The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian
criminal secret societywhich is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily. An offshoot emerged on the East Coast of the United States and in Australia [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,897088,00.html Omerta in the Antipodes] , Time, 31 January 1964] during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration(see also Italian diaspora). In North America, the Mafia often refers to Italian organized crime in general, rather than just traditional Sicilian organized crime. According to historian Paolo Pezzino: "The Mafia is a kind of organized crime being active not only in several illegal fields, but also tending to exercise sovereignty functions – normally belonging to public authorities – over a specific territory..." [http://www.alleanzacattolica.org/idis_dpf/english/m_the_mafia.htm The mafia] , by Domenico Airoma]
The Sicilian Cosa Nostra is a loose confederation of about one hundred Mafia groups, also called cosche or families, each of which claims sovereignty over a territory, usually a town or village or a neighborhood of a larger city, though without ever fully conquering and legitimizing its monopoly of violence. For many years, the power apparatuses of the single families were the sole ruling bodies within the two associations, and they have remained the real centers of power even after superordinate bodies were created in the Cosa Nostra beginning in the late 1950s (the
Sicilian Mafia Commission). [http://www.organized-crime.de/revpao01mafiandrangheta.htm Review of Paoli, "Mafia Brotherhoods"] by Klaus Von Lampe]
Some observers have seen "mafia" as a set of attributes deeply rooted in popular culture, as a "way of being", as illustrated in the definition by the Sicilian ethnographer,
Giuseppe Pitrè, at the end of the 19th century: "Mafia is the consciousness of one's own worth, the exaggerated concept of individual force as the sole arbiter of every conflict, of every clash of interests or ideas."Giuseppe Pitrè, "Usi e costumi, credenze e pregiudizi del popolo siciliano", Palermo 1889 ]
Many Sicilians did not regard these men as criminals but as role models and protectors, given that the state appeared to offer no protection for the poor and weak. As late as the 1950s, the funeral epitaph of the legendary boss of Villalba,
Calogero Vizzini, stated that "his 'mafia' was not criminal, but stood for respect of the law, defense of all rights, greatness of character. It was love." Here, "mafia" means something like pride, honour, or even social responsibility: an attitude, not an organization. Likewise, in 1925, the former Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlandostated in the Italian senate that he was proud of being , because that word meant honourable, noble, generous. [Arlacchi, "Mafia Business", p. 181] [Dickie, "Cosa Nostra", p. 183]
There are several theories about the origin of the term. The Sicilian adjective "mafiusu" may derive from the
Arabic"mahyas", meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or "marfud" meaning "rejected". Roughly translated, it means , but can also be translated as "boldness, ". In reference to a man, "mafiusu" in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.This etymology is based on the books "Mafioso" by Gaia Servadio; "The Sicilian Mafia" by Diego Gambetta; and "Cosa Nostra" by John Dickie (see Books below).]
According to the Sicilian ethnographer
Giuseppe Pitrè, the association of the word with the criminal secret society was made by the 1863 play " I mafiusi di la Vicaria" (The Beautiful (people) of Vicaria) by Giuseppe Rizzottoand Gaetano Mosca, which is about criminal gangs in the Palermo prison. [Gambetta, "The Sicilian Mafia", p. 136] The words "Mafia" and "mafiusi" (plural of "mafiusu") are never mentioned in the play, and were probably put in the title because it would add local flair.
The association between "mafiusi" and criminal gangs was made by the association the play's title made with the criminal gangs that were new to Sicilian and Italian society at the time. Consequently, the word "mafia" was generated from a fictional source loosely inspired by the real thing and was used by outsiders to describe it. The use of the term "mafia" was subsequently taken over in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. The word "mafia" made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo,
Filippo Antonio Gualterio. Leopoldo Franchetti, an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in 1876, saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia": "the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, and, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining vulgar criminals in other countries."Gambetta, "The Sicilian Mafia", p. 137] He saw the Mafia as deeply rooted in Sicilian society and impossible to quench unless the very structure of the island's social institutions were to undergo a fundamental change. Servadio, "Mafioso", p. 42-43]
According to popular myth, the word Mafia was first used in the Sicilian rebellion - the
Sicilian Vespers- against the oppressive Anjourule on 30 March 1282. Mafia is the acronym for "Morta Alla Francia, Italia Anela" (Italian for "Death to France. This is Italy's cry"). However, this version is discarded by most serious historians nowadays.
