Invention of radio

Invention of radio


Within the history of radio, several people were involved in the invention of radio and there were many key inventions in what became the modern systems of wireless.[1][2][3] Radio development began as "wireless telegraphy".[1][4] During the early development of wireless technology, and continuing long after its widespread adoption, disputes persisted as to who could claim credit for the invention of radio. The matter was important for economic, political and nationalistic reasons.

Physics of wireless signalling

Various scientists proposed that electricity and magnetism were linked. In 1802 Gian Domenico Romagnosi suggested the relationship between electric current and magnetism but his reports went unnoticed. In 1820 Hans Christian Ørsted performed a simple and today widely known experiment on man-made electric current and magnetism. He demonstrated that a wire carrying a current could deflect a magnetized compass needle. Ørsted's work influenced André-Marie Ampère to produce a theory of electromagnetism.

Several different electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic physical phenomena can be used to transmit signals over a distance without intervening wires. The various methods for wireless signal transmissions include:

All these physical phenomena, as well as various other ideas such as conduction through air, were tested for the purpose of communication. Early researchers may not have understood or disclosed which physical effects were responsible for transmitting signals. Early experiments used the existing theories of the movement of charged particles through an electrical conductor. There was no theory of electromagnetic wave propagation to guide experiments before Maxwell's treatise and its verification by Hertz and others.

Capacitive and inductive coupling systems today are used only for short-range special purpose systems. The physical phenomenon used today for long-distance wireless communications involves the use of modulated electromagnetic waves, which is radio.

Radio antennas radiate electromagnetic waves that can reach the receiver either by ground wave propagation, by refraction from the ionosphere, known as sky wave propagation, and occasionally by refraction in lower layers of the atmosphere (tropospheric ducting). The ground wave component is the portion of the radiated electromagnetic wave that propagates close to the Earth's surface. It has both direct-wave and ground-reflected components. The direct-wave is limited only by the distance from the transmitter to the horizon plus a distance added by diffraction around the curvature of the earth. The ground-reflected portion of the radiated wave reaches the receiving antenna after being reflected from the Earth's surface. A portion of the ground wave energy radiated by the antenna may also be guided by the Earth's surface as a ground-hugging surface wave.

Any change in the electrical conditions of a circuit, whether internal, such as a change of load, starting and switching operations, short circuits, or external, such as due to lightning, involves a readjustment of the stored electromagnetic and electrostatic energy of the circuit; that is, a so-called transient. Such transient is of the general character of a condenser discharge through an inductive circuit. The phenomenon of the condenser discharge through an inductive circuit therefore is of the greatest importance to the engineer, as the foremost cause of high-voltage and high-frequency troubles in electric circuits.[5]

With the development of radio communication—whether wireless or wired—the condenser discharge through an inductive circuit has assumed a great additional importance since, with the exception of a few of the highest power transoceanic stations, which use power-driven high-frequency alternators, the source of power in the radio communication up to 1922 was the condenser discharge through the inductive circuit, whether as a damped wave or as an undamped wave. In undamped wave radio communication, the condenser discharge circuit is coupled with a source of electric power—a battery—in such a manner, that, without interfering with the character of the oscillation, sufficient energy is fed into the circuit to maintain the oscillation, similarly as in the clock, the pendulum is coupled with a source of mechanical power—weight or spring— so as to maintain its oscillation undamped.[5] The usual method of producing a condenser discharge through an inductive circuit is gradually to charge a condenser from a source of electric power, until the condenser voltage has risen sufficiently high to jump a spark gap (the rotary gap, or quenched gap of the damped wave wireless for instance) and thereby discharge through the inductive circuit.[5]

Theory of electromagnetism

Experiments and Theory

Several scientists speculated that light might be connected with electricity or magnetism. Around 1830 Francesco Zantedeschi suggested a connection between light, electricity, and magnetism.[6] In 1832 Joseph Henry performed experiments detecting electromagnetic effects over a distance of 200 feet (61 m) and postulated the existence of electromagnetic waves.[7]

In 1831, Michael Faraday began a series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction. The relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. In 1846 Michael Faraday speculated that light was a wave disturbance in a force field".[8]

Between 1861 and 1865, based on the earlier experimental work of Faraday and other scientists, James Clerk Maxwell developed his theory of electromagnetism, which predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves. In 1873 Maxwell described the theoretical basis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in his paper to the Royal Society, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field."

Based on the experimental work of Faraday and other physicists, James Clerk Maxwell[9] in 1864 developed the theory of electromagnetism that predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves, which include radio waves. This theory united all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism, and optics into a consistent theory.[10] His set of equations—Maxwell's equations—demonstrated that electricity, magnetism, and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon, the electromagnetic field. Subsequently, all other classic laws or equations of these disciplines were special cases of Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's work in electromagnetism has been called the "second great unification in physics".[11]

Although Maxwell did not transmit or receive radio waves his equations still remain the basis of all radio design. Berend Wilhelm Feddersen[12] (German physicist) in 1859, as a private scholar in Leipzig, succeeded in experiments with the Leyden jar to prove that electric sparks were composed of discharge (damped) oscillations. He realized that they arise from a coil, capacitor and resistor existing electrical circuit oscillations.

Development of radio

Formative "wireless" methods

In April 1872 William Henry Ward received U.S. Patent 126,356 for radio development. However, this patent did not refer to any known scientific theory of electromagnetism and could never have received and transmitted radio waves.[citation needed]

A few months after Ward received his patent, Mahlon Loomis of West Virginia received U.S. Patent 129,971 for a "wireless telegraph" in July 1872. This claimed to utilize atmospheric electricity to eliminate the overhead wire used by the existing telegraph systems. It did not contain diagrams or specific methods and it did not refer to or incorporate any known scientific theory. It is substantially similar to William Henry Ward's patent and could not have transmitted and received radio waves.[citation needed]

Towards the end of 1875, while experimenting with the telegraph, Thomas Edison noted a phenomenon that he termed "etheric force", announcing it to the press on November 28. He abandoned this research when Elihu Thomson, among others, ridiculed the idea. The idea was not based on the electromagnetic waves described by Maxwell. In 1885, Edison took out U.S. Patent 465,971 on a system of electrical wireless communication between ships (which later he sold to the Marconi Company). The patent, however, was based on the mutual-inductively coupled or magnetically coupled communication.

Claims have been made[citation needed] that Murray, Kentucky farmer Nathan Stubblefield developed radio between 1885 and 1892, before either Tesla or Marconi, but his devices seemed to have worked by induction transmission rather than radio transmission.

In 1878, David E. Hughes noticed that sparks could be heard in a telephone receiver when experimenting with his carbon microphone.[13] He developed this carbon-based detector further and eventually could detect signals over a few hundred yards.[14] He demonstrated his discovery to the Royal Society in 1880, but was told it was merely induction, and therefore abandoned further research, although there have been later claims that he did, in fact, transmit and receive electromagnetic waves.[15][16] While Professor Hughes was continuing his investigations in this direction, Hertz's papers were published, and then he thought it too late to bring forward these earlier experiments.[14]

Early radio development

Early Developers

The key invention for the beginning of "wireless transmission of data using the entire frequency spectrum", known as the spark-gap transmitter, has been attributed to various men. Marconi equipped ships with lifesaving wireless communications and established the first transatlantic radio service. Tesla developed means to reliably produce radio frequency electrical currents, publicly demonstrated the principles of radio, and transmitted long distance signals.

In the late 19th century it was clear to various scientists and experimenters that wireless communication was possible. Various theoretical and experimental innovations led to the development of radio and the communication system we know today. Some early work was done by local effects and experiments of electromagnetic induction. Many understood that there was nothing similar to the "ethereal telegraphy" [17][18] and telegraphy by induction, the phenomena being wholly distinct. Wireless telegraphy was beginning to take hold and the practice of transmitting messages without wires was being developed. Many people worked on developing the devices and improvements.

