Morgan Freeman

Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman

Freeman at the 2005 Cannes Film Festival
Born June 1, 1937 (1937-06-01) (age 74)
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Occupation Actor, director, narrator
Years active 1964–present
Spouse Jeanette Adair Bradshaw (1967–79; divorced)
Myrna Colley-Lee (1984–2010; divorced)

Morgan Freeman[1] (born June 1, 1937) is an American actor, film director, aviator and narrator. He is noted for his reserved demeanor and authoritative speaking voice. Freeman has received Academy Award nominations for his performances in Street Smart, Driving Miss Daisy, The Shawshank Redemption and Invictus and won in 2005 for Million Dollar Baby. He has also won a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award.

Freeman has appeared in many other box office hits, including Unforgiven, Glory, Seven, Deep Impact, The Sum of All Fears, Bruce Almighty, Batman Begins, March of the Penguins, The Bucket List, Evan Almighty, Wanted, The Dark Knight, and RED.


Early life

Morgan Freeman was born in Memphis, Tennessee, the son of Mayme Edna (née Revere), a teacher,[2] and Morgan Porterfield Freeman, a barber who died in 1961 from cirrhosis. He has three older siblings. Freeman was sent as an infant to his paternal grandmother in Charleston, Mississippi.[3][4][5] His family moved frequently during his childhood, living in Greenwood, Mississippi; Gary, Indiana; and finally Chicago, Illinois.[5] Freeman made his acting debut at age 9, playing the lead role in a school play. He then attended Broad Street High School, currently Threadgill Elementary School, in Mississippi. At age 12, he won a statewide drama competition, and while still at Broad Street High School, he performed in a radio show based in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1955, he graduated from Broad Street, but turned down a partial drama scholarship from Jackson State University, opting instead to work as a mechanic in the United States Air Force.

Freeman moved to Los Angeles in the early 1960s and worked as a transcript clerk at Los Angeles Community College. During this period, he also lived in New York City, working as a dancer at the 1964 World's Fair, and in San Francisco, where he was a member of the Opera Ring music group. Freeman acted in a touring company version of The Royal Hunt of the Sun, and also appeared as an extra in the 1965 film The Pawnbroker. He made his off-Broadway debut in 1967, opposite Viveca Lindfors in The Nigger Lovers[6][7] (about the civil rights era "Freedom Riders"), before debuting on Broadway in 1968's all-black version of Hello, Dolly!, which also starred Pearl Bailey and Cab Calloway.


Acting career

Freeman at the 10 Items or Less premiere in Madrid with co-star Paz Vega.

Although his first credited film appearance was in 1971's Who Says I Can't Ride a Rainbow?, Freeman first became known in the American media through roles on the soap opera Another World and the PBS kids' show The Electric Company,[5] (notably as Easy Reader and Vincent the Vegetable Vampire) which he later said he should have left earlier than he did.

Beginning in the mid-1980s, Freeman began playing prominent supporting roles in many feature films, earning him a reputation for depicting wise, fatherly characters.[5] As he gained fame, he went on to bigger roles in films such as the chauffeur Hoke in Driving Miss Daisy, and Sergeant Major Rawlins in Glory (both in 1989).[5] In 1994 he portrayed Red, the redeemed convict in the acclaimed The Shawshank Redemption. In the same year he was a member of the jury at the 44th Berlin International Film Festival.[8]

He also starred in films such as Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Unforgiven, Seven, and Deep Impact. In 1997, Freeman, together with Lori McCreary, founded the film production company Revelations Entertainment, and the two co-head its sister online film distribution company ClickStar. Freeman also hosts the channel Our Space on ClickStar, with specially crafted film clips in which he shares his love for the sciences, especially space exploration and aeronautics.

After three previous nominations—a supporting actor nomination for Street Smart, and leading actor nominations for Driving Miss Daisy, and The Shawshank Redemption—he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Million Dollar Baby at the 77th Academy Awards.[5] Freeman is recognized for his distinctive voice, making him a frequent choice for narration. In 2005 alone, he provided narration for two films, War of the Worlds and the Academy Award-winning documentary film March of the Penguins.

Freeman appeared as God in the hit film Bruce Almighty and its sequel, Evan Almighty, as well as Lucius Fox in the critical and commercial success Batman Begins and its 2008 sequel, The Dark Knight. He starred in Rob Reiner's 2007 film The Bucket List, opposite Jack Nicholson. He teamed with Christopher Walken and William H. Macy for the comedy The Maiden Heist, which was released direct to video due to financial problems of the distribution company. In 2008, Freeman returned to Broadway to co-star with Frances McDormand and Peter Gallagher for a limited engagement of Clifford Odets's play, The Country Girl, directed by Mike Nichols.