The real name: Cosa Nostra
According to some mafiosi, the real name of the Mafia is "Cosa Nostra" ("Our thing"). Many have claimed, as did the Mafia turncoat
Tommaso Buscetta, that the word "mafia" was a literary creation. Other Mafia defectors, such as Antonio Calderoneand Salvatore Contorno, said the same thing. According to them, the real thing was "cosa nostra". To men of honour belonging to the organization, there is no need to name it. Mafiosi introduce known members to other known members as belonging to "cosa nostra" (our thing) or "la stessa cosa" (the same thing), meaning "he is the same thing, a mafioso, as you". Only the outside world needs a name to describe it, hence the capitalized form "Cosa Nostra".
Cosa Nostra was first used, in the early 1960s, in the United States by
Joseph Valachi, a mafioso turned state witness, during the hearings of the McClellan Commission. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,894561,00.html Their Thing] , Time, 16 August 1963] [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,875227,00.html Killers in Prison] , Time, 4 October 1963] [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,873080,00.html "The Smell of It"] , Time, 11 October 1963] At the time, it was understood as a proper name, fostered by the FBIand disseminated by the media. The designation gained wide popularity and almost replaced the term Mafia. The FBI even added an article to the term, calling it 'La Cosa Nostra'. In Italy the article 'la' is never used when the term refers to the Mafia.
The Mafia has used many other names to describe itself throughout its history, such as "The Honoured Society." Mafiosi are known among themselves as "Men of Honour."
Rituals of Sicilian Cosa Nostra
The orientation ritual in most families happens when a man becomes an associate, and then, a soldier. As described by
Tommaso Buscettato judge Giovanni Falcone, the neophyte is brought together with at least three "men of honor" of the family and the oldest member present warns him that "this House" is meant to protect the weak against the abuse of the powerful; he then pricks the finger of the initiate and spills his blood onto a sacred image, usually of a saint. The image is placed in the hand of the initiate and lit on fire. The neophyte must withstand the pain of the burning, passing the image from hand to hand, until the image has been consumed, while swearing to keep faith with the principles of "Cosa Nostra," solemnly swearing "may my flesh burn like this saint if I fail to keep my oath." Joseph Valachi was the first person to mention that in court.
The Sicilians also have a law of silence, called
omertà; it forbids the common man, woman or child to cooperate at all with the police or the government, upon pain of death.
History of Sicilian Cosa Nostra
It has long been debated whether the mafia has medieval origins. Deceased "pentito"
Tommaso Buscettathought so, whilst modern scholars now believe otherwise. It is possible that the "original" mafia formed as a secret society sworn to protect the Sicilian population from the threat of Catalan marauders in the fifteenth century. However, there is very little historical evidence to suggest this. It is also feasible that the " Robin Hood" origins, which are closely intertwined with the Sicilian outlaw Salvatore Giuliano, were perpetuated by the earliest known "mafiosi" as a means of gaining goodwill and trust from the Sicilian people. This origin states that the Mafia is a means for righteous rebels to defend the people against oppression, Roman and Northern Italian control, and outside invasion.
The involvement of the Mafia (or an early form of it) in the
Sicilian Vespersuprising of 1282, a rebellion in which many occupying French officials were simultaneously killed as a prelude to throwing the French out of Sicily in favor of allies in Spain, has never been entirely confirmed with certainty.
After the Revolution of 1848 and the revolution of 1860, Sicily had fallen to complete disorder. The earliest mafiosi (at that time separate small bands of outlaws) offered their guns in the revolt. Author John Dickie claims that the main reasons for this were the chance to burn police records and evidence, and to kill off police and pentiti in the chaos. However, once a new government was established in Rome and it became clear that the mafia would be unable to execute these actions, they began refining their methods and techniques over the latter half of the nineteenth century. Protecting the large lemon groves and estates of local nobility became a lucrative but dangerous business.
Palermowas initially the main area of these activities, but the Sicilian mafia's dominance soon spread over all of western Sicily. In order to strengthen the bond between the disparate gangs and so ensure greater profits and a safer working environment, it is possible that the mafia as such was formed at this time in about the mid-19th century.