Early radio's origin and development of old, or damped wave-coherer, methods began with Joseph Henry.[19] He was the first (1838–42) to produce high frequency electrical oscillations, and to point out and experimentally demonstrate that the discharge of a condenser is under certain conditions oscillatory, or, as he puts it, consists "of a principal discharge in one direction and then several reflex actions backward and forward, each more feeble than the preceding until equilibrium is attained".[20] This view was also later adopted by Helmholz,[21] but the mathematical demonstration of this fact was first given by Lord Kelvin in his paper on "Transient Electric Currents".[22][23]

In 1870 the German physicist Wilhelm von Bezold discovered and experimentally demonstrated the fact that the advancing and reflected oscillations produced in conductors by a condenser discharge gave rise to interference phenomena.[24][25] Professors Elihu Thomson and E. J. Houston in 1876 made a number of experiments and observations on high frequency oscillatory discharges.[26] In 1883 G. F. Fitzgerald suggested[27] at a British Association meeting that electromagnetic waves could be generated by the discharge of a condenser, but the suggestion was not followed up, possibly because no means was known for detecting the waves.[23]

Hertz[28] discovered a method of detecting such waves by means of a minute spark-gap and, before March 30, 1888, had concluded his remarkable series of researches in which for the first time electromagnetic waves were actually produced by a spark-gap and radiating conductor and received and detected at a distance by a tuned receiving circuit. Hertz changed the frequency of his radiated waves by altering the inductance or capacity of his radiating conductor or antenna, and reflected and focused the electromagnetic waves, thus demonstrating the correctness of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.[23] After Hertz, Sir William Crookes discussed the matter of wireless in some detail.[29] Professor Amos Emerson Dolbear also suggested the same thing.[30]


Between 1886 and 1888, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz[31] studied Maxwell's theory and validated it through experiment.[32] Concerning wireless telegraphy, he demonstrated the transmission and reception of the electromagnetic waves predicted by Maxwell and intentionally transmitted and received radio. Hertz changed the frequency of his radiated waves by altering the inductance or capacity of his radiating conductor or antenna, and reflected and focused the electromagnetic waves, thus demonstrating the correctness of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.[23] Famously, he saw no practical use for his discovery.

In his UHF experiments, he transmitted and received radio waves over short distances and showed that the properties of radio waves were consistent with Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. He demonstrated that radio radiation (now called electromagnetic radiation) had all the properties of waves, and discovered that the electromagnetic equations could be reformulated into a partial differential equation called the wave equation.

1887 experimental setup of Hertz's apparatus.

Hertz’s setup for a source and detector of radio waves (then called Hertzian waves[33] in his honor) was the first intentional and unequivocal transmission and reception of radio waves through free space.[34] The first of the papers published ("On Very Rapid Electric Oscillations") gives, generally in the actual order of time, the course of the investigation as far as it was carried out up to the end of the year 1886 and the beginning of 1887.[35]

Hertz, though, did not devise a system for actual general use nor describe the application of the technology and seemed uninterested in the practical importance of his experiments. Asked about the ramifications of his discoveries, Hertz replied, "Nothing, I guess." Hertz also stated, "I do not think that the wireless waves I have discovered will have any practical application."[36] Hertz died in 1894, and the art of radio was left to others to implement into a practical form.


In 1890, Édouard Branly[37][38][39] demonstrated what he later called the "radio-conductor,"[40] which Lodge in 1893 named the coherer, the first sensitive device for detecting radio waves.[41] Shortly after the experiments of Hertz, Dr. Branly discovered that loose metal filings, which in a normal state have a high electrical resistance, lose this resistance in the presence of electric oscillations and become practically conductors of electricity. This Branly showed by placing metal filings in a glass box or tube, and making them part of an ordinary electric circuit. According to the common explanation, when electric waves are set up in the neighborhood of this circuit, electromotive forces are generated in it which appear to bring the filings more closely together, that is, to cohere, and thus their electrical resistance decreases, from which cause this piece of apparatus was termed by Sir Oliver Lodge a coherer.[42] Hence the receiving instrument, which may be a telegraph relay, that normally would not indicate any sign of current from the small battery, can be operated when electric oscillations are set up.[43] Prof. Branly further found that when the filings had once cohered they retained their low resistance until shaken apart, for instance, by tapping on the tube.[44] The coherer, however, was not sensitive enough to be used reliably as radio developed.[45]


Basic form of Nikola Tesla's Spark-gap transmitter[46]

In 1891 Nikola Tesla began his research into radio. Around July 1891 he developed various alternator apparatus that produced 15,000 cycles per second.[47][48][49][50] In 1892 he delivered a lecture called "Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency" before the Institution of Electrical Engineers of London, in which he suggested that messages could be transmitted without wires. He repeated this presentation at the Royal Institution[51] and at the Société Française de Physique in Paris.[51] Tesla realized he gained, by the use of very high frequencies, many advantages in his experiments, such as the possibilities of working with one lead and of doing away with the leading-in wire. In transmitting impulses through conductors, he dealt with high pressure and high flow, in the ordinary interpretation of these terms. Towards the end of the lecture, he proposed that sending over the wire current vibrations of very high frequencies at enormous distance without affecting greatly the character of the vibrations and that telephony could be rendered practicable across the Atlantic. He also proposed transmission through the Earth.[52] Tesla captured the attention of the whole scientific world by his fascinating experiments on high frequency electric currents. He stimulated the scientific imagination of others as well as displayed his own, and created a widespread interest in his brilliant demonstrations.[53] Accordingly there are seven elements in the complete oscillation-producing appliance, which are as follows:[54]

These several elements have each to be considered separately with reference to their best practical forms for various purposes. When the key is closed, and the apparatus in operation, there are trains of intermittent electrical oscillations set up in the circuit, and if the terminals of the secondary circuit of the oscillation transformer are near together, there is high potential high frequency oscillatory sparks passing between them. The above-described apparatus in a typical form is generally called a Tesla apparatus for the production of high frequency electric currents.[54]

"On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena"

On the Apparatus and Method of Conversion
Neighboring points on the Earth's surface.

In 1893, at St. Louis, Missouri, Tesla gave a public demonstration, "On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena",[55] of wireless communication. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia,[56] he described in detail the principles of early radio communication. The lecture apparatus that Tesla used contained all the elements that were incorporated into radio systems before the development of the "oscillation valve", the early vacuum tube. The lecture delivered before the Franklin Institute, at Philadelphia, occurred on February 24, 1893. The variety of Tesla's radio frequency systems were again demonstrated during when he presented to meetings of the National Electric Light Association, at St. Louis, on March I, 1893. Afterward, the principle of radio communication (sending signals through space to receivers) was publicized widely from Tesla's experiments and demonstrations. On August 25, 1893, Tesla delivered the lecture "Mechanical and Electrical Oscillators",[57] before the International Electrical Congress, in the hall adjoining the Agricultural Building, at the World's Fair, Chicago.[58]

The high-frequency phenomena which Tesla first developed and displayed had scientific rather than practical interest; but Tesla called attention to the fact that by taking the Tesla oscillator,[59][60][61] grounding one side of it and connecting the other to an insulated body of large surface, it should be possible to transmit electric oscillations to a great distance, and to communicate intelligence in this way to other oscillators in sympathetic resonance therewith. This was going far toward the invention of radio-telegraphy as known in the early 20th century, as stated by the Electrical World in 1917.[62][63]

Transmission and radiation of radio frequency energy was a feature exhibited in the experiments by Tesla which he proposed might be used for the telecommunication of information.[64][65] The Tesla method was mentioned in New York in 1897.[66][67][68] In Buffalo, New York, he referred to devised means for transmission of electromotive forces, much higher than practical with ordinary apparatus, and the transmission of power from station to station without the employment of any connecting wire. Tesla later, on April 6, 1897, explained his methods of the transformation of electrical energy by oscillatory condenser discharges in his lecture "The stream of Lenard and Roentgen and novel apparatus for their production".[69][70] He demonstrated his subject by a fine array of improved apparatus, in which a few feet of wire were made as efficient as miles under old systems.[69]

Tesla's patent US645576

In 1894, T. C. Martin published "The Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla", detailing the work of Tesla in the previous years. Various scientists, inventors, and experimenters began to investigate wireless methods. Telsa's work contained coupled oscillation circuits having capacity and inductance in series.[71][72][73] In 1897, Tesla applied for two key United States radio patents,[74] US 645576 , first radio system patent, and (later subdivided into) US 649621 , for protection of his interests of the radio arts.[75] Tesla also developed sensitive electromagnetic receivers,[76][77][78] that were unlike the less responsive coherers later used by other early experimenters.