He had wanted to do a film based on Nelson Mandela for some time. At first he tried to get Mandela's autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, adapted into a finished script, but it could never be finalized.[9] In 2007 he purchased the film rights to a pre-published 2008 book by John Carlin, Playing the Enemy: Nelson Mandela and the Game that Made a Nation.[10] Clint Eastwood directed the Nelson Mandela bio-pic titled Invictus, starring Freeman as Mandela and Matt Damon as rugby team captain Francois Pienaar.[11] In October 2010, Freeman co-starred alongside Bruce Willis in Red.[12]

Freeman's latest project is the Danny DeVito directed film Charlotte Doyle which will also feature Irish actor Pierce Brosnan and is due to start filming in Ireland in early 2012. [13]

Other work

In July 2009 Freeman was one of the presenters at the 46664 concert (celebrating Nelson Mandela's birthday) at Radio City Music Hall in New York City.

Freeman was the first American to record a par on Legend Golf & Safari Resort's Extreme 19th hole.[14]

At age 65, Freeman earned a private pilot's license.[15] He owns or has owned at least three private aircraft, including a Cessna Citation 501 jet and a Cessna 414 twin-engine prop. In 2007 he purchased an Emivest SJ30[16] long-range private jet, and took delivery in December 2009.[17] He is certified to fly all of them.[18]

Effective January 4, 2010, Freeman replaced Walter Cronkite as the voiceover introduction to the CBS Evening News featuring Katie Couric as news anchor.[19] CBS cited the need for consistency in introductions for regular news broadcasts and special reports as the basis for the change.[19]

As of 2010, Freeman is the host and narrator of the Discovery Channel television show Through the Wormhole.[20]

Personal life

Freeman and his wife, Myrna Colley-Lee, at the 1990 Academy Awards


Freeman was married to Jeanette Adair Bradshaw from October 22, 1967 until 1979. He married Myrna Colley-Lee on June 16, 1984. The couple separated in December 2007. Freeman's attorney and business partner, Bill Luckett, announced in August 2008 that Freeman and his wife are in the process of divorce.[21] On 15 September 2010, their divorce was finalized in Mississippi.[22]

He has two sons from previous relationships before he married Bradshaw.[citation needed] He adopted his first wife's daughter, and the couple also had his fourth child.

In 2008, the TV series African American Lives 2 revealed that Freeman's great-great-grandparents were slaves who migrated from North Carolina to Mississippi.[2]

Freeman has publicly declared his lack of religion.[23]


Freeman lives in Charleston, Mississippi, and New York City. He co-owns and operates Madidi, a fine dining restaurant, and Ground Zero, a blues club, both located in Clarksdale, Mississippi. He officially opened his second Ground Zero in Memphis, Tennessee on April 24, 2008.

Car accident

Freeman was injured in an automobile accident near Ruleville, Mississippi, on the night of August 3, 2008. The vehicle in which he was traveling, a 1997 Nissan Maxima, left the highway and flipped over several times. He and a female passenger, Demaris Meyer, were rescued from the vehicle using the "Jaws of Life". Freeman was taken via medical helicopter to The Regional Medical Center (The Med) hospital in Memphis.[24][25] Police ruled out alcohol as a factor in the crash.[26] Freeman was coherent following the crash, as he joked to a photographer about taking his picture at the scene.[27] He broke his shoulder, arm and elbow in the crash and had surgery on August 5, 2008. Doctors operated for four hours to repair nerve damage in his shoulder and arm.[28] On CNN's Piers Morgan Tonight he stated that he is left handed but currently cannot move the fingers of his left hand. He wears a compression glove to protect against blood pooling due to non-movement. His publicist announced he was expected to make a full recovery.[29][30] Meyer, his passenger, has sued him for negligence, claiming that he was drinking the night of the accident.[31] She has denied reports that they were romantically involved.[32]


Charitable work

In 2004 Freeman and others formed the Grenada Relief Fund to aid people affected by Hurricane Ivan on the island of Grenada. The Grenada Relief Fund has since become PLANIT NOW, an organization that seeks to provide preparedness resources for people living in hurricane and severe-storm afflicted areas.[33]

Freeman has worked on narrating small clips for global organizations, such as One Earth,[34] whose goals include raising awareness of environmental issues. He has narrated the clip "Why Are We Here", which can be viewed on One Earth's website.