Mafia after the unification of Italy
From 1860, the year when the new unified Italian state first took over both Sicily and the
Papal States, the Popes were hostile to the state. From 1870, the Pope declared himself besieged by the Italian state and strongly encouraged Catholics to refuse to cooperate with the state. Broadly speaking, in mainland Italy, this did not lead to violence. Sicilywas strongly Catholic, but in a strongly tribal sense rather than in an intellectual and theological sense, and had a tradition of suspicion of outsiders. The friction between the Church and the state gave a great advantage to violent criminal bands in Sicily who could claim to peasants and townspeople that cooperating with the police (representing the new Italian state) was an anti-Catholic activity. It was in the two decades following the 1860 unification that the term Mafia came to the attention of the general public, although it was considered to be more of an attitude and value system than an organization.
The first mention in official law documentation of the 'mafia' came in the late 1800s, when a Dr. Galati was subject to threats of violence from a local mafioso, who was attempting to oust Galati from his own lemon grove in order to move himself in. Protection rackets, cattle rustling and bribery of state officials were the main sources of income and protection for the early mafia. Cosa Nostra also borrowed heavily from masonic oaths and rituals, such as the now famous initiation ceremony.
Fascistperiod in Italy, Cesare Mori, prefect of Palermo, used special powers granted to him to prosecute the Mafia, forcing many Mafiosi to flee abroad or risk being jailed. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,736971,00.html Mafia Trial] , Time, 24 October 1927] [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,731421,00.html Mafia Scotched] , Time, 23 January 1928] Many of the Mafiosi who escaped fled to the United States, among them Joseph Bonanno, nicknamed Joe Bananas, who came to dominate the U.S. branch of the Mafia. However, when Mori started to persecute the Mafiosi involved in the Fascist hierarchy, he was removed, and the Fascist authorities proclaimed that the Mafia had been defeated. Though the mafia was weakened, it had not been defeated as claimed. Despite his assault on their brethren, Mussolini had his admirers in the New York Mafia, notably Vito Genovese(although he was from Naples and not from Sicily).
The post-war revival
After Fascism, the Mafia did not become powerful in Italy again until after the country's surrender in
World War IIand the U.S. occupation. The United States used Italian connections of American Mafiosi during the invasion of Italy and Sicily in 1943. Lucky Lucianoand other Mafiosi, who had been imprisoned during this time in the U.S., provided information for U.S. military intelligence and used Luciano's influence to ease the way for advancing troops. Furthermore, Luciano's control of the ports prevented sabotage by agents of the Axis powers."The wartime collaboration of Sicilian-born Salvatore "Lucky" Luciano with the United States Navy may have made the Allied invasion of Sicily smoother than it otherwise would have been, but the Iron Prefect's enforcement of the Duce's laws had already made most mafiosi sympathetic to the American cause, or at least hostile to the Fascist one." [http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm The Mafia] from [http://www.bestofsicily.com/ bestofsicily.com] ]
Some say that the U.S.
Office of Strategic Services, precursor to the CIA, deliberately allowed the mafia to recover its social and economic position as the "anti-State" in Sicily, and with the U.S.-mafia alliance forged in 1943, this became the true turning point of mafia history and the new foundation for its subsequent 60-year career.Fact|date=June 2007 Others, such as the Palermitan historian Francesco Renda, have argued that there was no such alliance. Rather, the mafia exploited the chaos of post-fascist Sicily to reconquer its social base. The OSS indeed, in its 1944 "Report on the Problem of Mafia" by the agent W. E. Scotten, pointed to the signs of mafia resurgence and warned of its perils for social order and economic progress.
An alleged additional benefit (from the American perspective) was that many of the Sicilian-Italian Mafiosi were hard-line anti-
communists. They were therefore seen as valuable allies by the anti-communist Americans, who allegedly used them to root out socialist and communist elements in the American shipping industry as well as wartime resistance movements and postwar local and regional governments in areas where the Mafia held sway.Fact|date=February 2007
According to drug trade expert Dr.
Alfred W. McCoy, Luciano was permitted to run his crime network from his jail cell in exchange for his assistance. After the war, Luciano was rewarded by being released from prison and deported to Italy, where he was able to continue his criminal career unhindered. He went to Sicily in 1946 to continue his activities and according to McCoy's landmark 1972 book "The Politics of Heroin in South-East Asia", Luciano went on to forge a crucial alliance with the Corsican Mafia, leading to the development of a vast international herointrafficking network, initially supplied from Turkeyand based in Marseille— the so-called " French Connection".