Shortly thereafter, he began to develop wireless remote control devices. In 1898, he demonstrated a radio controlled boat in Madison Square Garden that allowed secure communication[79][80] between transmitter and receiver.[81] Between 1895 and 1897, Tesla received wireless signals transmitted via short distances in his lectures. Between 1897 and the first decade of the 1900s, he transmitted over medium ranges.[citation needed] Tesla had predicted that not only would intelligible signals be transmitted over long distances without wires, but electric power as well.[82] He later published articles, such as "The True Wireless",[83] and "The Transmission of Electric Energy Without Wires",[84] concerning the World Wireless System research.

de Moura

Roberto Landell de Moura, a Brazilian priest and scientist, went to Rome in 1878 and studied at the South American College[85] and Pontifical Gregorian University, where he studied physics and chemistry. He completed his clerical training in Rome, graduating in theology and was ordained priest in 1886. In Rome, he started studying physics and electricity. When he returned to Brazil, he conducted experiments in wireless in Campinas and São Paulo (1892–1893).[86][87] The experiments of de Moura were performed in the presence of the English Vice Consul S. Paul, Percy Parmenter, Charles Lupton, and other persons of high social position.[citation needed] Upon observing the experiments, Rodriguez Botet, giving news of the trials, said he was not far from the moment of the consecration of Landell as an author of radio discoveries. The wireless telephony is reputed the most important discoveries of Landell. De Moura did later pursue and receive several patents on wireless technology.[88][89] He would later obtain U.S. Patent 775,337 for a wireless telephone.


One of the first investigators to notice and measure stationary waves on wires produced by direct coupling (resonance) with the coatings of a Leyden jar was Sir Oliver Lodge, entitled "Experiments On The Discharge Of Leyden Jars" (1891).[90][91] On June, 1, 1894, Oliver Lodge at the Royal Institution lectures, delivered "The Work of Hertz and Some of His Successors".[92] Two years after Tesla's high potential and high frequency lecture and five years after Hertz's signals, Lodge performed transmission on August 14, 1894.[9] This was a year before Marconi's initial experiments. Lodge did this at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford University.[93][94] Also in 1894, Lodge would state that Alexander Muirhead clearly foresaw the telegraphic importance of the transmission of transverse Hertzian waves.[91] A convenient method of establishing stationary electric waves on wires is one which generally attribute to Ernst Lecher,[95] and call the Lecher arrangement.[91] As a matter of fact, it originated with Lodge and Hertz, whilst Edouard Sarasin and Lucien de la Rive gave it an improved form.[91][96]

On that day in August 1894, Lodge demonstrated the reception of Morse code signalling via radio waves using a "coherer". He later improved Branly's coherer by adding a "trembler" which dislodged clumped filings,[97] thus restoring the device's sensitivity.[98] In August 1898 he got U.S. Patent 609,154, "Electric Telegraphy", that made wireless signals using Ruhmkorff coils or Tesla coils for the transmitter and a Branly coherer for the detector. This patent was utilizing the concept of "syntonic" tuning. In 1912 Lodge sold the patent to Marconi.

Lodge 1894 lecture

Lodge's June 1, 1894 lecture before the Royal Institution.[99] described among other things the following:[100]

  1. Filings coherer
  2. Vacuum coherer[101][102]
  3. Automatic coherer tapper
  4. Metallic focusing wave reflector
  5. Grounded conductor[103]
  6. Coupled system[104]
  7. Method of detection[105]

In this lecture, Lodge stated that in his estimate the apparatus used would respond to signals at a distance of .5 miles (0.80 km).

In 1894 Lodge showed that the Branly coherer could be employed to transmit telegraphic signals, and in order that the filings should not remain "cohered" after the cessation of the electric oscillations, he devised an electro-mechanical "tapper" on the principle of the ordinary "buzzer," or electric door-bell, the hammer of which was caused to tap the glass tube as long as the electric oscillations continued. The filings thus virtually take the place of a key in the ordinary telegraph circuit. In the normal state the key is open; in the presence of electrical oscillations the key is closed. Thus, by opening and closing the key for a longer or shorter period, signals corresponding to dots and dashes may be produced. In other words, by setting up electric oscillations for periods of time corresponding to dots and dashes, messages may be transmitted from the sending station, and if, at the receiving station, a recording instrument (controlled by the coherer), such as the ordinary Morse register, be provided, a record of the message in dots and dashes may be obtained. Dr. Lodge in fact used a tapper operated continuously by clockwork.[43]

In 1894, with the help of the Branly filings tube, Lodge gave a couple of demonstrations, one in June at the Royal Institution at Oxford and one in August at Oxford, to the British Association, using Hertz oscillators for transmitting signals, using a Morse key in connection with the sending coil, and a Thomson marine galvanometer[106] for receiving them—sending the signals from one room to another through walls, and so on. Lodge sent them also across the quadrangle of Liverpool College, but he applied very small power and did not try for big distances. At that time Dr. Alexander Muirhead was struck with its applicability to practical telegraphy, and when in 1896 Sir William Preece told the British Association meeting (as it happened in his laboratory) at Liverpool that an Italian gentleman (at that time unknown) was interesting the Post Office in a secret box, Lodge knew practically what the box must contain, and immediately afterwards (the same day) he showed to a few friends a Morse tape instrument, very roughly working on that plan. Mr. Marconi and Sir William Preece together interested the whole world in the subject; great power was applied to the sender, and the matter became of financial importance. However, the American Patent Office gave Lodge a telegraphic patent based on his work, as published in 1894, after proof that this book had reached America in or before 1895.[107]


In November 1894, the Indian physicist, Jagadish Chandra Bose, demonstrated publicly the use of radio waves in Calcutta, but he was not interested in patenting his work.[108] Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves,[109] proving that communication signals can be sent without using wires. He sent and received radio waves over distance but did not commercially exploit this achievement.

The 1895 public demonstration by Bose in Calcutta was before Marconi's wireless signalling experiment on Salisbury Plain in England in May 1897.[110][111] Bose demonstrated the ability of the electric rays to travel from the lecture room, and through an intervening room and passage, to a third room 75 feet (23 m) distant from the radiator, thus passing through three solid walls on the way, as well as the body of the chairman (who happened to be the Lieutenant-Governor). The receiver at this distance still had energy enough to make a contact which set a bell ringing, discharged a pistol, and exploded a miniature mine. To get this result from his small radiator, Bose set up an apparatus which curiously anticipated the lofty 'antennae' of modern wireless telegraphy— a circular metal plate at the top of a pole, 20 feet (6.1 m) high, being put in connection with the radiator and a similar one with the receiving apparatus.[112]

The form of 'Coherer' devised by Professor Bose, and described by him at the end of his paper 'On a new Electro Polariscope' allowed for the sensibility and range to appear to leave little to be desired at the time.[112] In 1896, the Daily Chronicle of England reported on his UHF experiments: "The inventor (J.C. Bose) has transmitted signals to a distance of nearly a mile and herein lies the first and obvious and exceedingly valuable application of this new theoretical marvel."

After Bose's Friday Evening Discourses at the Royal Institution, The Electric Engineer expressed 'surprise that no secret was at any time made as to its construction, so that it has been open to all the world to adopt it for practical and possibly money-making purposes.' Bose was sometimes, and not unnaturally, criticised as unpractical for making no profit from his inventions.[112]

In 1899, Bose announced the development of an "iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector" in a paper presented at the Royal Society, London.[113] Later he received U.S. Patent 755,840, "Detector for electrical disturbances" (1904), for a specific electromagnetic receiver. Bose would continue research and made other contributuions to the development of radio.[114]


The New Zealander Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson contributed to the development of radio. In 1895 he was awarded an Exhibition of 1851 Science Research Scholarship to Cambridge. He arrived in England with a reputation as an innovator and inventor, and distinguished himself in several fields, initially by working out the electrical properties of solids and then using wireless waves as a method of signalling. Rutherford was encouraged in his work by Sir Robert Ball, who had been scientific adviser to the body maintaining lighthouses on the Irish coast; he wished to solve the difficult problem of a ship's inability to detect a lighthouse in fog. Sensing fame and fortune, Rutherford increased the sensitivity of his apparatus until he could detect electromagnetic waves via his electromagnetic receiver over a distance of several hundred meters. The hysteresis magnetic detector[115] invented by Rutherford, and described by him in 1897,[116] was used to determine the characteristics of electromagnetic waves, the ends of the little solenoid of the detector being attached to the mercury cups of the slider.[117] The development, though, of wireless technology was left for others, as Rutherford continued purely scientific research. J. J. Thomson realized that Rutherford was a researcher of ability and invited him to join in a study of the electrical conduction of gases.