Freeman has donated money to the Mississippi Horse Park in Starkville, Mississippi. The Horse park is part of Mississippi State University. Freeman has several horses that he takes there.[35]

Comments on race

Freeman has publicly criticized the celebration of Black History Month and does not participate in any related events, saying, "I don't want a black history month. Black history is American history."[36] He says the only way to end racism is to stop talking about it, and he notes that there is no "white history month".[37] Freeman once said on an interview with 60 Minutes' Mike Wallace: "I am going to stop calling you a white man and I'm going to ask you to stop calling me a black man."[36] Freeman supported the defeated proposal to change the Mississippi state flag, which contains the Confederate battle flag.[38][39]

Freeman joined President Bill Clinton, USA Bid Committee Chairman Sunil Gulati, and USMNT midfielder Landon Donovan on Wednesday, December 1, 2010 in Zurich for the USA bid committee's final presentation to FIFA for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[40]


Freeman endorsed Barack Obama's candidacy for the 2008 presidential election, although he stated that he would not join Obama's campaign.[41] He narrates for The Hall of Presidents with Barack Obama, who has been added to the exhibit.[42][43] The Hall of Presidents re-opened on July 4, 2009 at Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Florida.[43]

Freeman sparked an outcry in September 2011 when, on CNN's Piers Morgan Tonight, he accused the Tea Party movement of racism.[44] He said that the Tea Party's "stated policy, publicly stated, is to do whatever it takes to see to it that Obama only serves one term. What's, what does that, what underlines that? Screw the country. We're going to do whatever we do to get this black man, we can, we're going to do whatever we can to get this black man outta here." Piers Morgan responded, "But is that necessarily a racist thing?...Wouldn't they say that about any Democrat?" Freeman replied, "It is a racist thing...[The rise of the Tea Party] shows the weak, dark underside of America. We’re supposed to be better than that. We really are. That’s why all those people were in tears when Obama was elected president. ‘Ah look at what we are–this is America.’ Then it just sort of started turning because these people surfaced–like stirring up muddy water."[45][46] Freeman was criticized for the comments; black Republican presidential candidate Herman Cain said the comments were short-sighted and said most who have criticized the Tea Party have never been to a Tea Party,[47] and actor Adam Baldwin said, "It's the content of Obama's character [and] policies, not the color of his skin, that's at issue."[44]


On October 28, 2006, Freeman was honored at the first Mississippi's Best Awards in Jackson, Mississippi, with the Lifetime Achievement Award for his works on and off the big screen. He received an honorary degree of Doctor of Arts and Letters from Delta State University during the school's commencement exercises on May 13, 2006.[48]

In 2008, Freeman's family history was profiled on the PBS series African American Lives 2. A DNA test showed that he is descended from the Songhai and Tuareg peoples of Niger.