Later, when Turkey began to eliminate its
opiumproduction, he used his connections with the Corsicans to open a dialogue with expatriate Corsican mafiosi in South Vietnam. In collaboration with leading American mob bosses including Santo Trafficante Jr., Luciano and his successors took advantage of the chaotic conditions in Southeast Asiaarising from the Vietnam Warto establish an unassailable supply and distribution base in the "Golden Triangle", which was soon funneling huge amounts of Asian heroin into the United States, Australia and other countries. [The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, by Alfred W. McCoy with Cathleen B. Read and Leonard P. Adams II, 1972, ISBN 0060129018]
Maxi Trial and war against the government
Second Mafia Warin the early 1980s was a large scale conflict within the Mafia that also led to the assassinations of several politicians, police chiefs and magistrates. Salvatore Riinaand his Corleonesifaction ultimately prevailed in the war. The new generation of mafiosi placed more emphasis on "white-collar" criminal activity as opposed to more traditional racketeering enterprises. In reaction to these developments, the Italian press has come up with the phrase "Cosa Nuova" ("the new thing", a play on "Cosa Nostra") to refer to the revamped organization.
The first major "
pentito" (a captured mafioso who collaborated with the judicial system) was Tommaso Buscettawho had lost several allies in the war and began to talk to prosecutor Giovanni Falconearound 1983. This led to the Maxi Trial(1986-1987) which resulted in several hundred convictions of leading mafiosi. When the Italian Supreme Court confirmed the convictions in January 1992, Riina took revenge. The politician Salvatore Limawas killed in March 1992; he had long been suspected of being the main government connection of the Mafia (later confirmed by testimony of Buscetta), and the Mafia was clearly displeased with his services. Falcone and fellow anti-Mafia prosecutor Paolo Borsellinowere killed a few months later. This led to a public outcry and a massive government crackdown, resulting in Riina's arrest in January 1993. More and more "pentitos" started to emerge. Many would pay a high price for their co-operation usually through the murder of relatives. For example, Cosa Nostra defector Francesco Marino Mannoia's mother, aunt and sister were murdered. [Cosa Nostra by John Dickie ]
The Corleonesi retaliated with a campaign of terrorism, a series of bombings against several tourist spots on the Italian mainland: the
Via dei Georgofiliin Florence, Via Palestroin Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Lateranoand Via San Teodoroin Rome, which left 10 people dead and 93 injured and caused severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. Bernardo Provenzanotook over as boss of the Corleonesi and halted this campaign and replaced it with a campaign of quietness known as "pax mafiosi." This campaign has allowed the Mafia to slowly regain the power it once had. He was arrested in 2006, after 43 years on the run.
The modern Mafia in Italy
The main split in the Sicilian Mafia at present is between those bosses who have been convicted and are now imprisoned, chiefly Riina and "
capo di tutti capi" Bernardo Provenzano, and those who are on the run, or who have not been indicted. The incarcerated bosses are currently subjected to harsh controls on their contact with the outside world, limiting their ability to run their operations from behind bars under the article 41 bis prison regime. Antonino Giuffrè– a close confidant of Provenzano, turned " pentito" shortly after his capture in 2002 – alleges that in 1993, Cosa Nostrahad direct contact with representatives of Silvio Berlusconiwho was then planning the birth of Forza Italia.
The deal that he says was alleged to have been made was a repeal of 41 bis, among other anti-Mafia laws in return for electoral deliverances in Sicily. Giuffrè's declarations have not been confirmed. The Italian Parliament, with the support of
Forza Italia, extended the enforcement of 41 bis, which was to expire in 2002 but has been prolonged for another four years and extended to other crimes such as terrorism. However, according to one of Italy’s leading magazines, L'Espresso, 119 mafiosi – one-fifth of those incarcerated under the 41 bis regime – have been released on an individual basis. [it icon [http://lnx.casertasette.com/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=4988 Caserta, revocato 41 bis a figlio Bidognetti: lo dice ancora l'Espresso] , Casertasete, January , 2006] The human rights group Amnesty Internationalhas expressed concern that the 41-bis regime could in some circumstances amount to "cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment" for prisoners.
