publisher = New York University Press
date = 1975 (New Edition)
location = USA
pages = pp. 12-13
id = ISBN 0-8147-7357-5 ]
Four Organs" for four electric organs and maracas (1970)
*"Phase Patterns" for four electric organs (1970)
*"Drumming" for 4 pairs of tuned bongo drums, 3 marimbas, 3 glockenspiels, 2 female voices, whistling and piccolo (1970/1971)
Clapping Music" for two musicians clapping (1972)
Music for Pieces of Wood" for five pairs of tuned claves (1973)
Six Pianos" (1973) - transcribed as " Six Marimbas" (1986)
Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ" (1973)
Music for 18 Musicians" (1974–76)
Music for a Large Ensemble" (1978)
*"Octet" (1979) - withdrawn in favor of the 1983 revision for slightly larger ensemble, "
Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards" for orchestra (1979)
*"Tehillim" for voices and ensemble (1981)
Vermont Counterpoint" for amplified flute and tape (1982)
The Desert Music" for chorus and orchestra or voices and ensemble (1984, text by William Carlos Williams)
*"Sextet" for percussion and keyboards (1984)
*"New York Counterpoint" for amplified
clarinetand tape, or 11 clarinets and bass clarinet(1985)
*"Three Movements" for orchestra (1986)
Electric Counterpoint" for electric guitar or amplified acoustic guitar and tape (1987, for Pat Metheny)
*"The Four Sections" for orchestra (1987)
Different Trains" for string quartet and tape (1988)
*"The Cave" for four voices, ensemble and video (1993, with
*"Duet" for two violins and string ensemble (1993)
*"Nagoya Marimbas" for two
*"City Life" for amplified ensemble (1995)
*"Proverb" for voices and ensemble (1995, text by
Triple Quartet" for amplified string quartet (with prerecorded tape), or three string quartets, or string orchestra (1998)
*"Know What Is Above You" for four women’s voices and 2
*"Three Tales" for video projection, five voices and ensemble (1998–2002, with
*"Dance Patterns" for 2 xylophones, 2 vibraphones and 2 pianos (2002)
*"Cello Counterpoint" for amplified cello and multichannel tape (2003)
You Are (Variations)" for voices and ensemble (2004)
For Strings (with Winds and Brass)" for orchestra (1987/2004)
Variations for Vibes, Pianos, and Strings" dance piece for three string quartets, four vibraphones, and two pianos (2005)
Daniel Variations" for four voices and ensemble (2006)
Double Sextet" for violin, cello, piano, vibraphone, clarinet, flute and pre-recorded tape (2007)
*"Drumming". Steve Reich and Musicians (Two recordings:
Deutsche Grammophonand Nonesuch) So Percussion(Cantaloupe)
Music for 18 Musicians". Steve Reich and Musicians (Two recordings: ECM and Nonesuch)
Octet/Music for a Large Ensemble/Violin Phase". Steve Reich and Musicians (ECM)
*"Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards/Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ/ Six Pianos".
San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, Edo de Waart, Steve Reich & Musicians (Deutsche Grammophon)
*"Tehillim/The Desert Music".
Alarm Will Soundand OSSIA, Alan Pierson (Cantaloupe)
*"Different Trains/Electric Counterpoint".
Kronos Quartet, Pat Metheny(Nonesuch)
*"You Are (Variations)/Cello Counterpoint".
Los Angeles Master Chorale, Grant Gershon, Maya Beiser (Nonesuch)
*D.J. Hoek. "Steve Reich: A Bio-Bibliography." Greenwood Press, 2002.
Steve Reich and Musicians
*Potter, Keith (2000). "Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Music in the Twentieth Century series. Cambridge, UK; New York, New York: Cambridge University Press.
last = Reich
first = Steve
coauthors = Hillier, Paul (Editor)
title = Writings on Music, 1965-2000
publisher = Oxford University Press
date = April 1, 2002
location = USA
pages = 272
id = ISBN 0-19-511171-0
last = Reich
first = Steve
title = Writings About Music
publisher = Press of the
Nova Scotia College of Art and Design
date = 1974
location = Halifax
pages = 78
id = ISBN 0-919616-02-x
* [http://www.stevereich.com/ SteveReich.com] - Official Website
* [http://www.boosey.com/pages/cr/composer/composer_main.asp?composerid=2781 Boosey & Hawkes - Official Publisher: biography, works list, resources]
* [http://www.londonstevereichensemble.com/ London Steve Reich Ensemble - Official website]
* [http://www.vitaminic.co.uk/vita/specials/steve_reich/part1.jsp A Steve Reich Interview with Christopher Abbot]
* [http://www.newmusicbox.org/archive/firstperson/reich/ Steve Reich Interview (7/98) with Richard Kessler]
* [http://www.topologymusic.com/index.php/time-and-motion-an-interview-with-steve-reich/ Time and Motion: an interview with Steve Reich, by Robert Davidson, 1999]
* [http://www.disquiet.com/stevereich-script.html A Steve Reich Interview with Marc Weidenbaum, 1999]
* [http://www.npr.org/ramfiles/atc/20000717.atc.06.rmm "Drumming" - Interview & analysis] , selected as one of the [http://www.npr.org/programs/specials/vote/list100.html NPR 100] most important musical works of the 20th century.