Year Title Role Notes
1964 The Pawnbroker Man on Street uncredited
1966 Man Called Adam, AA Man Called Adam Unknown uncredited
1968 Where Were You When the Lights Went Out? Grand Central Commuter uncredited
1980 Brubaker Walter
1981 Eyewitness Lieutenant Black
1984 Teachers Al Lewis
1984 Harry & Son Siemanowski
1985 Marie Charles Traughber
1985 That Was Then... This Is Now Charlie Woods
1987 Street Smart Fast Black Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture
1988 Clean and Sober Craig
1989 Glory Sgt. Maj. John Rawlins Nominated—Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
1989 Driving Miss Daisy Hoke Colburn 40th Berlin International Film Festival – Silver Bear for Best Joint Performance (shared with Jessica Tandy)[49]
Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
National Board of Review Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actor
1989 Lean on Me Principal Joe Clark
1989 Johnny Handsome Lt. A.Z. Drones
1990 Bonfire of the Vanities, TheThe Bonfire of the Vanities Judge Leonard White
1990 Civil War, TheThe Civil War Voice of Frederick Douglass
1991 Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves Azeem Nominated—MTV Movie Award for Best On-Screen Duo (shared with Kevin Costner)
1992 Unforgiven Ned Logan
1992 Power of One, TheThe Power of One Geel Piet
1993 Bopha! director only, his directorial debut
1994 Shawshank Redemption, TheThe Shawshank Redemption Ellis Boyd "Red" Redding, Narrator Chlotrudis Award for Best Actor (tied with Wallace Shawn for Vanya on 42nd Street)
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role
1995 Outbreak Brig. Gen. Billy Ford
1995 Se7en Detective Lt. William Somerset Empire Award for Best Actor
London Film Critics Circle Award for Actor of the Year
Nominated—Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
Nominated—MTV Movie Award for Best On-Screen Duo (shared with Brad Pitt)
Nominated—Saturn Award for Best Actor
1996 Chain Reaction Paul Shannon
1996 Moll Flanders Hibble
1996 Cosmic Voyage Narrator
1997 Amistad Theodore Joadson
1997 Kiss The Girls Dr. Alex Cross
1997 Long Way Home, TheThe Long Way Home Narrator
1998 Deep Impact President Tom Beck
1998 Hard Rain Jim
2000 Nurse Betty Charlie Quinn Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
2000 Under Suspicion Victor Benezet
2001 Along Came a Spider Dr. Alex Cross
2002 Sum of All Fears, TheThe Sum of All Fears DCI William Cabot
2002 High Crimes Charlie Grimes
2003 Bruce Almighty God
2003 Dreamcatcher Col. Abraham Curtis
2003 Levity Pastor Miles Evans
2003 Drug War Lt. Redding
2004 Million Dollar Baby Eddie "Scrap Iron" Dupris Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
Italian Online Movie Award for Best Supporting Actor
NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated - Black Reel Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated—Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture
Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2004 Hunting of the President, TheThe Hunting of the President Narrator limited release
2004 Big Bounce, TheThe Big Bounce Walter Crewes
2005 Unfinished Life, AnAn Unfinished Life Mitch Bradley
2005 War of the Worlds Narrator
2005 March of the Penguins Narrator
2005 Batman Begins Lucius Fox
2005 Unleashed Sam
2006 Edison Force Ashford
2006 Contract, TheThe Contract Frank Carden
2006 Lucky Number Slevin The Boss
2006 10 Items or Less Himself
2007 Evan Almighty God
2007 Feast of Love Harry Stephenson
2007 Gone, Baby, Gone Jack Doyle
2007 Bucket List, TheThe Bucket List Carter Chambers Also Narrator
2008 Wanted Sloan
2008 Love Guru, TheThe Love Guru Narrator Voice
2008 Dark Knight, TheThe Dark Knight Lucius Fox Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Cast
2009 Prom Night in Mississippi Himself limited release
2009 Thick as Thieves Keith Ripley
2009 Maiden Heist, TheThe Maiden Heist Charlie
2009 Invictus Nelson Mandela NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture
National Board of Review Award for Best Actor (tied with George Clooney for Up in the Air)
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Denver Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated—Houston Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role
Nominated—St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association for Best Actor
2010 RED Joe
2011 Born to Be Wild 3D Narrator
2011 Conan the Barbarian Narrator[50]
2011 Dolphin Tale Dr. Cameron McCarthy
2012 Dark Knight Rises, TheThe Dark Knight Rises Lucius Fox filming
2012 True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle, TheThe True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle Zachariah in production
2012 Summer at Dog Dave's pre-production
Year Title Role Notes
1971–1977 Electric Company, TheThe Electric Company Easy Reader, DJ Mel Mounds, Dracula, Vincent the Vegetable Vampire television series
1978 Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry Uncle Hammer made-for-television
1981 Ryan's Hope Cicero Murphy TV series (various episodes)
1981 Marva Collins Story, TheThe Marva Collins Story Clarence Collins made-for-television
1982–1984 Another World Roy Bingham TV series (various episodes)
1985 Twilight Zone, TheThe Twilight Zone Tony Television series (episode "Dealer's Choice")
1986 Resting Place Luther Johnson made-for-television
1987 Fight For Life Dr. Sherard made-for-television
2008 Smithsonian Channel's Sound Revolution Himself (host) television series, series host
2008 Stephen Fry in America Himself television series, appears in episode 3
2010 Colbert Report, TheThe Colbert Report Himself interview
2010 Daily Show, TheThe Daily Show Himself interview
2010 Through the Wormhole
with Morgan Freeman[20]
Himself (host) television series, series host
2010 Saturday Night Live Himself (celebrity cameo) What Up With That