In addition to
Salvatore Lima, mentioned above, the politician Giulio Andreottiand the High Court judge Corrado Carnevalehave long been suspected of having ties to the Mafia.
By the late 1990s, the weakened Cosa Nostra had to yield most of the illegal drug trade to the
'Ndranghetacrime organization from Calabria. In 2006, the latter was estimated to control 80% of the cocaineimport to Europe. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/jun/08/italy.johnhooper Move over, Cosa Nostra] , " The Guardian", 8 Juni 2006] The mafia also have a strong business in extortion big companies as well as smaller ones. It estimates that 7% of Italy's output is filtered off by organised crime. The Mafia has turned into one of Italy's biggest business enterprises with a turnover of more than US$120bn a year. [cite news | first=David | last=Willey | coauthors= | title=Italian Mafia turnover '$120bn' | date=Monday, 22 October 2007, 21:57 GMT 22:57 UK | publisher= | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7057413.stm | work =BBC News | pages = | accessdate = 2008-09-16 | language = ]
In November 2007 Sicilian police reported to have found a list of "Ten Commandments" in the hideout of mafia boss
Salvatore Lo Piccolo. Similar to the Biblical Ten Commandments, they are thought to be a guideline on how to be a good, respectful honorable mafioso. The commandments are as follows:cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7086716.stm|title=Mafia's 'Ten Commandments' found|publisher= BBC News|date= 2007-11-09|accessdate=2008-09-16 ]
# No one can present himself directly to another of our friends. There must be a third person to do it.
# Never look at the wives of friends.
# Never be seen with cops.
# Don't go to pubs and clubs.
# Always being available for Cosa Nostra is a duty - even if your wife's about to give birth.
# Appointments must absolutely be respected.
# Wives must be treated with respect.
# When asked for any information, the answer must be the truth.
# Money cannot be appropriated if it belongs to others or to other families.
# People who can't be part of Cosa Nostra: anyone who has a close relative in the police, anyone with a two-timing relative in the family, anyone who behaves badly and doesn't hold to moral values.
Prominent Sicilian mafiosi
Vito Cascio FerroProminent early Don, imprisoned by Cesare Mori.
Calogero Vizzini(1877 – 1954), boss of Villalba, was considered to be one of the most influential Mafia bosses of Sicily after World War II until his death in 1954.
Giuseppe Genco Russo(1893 – 1976), boss of Mussomeli, considered to be the heir of Calogero Vizzini.
Michele Navarra(1905 – 1958), boss of the Mafia Family in Corleonefrom 1940s to 1958
*Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco (1923 – 1978), boss of the Mafia Family in
Ciaculli, he was the first "secretary" of the first Sicilian Mafia Commissionthat was formed somewhere in 1958.
Gaetano Badalamenti(1923 – 2004), boss of the Mafia Family in Cinisi
Angelo La Barbera(1924 – 1975) boss of the Mafia Family in Palermo Centro
Michele Greco(1924 – 2008), boss of the Mafia Family in Croceverde
Luciano Liggio(1925 – 1993), boss of the Mafia Family in Corleone
Tommaso Buscetta(1928 – 2000), Sicilian Mafioso who became a pentito( informant) in 1984. Buscetta's evidence was used to great effect during the Maxi-Trials.
Salvatore Riina(born 1930), also known as Totò Riina is one of the most infamous members of the Sicilian Mafia. He was nicknamed The Beast, or sometimes The Short One ('U Curtu in Sicilian) and ruled the Mafia with an iron hand from the 1980s until his arrest in 1993.
Bernardo Provenzano(born 1933), successor of Riina at the head of the Corleonesiand as such considered one of the most powerful bosses of the Sicilian Mafia. Provenzano was a fugitive from justice since 1963. He was captured on 11 April 2006 in Sicily. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4898930.stm 'Top Mafia boss' caught in Italy] ] Before capture, authorities had reportedly been 'close' to capturing him for 10 years.
Stefano Bontade(1939 – 1981), boss of the Mafia Family in Santa Maria di Gesù
Leoluca Bagarella(born 1941), member of the Mafia Family in Corleonearrested in 1995
Salvatore Lo Piccolo(born 1942), considered to be one of the successors of Provenzano.