Ferdinand Braun's major contributions were the introduction of a closed tuned circuit in the generating part of the transmitter, and its separation from the radiating part (the antenna) by means of inductive coupling, and later on the usage of crystals for receiving purposes. Braun experimented at first at the University of Strassbourg. Braun had written extensively on wireless subjects and was well known through his many contributions to the Electrician and other scientific journals.[118] In 1899, he would apply for the patents, Electro telegraphy by means of condensers and induction colls and Wireless electro transmission of signals over surfaces.[119]

Pioneers working on wireless devices eventually came to a limit of distance they could cover. Connecting the antenna directly to the spark gap produced only a heavily damped pulse train. There were only a few cycles before oscillations ceased. Braun's circuit afforded a much longer sustained oscillation because the energy encountered less loss swinging between coil and Leyden Jars. Also, by means of inductive antenna coupling[120] the radiator was matched to the generator.

In spring 1899 Braun, accompanied by his colleagues Cantor and Zenneck, went to Cuxhaven to continue their experiments at the North Sea. On February 6, 1899, he would apply for the United States Patent, Wireless Electric Transmission of Signals Over Surfaces. Not before long he bridged a distance of 42 km to the city of Mutzing. On 24 September 1900 radio telegraphy signals were exchanged regularly with the island of Heligoland over a distance of 62 km. Lightvessels in the river Elbe and a coast station at Cuxhaven commenced a regular radio telegraph service. On August 6, 1901, he would apply for Means for Tuning and Adjusting Electric Circuits.

By 1904, the closed circuit system of wireless telegraphy, connected with the name of Braun, was well known and generally adopted in principle.[121] The results of Braun's experiments, published in the Electrician, possess interest, apart from the method employed. Braun showed how the problem could be satisfactorily and economically solved.[122] The closed circuit oscillator has the advantage, as was known, of being able to draw upon the kinetic energy in the oscillator circuit, and thus, owing to the fact that such a circuit can be given a much greater capacity than can be obtained with a radiating aerial alone, much more energy can be stored up and radiated by its employment.[121] The emission is also prolonged, both results tending towards the attainment of the much desired train of undamped waves. The energy available, though greater than with the open system, was still inconsiderable unless very high potentials, with the attendant drawbacks, were used.[121][123] Braun avoided the use of extremely high potentials for charging the gap and also makes use of a less wasteful gap by sub-dividing it.[121][124] The chief point in his new arrangement, however, is not the sub-division of the gap merely but their arrangement, by which they are charged in parallel, at low voltages, and discharge in series. The Nobel Prize awarded to Braun in 1909 depicts this design.[125]

Later radio development

Later Developers


During the Chicago World's Columbian Exhibition and the Third International Electrical Congress, Alexander Stepanovich Popov of Kronstadt, Russia was a representative of the Russian Torpedo School.[126][127] Afterward, he worked on his wireless designs.[128][129][130] Popov conducted experiments along the lines of Hertz's research. In 1894-95 he built his first radio receiver, an improved version of coherer-based design by Oliver Lodge. In 1895, he built a coherer. Popov[131] constructed a filings coherer, one form of which was used in some surveying experiments by the Russian government. He used early in 1895, the coherer auto-tapping mechanism, and substituted for the galvanometer an ordinary telegraphic relay. He operated this apparatus at a distance by means of a large radiator. One terminal of his coherer was connected to a conductor fastened to a mast about 30 ft. high on the top of the Institute building and the other terminal of the coherer was grounded.[132]

Popov presented his radio receiver to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society on May 7, 1895 — the day has been celebrated in the Russian Federation as "Radio Day". On this day, Popov performed a public demonstration of transmission and reception of radio waves used for communication at the Russian Physical and Chemical Society, using his coherer.[133] The paper on his findings was published the same year (December 15, 1895). Popov had recorded, at the end of 1895, that he was hoping for distant signaling with radio waves.[134] He did not apply for a patent for this invention. Popov's early experiments were transmissions of only 600 yards (550 m). Popov was the first to develop a practical communication system based on the coherer, and is usually considered by the Russians to have been the inventor of radio.[135][136]

In 1895-96 Popov[137] and others utilized the coherer to show the existence of atmospheric electricity, using for the purpose a vertical wire attached to the coherer.[43] On March 24, 1896, Popov demonstrated in public the transmission of radio waves, between different campus buildings, to the Saint Petersburg Physical Society. (This was before the public demonstration of the Marconi system around September 1896.) Per other accounts, however, Popov achieved these results only in December 1897—that is, after publication of Marconi's patent.[138] In 1898 his signal was received 6 miles (9.7 km) away, and in 1899 130 miles (210 km) away.

His receiver proved to be able to sense lightning strikes at distances of up to 30 km, thus functioning as a lightning detector. In late 1895, Popov built a version of the receiver that was capable of automatically recording lightning strikes on paper rolls. Popov's system was eventually extended to function as a wireless telegraph, with a Morse key attached to the transmitter. There's some dispute regarding the first public test of this design. It is frequently stated that Popov used his radio to send a Morse code message over a distance of 250 m in 26 March 1896 (three months before Marconi's patent was filed). However, contemporary confirmations of this transmission are lacking. It is more likely that said experiment took place in December 1897.[citation needed]

In 1900, Popov stated at the Congress of Russian Electrical Engineers that, "the emission and reception of signals by Marconi by means of electric oscillations was nothing new, as in America Nikola Tesla did the same experiments in 1893 ."[citation needed] Also in 1900, a radio station was established under Popov's instructions on Hogland island (Suursaari) to provide two-way communication by wireless telegraphy between the Russian naval base and the crew of the battleship General-Admiral Apraksin. By February 5 messages were being received reliably. The wireless messages were relayed to Hogland Island by a station some 25 miles (40 km) away at Kymi (nowadays Kotka) on the Finnish coast. Later Popov experimented with ship-to-shore communication. Popov died in 1905 and his claim was not pressed by the Russian government until 1945.


In May–June 1899, Julio Cervera Baviera worked to develop his own system. After visiting Marconi’s radiotelegraphic installations on the English Channel, he began collaborating with Marconi on resolving the problem of a wireless communication system, obtaining some patents by the end of 1899.[139] Cervera, who worked with Marconi and his assistant, George S. Kemp, in 1899, resolved the issues with their wireless telegraph. He obtained his first patents prior to the end of that year.


Guglielmo Marconi studied at the Leghorn Technical School, and acquainted himself with the published writings of Professor Augusto Righi of the University of Bologna.[140] In 1894, Sir William Preece deliver a paper to the Royal Institution in London on electric signalling without wires.[141][142][143] In 1894 at the Royal Institution lectures, Lodge delivers "The Work of Hertz and Some of His Successors".[92] Marconi is said to have read, while on vacation in 1894, about the experiments that Hertz did in the 1880s. Marconi also read about Tesla's work.[144] It was at this time that Marconi began to understand that radio waves could be used for wireless communications.[145] Marconi's early apparatus was a development of Hertz’s laboratory apparatus into a system designed for communications purposes. At first Marconi used a transmitter to ring a bell in a receiver in his attic laboratory. He then moved his experiments out-of-doors on the family estate near Bologna, Italy, to communicate further. He replaced Hertz’s vertical dipole with a vertical wire topped by a metal sheet, with an opposing terminal connected to the ground. On the receiver side, Marconi replaced the spark gap with a metal powder coherer, a detector developed by Edouard Branly and other experimenters. Marconi transmitted radio signals for about 1 mile (1.6 km) at the end of 1895.[146]

By 1896, Marconi introduced to the public a device in London, asserting it was his invention. Despite Marconi's statements to the contrary, though, the apparatus resembles Tesla's descriptions in his research, demonstrations and patents.[147][148] Marconi's later practical four-tuned system was pre-dated by N. Tesla, Oliver Lodge, and J. S. Stone. He filed a patent on his earliest system with the British Patent Office on June 2, 1896.