Realaudioformat, timing: 12:46, July, 2000
* [http://www.planet-interview.de/interviews/pi.php?interview=reich-steve_en Steve Reich Interview with Jakob Buhre, August 2000]
* [http://www.newmusicbox.org/article.nmbx?id=3810 In Conversation with Steve Reich, by Molly Sheridan, June 2002]
* [http://www.ensemble-modern.com/english/kritiken/archiv/i-a021.htm Steve Reich and Beryl Korot interviewed by David Allenby, 2002]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/arts/homeentertainment/story/0,,1114656,00.html An interview in "The Guardian", January 2, 2004]
* [http://www.newmusicbox.org/page.nmbx?id=63fp00 The Next Phase: Steve Reich talks to Richard Kessler About Redefinition and Renewal, 2004]
* [http://adventuresinmusic.biz/Archives/Interviews/stevereich.htm "How Small a Thought it Takes to Fill a Whole Life" - An Interview with Not-So-Minimalist Composer Steve Reich on AdventuresInMusic.biz, 2005]
* [http://www.ensemble-modern.com/english/kritiken/archiv/i-a024.htm A Steve Reich Interview with Hermann Kretzschmar on "You Are (Variations)", 2005]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/arts/critic/feature/0,,1602076,00.html The beaten track, an interview with Reich, by Andrew Clements, The Guardian, October 28, 2005]
* [http://www.rte.ie/tv/theview/archive/20060529.html An interview with Steve Reich on RTE television, National Broadcaster in Ireland, May 29, 2006]
* [http://www.musicomh.com/classical_features/reich_1006.htm An interview with Steve Reich on musicOMH.com, October 2006]
* [http://www.pitchforkmedia.com/article/feature/39540/Interview_Interview_Steve_Reich Interview: Steve Reich] , by Joshua Klein, November 22, 2006.
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6209213 "Steve Reich at 70"] from NPR "Fresh Air" broadcast October 6, 2006 includes interview about "It's Gonna Rain", "Drumming", and "Tehillim" that first aired in 1999 and another on "Different Trains" from 1989 (Realaudio format, timing: 39:25)
* [http://mediatheque.cite-musique.fr/masc/?url=/MediaComposite/CMDI/CMDI000001900/default.htm "Video Interview (Feb. 2006)"] , Cité de la musique, Paris, France
* [http://artofthestates.org/cgi-bin/composer.pl?comp=78 Art of the States: Steve Reich] "Drumming Part I" (1971)
* [http://radiom.org/detail.php?omid=C.1971.03.14 Steve Reich at UC Berkeley University Museum] (November 7, 1970) Streaming audio
* [http://www.whitney.org/www/exhibition/stevereich.jsp Steve Reich at the Whitney] "October 15, 2006" MP3
* [http://download.itv.com/southbankshow/reich.m4a Reich speaks about Daniel Variations for the South Bank Show]
* [http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/reich.html Classical Music Pages: Steve Reich biography]
* [http://www.duke.edu/~dks3/Reich/ "A Description/documentary of Steve Reich"] from Duke University, includes sound samples and quotes
* [http://media.hyperreal.org/zines/est/articles/reich.html EST:] "Steve Reich" by Roger Sutherland
* [http://www.columbia.edu/ccnmtl/draft/ben/feld/mod1/readings/reich.html Music as a Gradual Process] by Steve Reich
* [http://www.boosey.com/pages/cr/news/further_info.asp?NewsID=10960&LangID= Steve Reich: You Are (Variations) premiere in LA (October 2004)]
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6155645 New York Fetes Composer Steve Reich at 70] from
* [http://www.newyorker.com/critics/music/articles/061113crmu_music Fascinating rhythm. Celebrating Steve Reich.] Article by Alex Ross from The New Yorker.
* [http://www.polarmusicprize.se/newSite/press200701.shtml Steve Reich & Sonny Rollins winners of the Polar Music Prize for 2007] Press release of Polar Prize announcement
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