Salvatore Inzerillo(1944 – 1981), boss of the Mafia Family in Passo di Rigano
*Giovanni 'Lo Scannacristiani' Brusca (born 1957), who was involved in the murder of
Matteo Messina Denaro(born 1962), considered to be one of the successors of Provenzano.
Michele Cavataiodied in Mafia hit in 1969
Benedetto Santapaola(born 1938), the most important boss of Catania.
tructure of the Sicilian Cosa Nostra
Known as the Honored Society among Mafiosi, the chain of command is organized in a pyramid similar to a modern corporate structure.Fact|September|date=September 2007
#"Capo di Tutti Capi" (the "Boss of All Bosses", namely
Matteo Messina Denarofor the Sicilian Mafia and Renato Gaglianofor the Sacra Corona Unita)Fact|September|date=September 2007
#"Capo di Capi Re" (a title of respect given to a senior or retired member, equivalent to being a "member
emeritus", literally, "King Boss of Bosses")Fact|September|date=September 2007
#"Capo Crimine" ("Crime Boss", known as a Don - the head of a crime family)Fact|September|date=September 2007
#"Capo Bastone" ("Club Head", known as the "
Underboss" is second in command to the Capo Crimine)Fact|September|date=September 2007
Consigliere" (an advisor)Fact|September|date=September 2007
#"Caporegime" ("Regime head", a captain who commands a "crew" of around ten "Sgarriste" or "soldiers")Fact|September|date=September 2007
#"Sgarrista" or "Soldato" ("Soldier", made members of the Mafia who serve primarily as foot soldiers)Fact|September|date=September 2007Fact|September|date=September 2007
#"Picciotto" ("Little man", a low ranking member who serves as an "enforcer")Fact|September|date=September 2007
#"Giovane D'Onore" (an associate member, usually someone not of Italian ancestry)Fact|September|date=September 2007
Italian Mafia structure
#"Capofamiglia" - (Don/Boss)
#"Consigliere" - (Counselor/Advisor/Right-hand man)
#"Sotto Capo" - (Underboss/Second-in-command)
#"Capodecina" - (Captain/Capo)
#"Uomini D'onore" - ("Men of Honor"/Made men/Soldiers)
American Cosa Nostra
The American Mafia (also known as La Cosa Nostra) is an offshoot of the
Sicilian Mafiathat emerged on the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration(see also Italian diaspora). In North America, the Mafia often refers to Italian organized crime in general, rather than just traditional Sicilian organized crime.
Timeline of organized crime
Italian organized crime
List of Mafia crime families
List of criminal organizations
Crime in New York City
Triad society("Chinese Mafia")
*Arlacchi, Pino (1988). "Mafia Business. The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism", Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-285197-7
*Chubb, Judith (1989). [http://www.holycross.edu/departments/history/tmcbride/mafia1.htm The Mafia and Politics] , Cornell Studies in International Affairs, Occasional Papers No. 23.
*Dickie, John (2004). "Cosa Nostra. A history of the Sicilian Mafia", London: Coronet ISBN 0-340-82435-2
*Gambetta, Diego (1993)."The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection", London: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-80742-1
*Servadio, Gaia (1976), "Mafioso. A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day", London: Secker & Warburg ISBN 0-436-44700-2
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6108916.stm Gangs turn Naples into battleground]
* [http://www.centroimpastato.it/otherlang/finmafiaen.php3 The financial mafia. The illegal accumulation of wealth and the financial-industrial complex] by Umberto Santino, in "Contemporary Crises" 12, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, September 1988, pp.203-243
* [http://www.holycross.edu/departments/history/tmcbride/mafia1.htm The Mafia and Politics] , by Judith Chubb, Cornell Studies in International Affairs, Occasional Papers No. 23, 1989.
*, by Oriana Bandiera, London School of Economics, August 1999
* [http://www.gangrule.com Gangrule, American mafia history]
* [http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm The Mafia in Sicilian History]
* [http://www.threemonkeysonline.com/article_cosa_nostra_history_sicilian_mafia.htm Cosa Nostra - Rebranding the Mafia]
* [http://www.fanabala.com/ Italian Mafia Terms Defined]
* [http://www.americanmafia.com/26_Family_Cities.html The 26 Original American Mafia Families- AmericanMafia.com]
* [http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/mafiamon.htm FBI Mafia Monograph]
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