Marconi was awarded a patent for radio with British patent No. 12,039, Improvements in Transmitting Electrical Impulses and Signals and in Apparatus There-for. The complete specification was filed March 2, 1897. This was Marconi's initial patent for the radio, though it used various earlier techniques of various other experimenters (primarily Tesla) and resembled the instrument demonstrated by others (including Popov). During this time spark-gap wireless telegraphy was widely researched. In July, 1896, Marconi got his invention and new method of telegraphy to the attention of Preece, then engineer-in-chief to the British Government Telegraph Service, who had for the previous twelve years interested himself in the development of wireless telegraphy by the inductive-conductive method. On June 4, 1897, he delievers "Signalling through Space without Wires".[149][150] Preece devoted considerable time to exhibiting and explaining the Marconi apparatus at the Royal Institution in London, stating that Marconi invented a new relay which had high sensitiveness and delicacy.[151]

Marconi plain aerial, 1896 transmitter[152]
Muirhead Morse inker[153]

In 1896, Bose went to London on a lecture tour and met Marconi, who was conducting wireless experiments for the British post office. The Marconi Company Ltd. was founded by Marconi in 1897, known as the Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Company. Also in 1897, Marconi established the radio station at Niton, Isle of Wight, England. Marconi's wireless telegraphy was inspected by the Post Office Telegraph authorities; they made a series of experiments with Marconi's system of telegraphy without connecting wires, in the Bristol Channel. The October wireless signals of 1897 were sent from Salisbury Plain to Bath, a distance of 34 miles (55 km).[154] Marconi's reputation is largely based on the making of his law (1897), and other accomplishments in radio communications and commercializing a practical system.

Other experimental stations were established at Lavernock Point, near Penarth; on the Flat Holmes, an island in mid-channel, and at Brean Down, a promontory on the Somerset side. Signals were obtained between the first and last-named points, a distance of, approximately, 8 miles (13 km). The receiving instrument used was a Morse inkwriter[155] of the Post Office pattern.[156][157] In 1898, Marconi opened a radio factory in Hall Street, Chelmsford, England, employing around 50 people. In 1899, Marconi announced his invention of the "iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector" in a paper presented at Royal Society, London.

In May, 1898, communication was established for the Corporation of Lloyds between Ballycastle and the Lighthouse on Rathlin Island in the North of Ireland. In July, 1898, the Marconi telegraphy was employed to report the results of yacht races at the Kingston Regatta for the Dublin Express newspaper. A set of instruments were fitted up in a room at Kingstown, and another on board a steamer, the Flying Huntress. The aerial conductor on shore was a strip of wire netting attached to a mast 40 feet (12 m) high, and several hundred messages were sent and correctly received during the progress of the races.

At this time His Majesty King Edward VII, then Prince of Wales, had the misfortune to injure his knee, and was confined on board the royal yacht Osltorm in Cowes Bay.[158] Marconi fitted up his apparatus on board the royal yacht by request, and also at Osborne House, Isle of Wight, and kept up wireless communication for three weeks between these stations. The distances covered were small; but as the yacht moved about, on some occasions high hills were interposed, so that the aerial wires were overtopped by hundreds of feet, yet this was no obstacle to communication. These demonstrations led the Corporation of Trinity House to afford an opportunity for testing the system in practice between the South Foreland Lighthouse, near Dover, and the East Goodwin Lightship, on the Goodwin Sands. This installation was set in operation on December 24, 1898, and proved to be of value. It was shown that when once the apparatus was set up it could be worked by ordinary seamen with very little training.

At the end of 1898 electric wave telegraphy established by Marconi had demonstrated its utility, especially for communication between ship and ship and ship and shore.[159] Electric wave telegraphy had the advantages as follows:[160]

  • Transmission worked as well by night as by day, and in bad weather, fogs, or storms, as well as in fair weather; provided that the proper insulation of the aerial wire or elevated conductor was maintained.
  • In certain electrical conditions of the atmosphere, and during thunderstorms, some difficulty was usually found in working, owing to the atmospheric discharges affecting the sensitive tube, and therefore making stray marks on the Morse tape of the printer, but seldom sufficient to interrupt communication altogether.
  • The interposition of high hills, trees, or the curvature of the earth did not prevent communication, though slightly affecting the power required. It worked particularly well over sea surface, and between ships and shore stations.
  • The apparatus could be set up and handled by any ordinary telegraphist, and the record was made on paper strip in the usual Morse code.
  • Transmission easily covered distances far beyond those feasible or attained by other systems of wireless telegraphy.
  • Lastly, the apparatus required was by no means costly, and, with the exception of the mast required for upholding the aerial wire, it occupied but little space, and was particularly adapted for use on board ship.

The Haven Hotel station and Wireless Telegraph Mast was where much of Marconi's research work on wireless telegraphy was carried out after 1898.[160] In 1899, he transmitted messages across the English Channel. Also in 1899, Marconi delivered "Wireless Telegraphy" to the Institution of Electrical Engineers.[161] In addition, in 1899, W. H. Preece delivers "Aetheric Telegraphy", stating that the experimental stage in wireless telegraphy had been passed in 1894 and inventors were then entering the commercial stage.[162] Preece, continuing in the lecture, details the work of Marconi and other British inventors. In October, 1899, the progress of the yachts in the international race between the Columbia and Shamrock was successfully reported by aerial telegraphy, as many as 4,000 words having been (as is said) despatched from the two ship stations to the shore stations. Immediately afterward the apparatus was placed by request at the service of the United States Navy Board, and some highly interesting experiments followed under Marconi's personal supervision.[163] The Marconi Company was renamed Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in 1900.

Marconi watching associates raise kite antenna at St. John's, December 1901[164]

In 1901, Marconi claimed to have received daytime transatlantic radio frequency signals at a wavelength of 366 metres (820 kHz).[165][166][167] Marconi established a wireless transmitting station at Marconi House, Rosslare Strand, Co. Wexford in 1901 to act as a link between Poldhu in Cornwall and Clifden in Co. Galway. His announcement on 12 December 1901, using a 152.4-metre (500 ft) kite-supported antenna for reception, stated a the message was received at Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland (now part of Canada) via signals transmitted by the company's new high-power station at Poldhu, Cornwall. The message received was the Morse letter 'S' - three dots. Bradford has recently contested this, however, based on theoretical work as well as a reenactment of the experiment; it is possible that what was heard was only random atmospheric noise, which was mistaken for a signal, or that Marconi may have heard a shortwave harmonic of the signal.[166][167] The distance between the two points was about 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi).

The Poldhu to Newfoundland transmission claim has been criticized.[168] There are various science historians, such as Belrose and Bradford, who have cast doubt that the Atlantic was bridged in 1901, but other science historians have taken the position that this was the first transatlantic radio transmission. Critics have claimed that it is more likely that Marconi received stray atmospheric noise from atmospheric electricity in this experiment.[169] The transmitting station in Poldhu, Cornwall used a spark-gap transmitter that could produce a signal in the medium frequency range and with high power levels.

Marconi transmitted from England to Canada and the United States.[170] In this period, a particular electromagnetic receiver, called the Marconi magnetic detector[171] or hysteresis magnetic detector,[115] was developed further by Marconi and was successfully used in his early transatlantic work (1902) and in many of the smaller stations for a number of years.[172][173] In 1902, a Marconi station was established in the village of Crookhaven, County Cork, Ireland to provide marine radio communications to ships arriving from the Americas. A ship's master could contact shipping line agents ashore to enquire which port was to receive their cargo without the need to come ashore at what was the first port of landfall.[174] Ireland was also, due to its western location, to play a key role in early efforts to send trans-Atlantic messages. Marconi transmitted from his station in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada across the Atlantic, and on 18 January 1903 a Marconi station sent a message of greetings from Theodore Roosevelt, the President of the United States, to the King of the United Kingdom, marking the first transatlantic radio transmission originating in the United States