Other awards and honors


  1. ^ In a July 3, 1978 interview with The New Yorker, Freeman states about his grandmother, "She had been married to Morgan Herbert Freeman, and my father was Morgan Porterfield Freeman, but they forgot to give me a middle name.", see here.
  2. ^ a b "Morgan Freeman". African American Lives 2. PBS. Retrieved July 13, 2011. 
  3. ^ Morgan Freeman biography. Film
  4. ^ Profiles: Morgan Freeman. Hello
  5. ^ a b c d e f Inside the Actors Studio. Original air date: January 2, 2005 (Season 11, Episode 10)
  6. ^ Morgan Freeman at the Internet Movie Database
  7. ^ Morgan Freeman Biography. Film & TV.
  8. ^ "Berlinale: 1994 Juries". Retrieved 2011-06-09. 
  9. ^ Gumbel, Andrew. "The Independent: Morgan Freeman to play Mandela in new film". The Independent. September 26, 2007.
  10. ^ "Morgan Freeman to Star as Nelson Mandela". New York Times. June 25, 2007.
  11. ^ Keller, Bill. "Entering the Scrum". The New York Times Book Review. August 17, 2008.
  12. ^ "Morgan Freeman Joins The Big Screen Adaptation of Warren Ellis’ Red". /Film. 2009-07-19. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  13. ^ "Morgan Freeman & Pierce Brosnan in Danny DeVito's 'Charlotte Doyle', Filming in Ireland 2012". IFTN. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  14. ^ Extreme 19th Leaderboard, Legend Golf & Safari Resort
  15. ^ Morgan Freeman: The Bucket List video interview[dead link]
  16. ^ SJ30jet.Com
  17. ^ Luxury Launches
  18. ^ Ameinfo
  19. ^ a b "Freeman replaces Cronkite on CBS news". Boston Globe. 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  20. ^ a b "Through the Wormhole". Discovery Channel. 
  21. ^ "Celebrity News, Photos & Videos". Access Hollywood. 2008-08-06. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  22. ^ The Detroit Free Press, September 18, 2010, p. 6D
  23. ^ "Morgan Freeman - Celebrity Atheist List". StumbleUpon. 
  24. ^ Matt Webb Mitovich (2008-08-04). "Morgan Freeman in Car Accident, Listed in Serious Condition". TV Guide. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  25. ^ "Freeman injured in car accident". BBC News. 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  26. ^ "Actor Morgan Freeman badly injured in crash". The Irish Times. 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  27. ^ "Morgan Freeman hurt in car crash". BBC News. 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  28. ^ Freeman recovering after surgery
  29. ^ Horn, James (2008-08-05). "Morgan Freeman 'in good spirits' after accident". The Los Angeles Times.,0,5752402.story. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  30. ^ "Morgan Freeman discharged from hospital -". [dead link]
  31. ^ "Morgan Freeman Sued for Car Accident". WHBQ. February 25, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-25. [dead link]
  32. ^ Morgan's Friend—He Was Drinking Before the Crash,, February 25, 2009
  33. ^ "PLAN!T NOW History". Archived from the original on 2008-05-08. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  34. ^ "ECO". Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  35. ^ "Mississippi State Campus Map" (PDF). Retrieved accessdate = 2008-08-05. 
  36. ^ a b Freeman calls Black History Month ‘ridiculous’ . December 15, 2005.
  37. ^ "Freeman calls Black History Month ridiculous". MSNBC. 2005-12-15. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  38. ^ David Firestone (2001-04-18). "Mississippi Votes by wide margin to keep state flag That includes Confederate emblem". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  39. ^ "Morgan Freeman defies labels". CBS News. 2005-12-18. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  40. ^ Gousabid
  41. ^ Eleanor Clift (2007-12-21). "Freeman, Obama and Hollywood immortality". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  42. ^ "Hall of Presidents". WDW Radio. 2007-09-16. Retrieved 2009-12-03. [dead link]
  43. ^ a b "Hail to the chief: Obama makes Disney debut at Hall of Presidents." Orlando Sentinel. June 29, 2009.
  44. ^ a b Morgan Freeman Sparks Outcry After Calling Tea Party Racist
  45. ^ Morgan Freeman Calls Tea Party ‘Racist’ (Video)
  46. ^ Obama backer: Some attacks are 'a racist thing'
  47. ^ Herman Cain, GOP presidential candidate, hits back at Morgan Freeman for calling Tea Party 'racist'
  48. ^ Morgan Freeman biography.
  49. ^ "Berlinale: 1990 Prize Winners". Retrieved 2011-03-17. 
  50. ^ William Bibbiani (August 17, 2011). "Marcus Nispel and Fredrick Malmberg on 'Conan the Barbarian'". Crave Online. Crave Online. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  51. ^ Wood, Bennett. Rhodes 150: A Sesquicentennial Yearbook, p. 214.
  52. ^ "Nelson Mandela To Receive Honorary Degree in Absentia, One of Eight Candidates". 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 

External links

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