Cunard Daily Bulletin

In 1904, Marconi opened the ocean daily newspaper, the Cunard Daily Bulletin, on the R.M.S. "Campania." At the start, the passing events were printed in a little pamphlet of four pages called the Cunard Bulletin. The title would read Cunard Daily Bulletin, with subheads for "Marconigrams Direct to the Ship."[175] All the passenger ships of the Cunard Company are fitted with Marconi's system of wireless telegraphy, by means of which constant communication was kept up, either with other ships or with land stations on the eastern or western hemisphere. The RMS Lucania, Oct., 1903, with Marconi on board, was the first vessel to hold communication with both sides of the Atlantic. The Cunard Daily Bulletin, a thirty-two page illustrated paper published on board these boats, recorded news received by wireless telegraphy, and is first ocean newspaper. In August, 1903, in agreement was made with the British Government by which the Cunard Co. were to build two steamers, to be, with all other Cunard ships, at the disposal of the British Admiralty for hire or purchase whenever they may be required, the Government lending the company £2,600,000 to build the ships and granting them a subsidy £150,000 a year. One was the RMS Lusitania and the RMS Mauritania.[176]

In June and July 1923, Marconi's shortwave transmissions were completed during nights on 97 meters from Poldhu Wireless Station, Cornwall, to his yacht Elettra in the Cape Verde Islands. In September 1924, Marconi transmitted during daytime and nighttime on 32 meters from Poldhu to his yacht in Beirut. Marconi, in July 1924, entered into contracts with the British General Post Office (GPO) to install telegraphy circuits from London to Australia, India, South Africa and Canada as the main element of the Imperial Wireless Chain. The UK-to-Canada shortwave "Beam Wireless Service" went into commercial operation on 25 October 1926. Beam Wireless Services from the UK to Australia, South Africa and India went into service in 1927. Electronic components for the system were built at Marconi's New Street wireless factory in Chelmsford.[177]

Marconi would jointly receive the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun for contributions to the existing radio sciences. Marconi's demonstrations of the use of radio for wireless communications, equipping ships with life saving wireless communications,[178] establishing the first transatlantic radio service,[170] and building the first stations for the British short wave service, have marked his place in history. Shortly after the turn of the 20th century, the US Patent Office re-awarded Marconi a patent for radio. The U.S. Patent RE11,913 was granted on June 4, 1901. Marconi's U.S. Patent 676,332 was awarded on June 11, 1901, also. This system was more advanced than his previous works. In 1943, a lawsuit regarding Marconi's early United States radio patents were resolved by the United States Supreme Court, who overturned most of these.

Naval wireless

The United States Navy Board had issued a 1899 report on the results of investigations of the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy.[179] The report, Notes On The Marconi Wireless Telegraphy[180] was published in full in the Electrician, and from it the following statements concerning the efficiency of the system have been taken:[181] It was well adapted for use in squadron signalling under conditions of rain, fog, darkness and motion of speed. Wind, rain, fog, and other conditions of weather do not affect the transmission through space, but dampness may reduce the range, rapidity, and accuracy by impairing the insulation of the aerial wire and the instruments. Darkness has no effect. When two transmitters are sending at the same time, all the receiving wires within range receive the impulses from transmitters, and the tapes, although unreadable, show unmistakably that such double sending was taking place. In every case, under a great number of varied conditions, the attempted interference was complete. Marconi, although he stated to the Board before these attempts were made that he could prevent interference, never explained how nor made any attempt to demonstrate that it could be done. Between large ships (heights of masts 130 feet (40 m) and 140 feet (43 m)) and a torpedo-boat (height of mast 45 feet (14 m)), across open water, signals can be read up to 7 miles (11 km) on the torpedo-boat and 85 miles (137 km) on the ship. Communication might be interrupted altogether when tall buildings of iron framing intervene. The rapidity was not greater than twelve words per minute for skilled operators. The sending apparatus and wire would injuriously affect the compass if placed near it. The exact distance were not known, and would be determined by experiment. The system was adapted for use on all vessels of the navy, including torpedo-boats and small vessels, as patrol boats, scout boats, and despatch boats, but it was impracticable in a small boat. For landing parties the only feasible method of use would be to erect a pole on shore and then communicate with the ship. The system could be adapted to the telegraphic determination of differences of longitude in surveying. The Board respectfully recommended that the system be given a trial in the United States Navy.[181]

The HMS Hector became the first British warship to have wireless telegraphy installed when she conducted the first trials of the new equipment for the Royal Navy.[182][183] Starting in December 1899, the HMS Hector and HMS Jaseur were outfitted with wireless equipment. In 1901, HMS Jaseur received signals from the Marconi transmitter on the Isle of Wight and from the HMS Hector (25 January).[184]

Stone Stone

John Stone Stone labored as an early telephone engineer and was influential in developing wireless communication technology, and holds dozens of key patents in the field of "space telegraphy". Patents of Stone for radio, together with their equivalents in other countries, form a very voluminous contribution to the patent literature of the subject. More than seventy United States patents have been granted to this patentee alone. In many cases these specifications are learned contributions to the literature of the subject, filled with valuable references to other sources of information.[185] A complete analysis of Stone's specifications would occupy too much space. Broadly speaking, they may be divided into four classes:[185]

  • Those concerned with proposed methods for the achievement of syntonic telegraphy, or the isolation of receiving stations or protection of receivers from the action of vagrant waves.
  • Those describing forms of electric wave detector or cymoscope.
  • Those covering the construction of various forms of transmitting and receiving circuit, and the production of continuous trains of waves.
  • Miscellaneous specifications covering devices proposed for localizing the direction of the arriving waves and other matters.

Stone has had issued to him a large number of patents embracing a method for impressing oscillations on a radiator system and emitting the energy in the form of waves of predetermined length whatever may be the electrical dimensions of the oscillator.[186] On February 8, 1900, he filed for a selective system in U.S. Patent 714,756. In this system, two simple circuits are associated inductively, each having an independent degree of freedom, and in which the restoration of electric oscillations to zero potential the currents are superimposed, giving rise to compound harmonic currents which permit the resonator system to be syntonized with precision to the oscillator.[186] Stone's system, as stated in U.S. Patent 714,831, developed free or unguided simple harmonic electromagnetic signal waves of a definite frequency to the exclusion of the energy of signal waves of other frequencies, and an elevated conductor and means for developing therein forced simple electric vibrations of corresponding frequency.[187] In these patents Stone devised a multiple inductive oscillation circuit with the object of forcing on the antenna circuit a single oscillation of definite frequency. In the system for receiving the energy of free or unguided simple harmonic electromagnetic signal waves of a definite frequency to the exclusion of the energy of signal waves of other frequencies, he claimed an elevated conductor and a resonant circuit associated with said conductor and attuned to the frequency of the waves, the energy of which is to be received.[187] A coherer made on what is called the Stone system[188] was employed in some of the portable wireless outfits of the United States Army. The Stone Coherer has two small steel plugs between which are placed loosely packed carbon granules. This is a self-decohering device; though not as sensitive as other forms of detectors it is well suited to the rough usage of portable outfits.[188]


In late 1886, Reginald A. Fessenden began working directly for Thomas Edison at the inventor's new laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey. Fessenden quickly made major advances, especially in receiver design, as he worked to develop audio reception of signals. Fessenden's initial United States patents[189] were U.S. Patent 706,735 and U.S. Patent 706,736 and are companion patents. One concerns the methods and the other the devices of the same system.[190] The United States Weather Bureau began, early in 1900, a systematic course of experimentation in wireless telegraphy, employing him as a specialist.[191] Fessenden evolved the heterodyne principle here where two signals combined to produce a third audible tone.

In 1900, construction began on a large radio transmitting dynamo. Fessenden, experimenting with a high-frequency spark transmitter, successfully transmitted speech on December 23, 1900 over a distance of about 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi), the first audio radio transmission. Early in 1901 the Weather Bureau officially installed Fessenden at Wier's Point, Roanoke Island, North Carolina, and he made experimental transmissions across water to a station located about 5 miles (8.0 km) west of Cape Hatteras, the distance between the two stations being almost exactly 50 miles (80 km).[191] A dynamo of 1 kW output at 10 kilohertz was built in 1902. The credit for the development of this machine is due to Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Caryl D. Haskins, Ernst Alexanderson, John T. H. Dempster, Henry Geisenhoner, Adam Stein, Jr., and F. P. Mansbendel.[192]

In a paper written by Fessenden in 1902, it was asserted that important advances had been made, one of which was overcoming largely the loss of energy experienced in other systems. He also declared that syntony was not safely selecting,{[clarification needed] but that he had discovered several methods which were.[191] In an interview with a New York Journal correspondent, Fessenden stated that in his early apparatus he did not use an air transformer at the sending end, nor a concentric cylinder for emitters and antennae,[191][193] and had used capacity, but arranged in a manner entirely different from that in other systems, and that he did not employ a coherer or any form of imperfect contact. His apparatus was of solid metal,[194] and, according to Fessenden, acted under a physical law entirely different from that which governs the receiving devices of Marconi. Fessenden asserted that he had paid particular attention to selective and multiplex systems, and was well satisfied with the results in that direction.[191] On August 12, 1902, 13 patents were issued to Fessenden, covering various methods, devices, and systems for signaling without wires.[191] These patents involved many new principles, the chef-d'oeuvre of which was a method for distributing capacity and inductance instead of localizing these coefficients of the oscillator as in previous systems.[186]

Brant rock radio tower (1910)

By the summer of 1906, a machine producing 50 kilohertz was installed at the Brant Rock station, and in the fall of 1906, the electric alternating dynamo was working regularly at 75 kilohertz, with an output of 0.5 kW.[192] Fessenden[195] used this for wireless telephoning to Plymouth, a distance of approximately 11 miles (18 km).[192] In the following year machines were constructed having a frequency of 96 kilohertz[196] and outputs of 1 kW and 2 kW. Fessenden believed that the damped wave-coherer system was essentially and fundamentally incapable of development into a practical system.[192] He would employ a two-phase high frequency dynamo method[197] and the continuous production of waves[198] with changing constants of sending circuit.[192][199] Fessenden would also use duplex and multiplex commutator methods.[200] On Dec. 11, 1906, operation of the wireless transmission in conjunction with the wire lines took place.[201][192] In July 1907 the range was considerably extended and speech was successfully transmitted between Brant Rock and Jamaica, Long Island, a distance of nearly 200 miles (320 km), in daylight and mostly over land,[202] the mast at Jamaica being approximately 180 feet (55 m) high.[192]


In November 1904, John Ambrose Fleming invented the two-electrode vacuum-tube rectifier, which he called the Fleming oscillation valve. He would later patent this invention.[203][204] This "Fleming Valve" was much used as a receiver for long-distance wireless on account of its sensitivity. It also had another advantage—that it could not be permanently injured or set out of adjustment by any exceptionally strong stray signal, such as those due to atmospheric electricity.[205] For this reason it was the detector par excellence for large antenna or high-power stations.

Fleming[206] recognized the use of the rectifying properties of a wireless tube for the indication of high frequency oscillations, and used it as a electromagnetic detector.[207] On November 7, 1905, he would be granted U.S. Patent 803,684. Marconi used this device as a radio detector, also.[when?]

The Supreme Court of the United States would eventually invalidate the patent because of an improper disclaimer and, additionally, maintained the technology in the patent was known art when filed.[208] This invention was the first vacuum tube. Fleming's diode was used in radio receivers for many decades afterward, until it was superseded by solid state electronic technology more than 50 years later.

De Forest

Lee De Forest[209][210][211] had an interest in wireless telegraphy and he invented the Audion in 1906. He was president and secretary of the De Forest Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company (1913).[212][213] The De Forest System was adopted by the United States Government, and had been demonstrated to other Governments including those of Great Britain, Denmark, Germany, Russia, and British Indies, all of which purchased De Forest apparatus previous to the Great War. De Forest is one of the fathers of the "electronic age", as the Audion helped to usher in the widespread use of electronics.[214]

De Forest made the Audion tube from a vacuum tube. He also made the "Oscillion", an undamped wave transmitter. He developed the De Forest method of wireless telegraphy and founded the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company. De Forest was a distinguished electrical engineer and the foremost American contributor to the development of wireless telegraphy and telephony. The elements of his device takes relatively weak electrical signals and amplifies them. The Audion Detector, Audion Amplifier, and the "Oscillion" transmitter had furthered the radio art and the transmission of written or audible speech. In World War I, the De Forest system was a factor in the efficiency of the United States Signal Service, and was also installed by the United States Government in Alaska.[214]

Radio developer comparison

Formative stage

Name Pro Con Earliest transmission
Henry Henry detected electromagnetic effects at a distance of two hundred feet.[215][216][217] He was focused on wired telegraphy and researched self-inductance.[218][219] 1829[220]
Hughes In 1879, Hughes began research into radio waves. He noticed electrical interference in an induction balance he was working with.[221][222] The observed effect was due to radio waves and he discovered and improved the coherer.[223] Hughes was not trying to design equipment for wireless communication. His discovery was taken no further.[223] 1879[223][224]
Maxwell By 1864 Maxwell had become the first person to demonstrate theoretically the existence of radio (electromagnetic) waves, which are used by all radio equipment.[225][226] Maxwell did not generate or receive radio waves.[227] None (n/a)

Early developers

Name Pro Con Earliest transmission
Branly Researched coherers. In 1890 Branly showed that such a tube would respond to sparks produced at a distance from it.[228] Others would expound upon the idea of using such a tube.[229][230] 1890
Bose Researched coherers.[231][232]

Transmitted microwaves over distance of 75 feet in 1895.[233][234]

Had transmitted microwaves nearly a mile by 1896.[235][236][237]

Did not pursue commercialization.[238][239] 1895
de Moura

Early Transmission (c. 1893)

Publicly demonstrated a radio broadcast of the human voice (1900)

Exhibition of the his apparatus occurred in 1900 1900
Braun[240] Invented closed circuit and coupled coils for transmitters. Did not recognize the significance when Hertz published his findings in 1888. 1897
Hertz By 1888, Hertz had studied and understood the work of Maxwell and, by design, produced the first clear and undisputed experimental evidence for the transmission and reception of radio waves. Hertz took this work no further, did not exploit it commercially, and famously did not consider it useful. 1888
Lodge Awarded the "syntonic" (or tuning) US Patent
Rutherford Developed sensitive apparatus until he could detect electromagnetic waves over a distance of several hundred meters.

Early Transmission (1893)

Tesla developed means to reliably produce radio frequency currents.[241]

In 1891 and afterwards, lectured about high-frequency devices and demonstrated devices using power without the use of wires.[64][65][242][243][244][245]

Referring to a demonstration of his wireless equipment in 1893 the IEE said "the apparatus that he employed contained all the elements of spark and continuous wave that were incorporated into radio transmitters before the advent of the vacuum tube".[246]

By 1895, stated that he had the ability to transmit signals under 50 miles.[247][248][249][250][251]

In 1897, Tesla applied for protection for the radio arts.[75] In 1900 Tesla was granted U.S. Patent 645,576 "System of Transmission of Electrical Energy", (March 20, 1900; filed Sept. 2, 1897) and U.S. Patent 649,621 "Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy" (May 15, 1900; filed February 19, 1900).

In 1898, demonstrated a radio control and secure communication[79][252] between transmitter and receiver.[253]

After 1915, assisted the Telefunken engineers in constructing the Telefunken Wireless Station (the "Arco-Slaby system"[254]) in Sayville, Long Island.

Primarily because of financial difficulties, Tesla never completed his "worldwide wireless system".[255] The Wardenclyffe Tower transceiver that he began at Shoreham on Long Island, New York was eventually torn down.

According to L. Gualandi, Tesla's apparatus was not meant to be used in radio-transmission applications. Unlike Marconi's system no technical solution was present to allow the reception and transmission of long distance radio-signal.[256]

c. 1892 [257][258]

Later developers

Name Pro Con Earliest transmission
Baviera He was the first person to be granted a patent regarding a radiotelephonic system in 1899.[259] His activities on this field ceased suddenly, the reasons for which are unclear to this day.[260] 1899
DeForest[261] Developed the triode amplifier and the Audion tube. Late upon beginning research into space telegraphy. 1896[262][263]
Fessenden First audio transmission by radio (1900). Also, the first two-way transatlantic radio transmission (1906), and the first radio broadcast of entertainment and music (1906) 1900
Fleming Known for inventing the first thermionic valve.
Marconi Marconi was the first scientist to achieve successful radio transmission.[264] In summer 1895, Marconi sent signals 1.5 miles.[265]

Developed Marconi's Law.

In 1896, applied for British patent protection for a radio system. In 1900, he was granted British patent No. 12,039.

Transmission over 6 km in March and May 1897.[266]

Transatlantic transmission on 12 December 1901.[267]

Transmission over 3,378 km in February 1902.[268]

Transatlantic message on 17 December 1902.[269]

In 1897 Marconi founded "Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company"[270] and exploited the "Marconi System"[254][271][272][273] of radio commercially.

He shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun, "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".[274]

Many of Marconi's system components were developed by others.[275] According to the Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, the Marconi instruments were tested around 1899 and the tests concerning his wireless system found that the "[...] coherer, principle of which was discovered some twenty years ago, [was] the only electrical instrument or device contained in the apparatus that is at all new".[276] Oliver Lodge claimed British patent of 1900 to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent.

His 1901 transatlantic transmission is disputed.[168]

Popov Confirmed laboratory demonstration of radio on 7 May 1895.[133] In 1896 or 1897 publicly demonstrated the sending of a signal 250 m between two campus buildings. By 1900 he had reliable communications over 25 miles.[277] 1895[133]
Stone Influential in developing wireless communication technology

Holds dozens of key patents in the field of "space telegraphy".

Radio invention timeline

Below is a selection of pertinent events and individuals, from 1860 to 1910, related to the development of radio.

See also

Edwin Howard Armstrong, Greenleaf Whittier Pickard, Ernst Alexanderson, Archie Frederick Collins
Radio communication system, Timeline of radio, Oldest radio station, Birth of public radio broadcasting, Crystal radio
Radio People, Radio Pioneers, Discovery and invention controversies
List of persons considered father or mother of a field, Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters, The Great Radio Controversy, Induction coil, Ruhmkorff coil, Poldhu, Alexanderson alternator, De Forest tube


  1. ^ a b Sarkar, T. K., & Baker, D. C. (2006). History of wireless. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience
  2. ^ Fahie, J. J. (1900). A history of wireless telegraphy, 1838-1899: Including some bare-wire proposals for subaqueous telegraphs. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood and Sons
  3. ^ Sewall, C. H. (1904). Wireless telegraphy: its origins, development, inventions, and apparatus. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
  4. ^ Story, A. T. (1904). A story of wireless telegraphy. New York: D. Appleton and Co
  5. ^ a b c Charles Steinmetz (Fellow, A. I. E. E. Chief Consulting Engineer, General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y.). "Condenser Discharge Through a General Gas Circuit". American Institute of Electrical Engineers., 1922. Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. New York: American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Presented at the 10th Midwinter Convention of the A. I. E. E., New York, N. Y., February 15–17, 1922.
  6. ^ Brother Potamian (1913). "Francesco Zantedeschi article at the Catholic Encyclopedia". Wikisource. Retrieved 2007-06-16. 
  7. ^ Electrician, May 5, 1899.
  8. ^ Baggott, Jim (2 September 1991). "The myth of Michael Faraday: Michael Faraday was not just one of Britain's greatest experimenters. A closer look at the man and his work reveals that he was also a clever theoretician". New Scientist. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  9. ^ a b History of Communications-Electronics in the United States Navy, Captain Linwood S. Howeth, USN (Retired), 1963, pages 15-23: CHAPTER II Birth of Science of Radio and Development of Usable Components
  10. ^ "Electromagnetism". IEEE History Center. 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  11. ^ Nahin, P.J., Spectrum, IEEE, Volume 29, Issue 3, March 1992 Page(s):45–
  12. ^ Feddersen, Bernhard Wilhelm, geb. 26. März 1832 in Schleswig, Sohn des vorhergenannten B. Feddersen, No. 475, studirte Naturwissenschaften und war eine Zeitlang Assistent im naturwissenschaftlichen Institut unter Prof. Karstens Leitung, wurde 1858 dr. philos. in Kiel; zur Zeit Privatdocent in Leipzig. (tr., Feddersen, Bernhard Wilhelm, born 26 March 1832 in Schleswig, the son of the aforementioned B. Feddersen, no. 475, studied science and was for a time assistant in a scientific institute under Prof. Karsten's line was, in 1858 dr. philos in Kiel, at the time Privatdocent in Leipzig.) (Lexicon of the Schleswig-Holstein-Lauenburg and Eutin manner between writers from 1829 to mid 1866. Edward Alberti (1867).)
  13. ^ Prof. D. E. Hughes' Research in Wiless Telegraphy. Electrician, May 5, 1899.
  14. ^ a b Wireless telegraphy: a popular exposition By George William von Tunzelmann. The Office of "Knowledge", 1902. Pages 60–65.
  15. ^ A History of Wireless Telegraphy by J.J.Fahie, 1901.
  16. ^ The Story of Wireless Telegraphy by A. T. Story
  17. ^ "Wireless telegraphy". Scientific American, June 19, 1897, page 386. Uses the term to connote "aether's conduction".
  18. ^ "The Slaby system of wireless duplex telegraphy". Scientific American, March 9, 1901, pages 146-147. Uses the term to connote "aether's conduction".
  19. ^ To Henry's work, the development of wire telegraphy owes so much.
  20. ^ Scientific Writings of Joseph Henry, Smithsonian Institution.
  21. ^ Helmholz "Erhaltung der Kraft", Berlin, 1847.
  22. ^ Kelvin, Philosophical Magazine, June, 1853.
  23. ^ a b c d Transactions, Volume 27, Part 1 By American Institute of Electrical Engineers
  24. ^ Von Bezold, Poggendorff's Annalen, 140, p. 541.
  25. ^ "Scientific Serials". Nature 3 (63): 216–217. 12 January 1871. Bibcode 1871Natur...3..216.. doi:10.1038/003216a0. 
  26. ^ Journal Franklin Institute, April 1876.
  27. ^ Fitzgerald "On a method of producing Electromagnetic Disturbances of comparatively short wave lengths". Report of British Association, 1883.
  28. ^ Hertz "Electric Waves".
  29. ^ Crookes in the Fortnightly Review for February, 1892
  30. ^ Donahoc's Magazine, March, 1893.
  31. ^ Hertz, H. (1893). Electric waves: Being researches on the propagation of electric action with finite velocity through space. Dover Publications.
  32. ^ Massie, W. W., & Underhill, C. R. (1911). Wireless telegraphy and telephony popularly explained. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
  33. ^ "Hertzian Waves (1901)". Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  34. ^ "Hertz wave". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  35. ^ Electric waves; being research on the propagation of electric action with finite velocity through space by Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, Daniel Evan Jones 1 Review Macmillan and co., 1893. Pages1 - 5
  36. ^ Eugenii Katz, "Heinrich Rudolf Hertz". Biographies of Famous Electrochemists and Physicists Contributed to Understanding of Electricity, Biosensors & Bioelectronics.
  37. ^ Variations of Conductivity under Electrical Influences, By Edouard Branly. Minutes of proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Volume 103 By Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain) Page 481 (Contained in, Comptes rendus de I'Acade'mie des Sciences, Paris, vol. cii., 1890, p. 78.)
  38. ^ On the Changes in Resistance of Bodies under Different Electrical Conditions. By E. Branly. Minutes of proceedings, Volume 104 By Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain). 1891. Page 416 (Contained in, Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 1891, vol. exit., p. 90.)
  39. ^ Experiments on the conductivity of insulating bodies, By M. Edouard Branly, M.D. Philosophical magazine. Taylor & Francis., 1892. Page 530 (Contained in, Comples Rendus de l' Academic des Sciences, 24 Nov. 1890 and 12 Jan. 1891, also, Bulletin de la Societi internationals d'electriciens, no. 78, May 1891)
  40. ^ Increase of Resistance of Radio-conductors. E. Branly. (Comptes Rendus, 130. pp. 1068-1071, April 17, 1900.)
  41. ^ "Wireless Telegraphy". Modern Engineering Practice. VII. American School of Correspondence. 1903. p. 10. 
  42. ^ although Dr. Branly himself termed it a radio-conductor.
  43. ^ a b c Maver's wireless telegraphy: theory and practice By William Maver (jr.)
  44. ^ United States Naval Institute (1902). Proceedings: Volume 28, Part 2. Page 443.
  45. ^ Rupert Stanley (1914). "Detectors". Text-book on wireless telegraphy. 1. Longmans, Green. p. 217. 
  46. ^ Source: H. S. Norrie, "Induction coils: how to make, use, and repair them". Norman H. Schneider, 1907, 4th edition, New York.
  47. ^ "Nikola Tesla".
  48. ^ U.S. Patent 447,921, Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator".
  49. ^ Alternators generating currents having a frequency up to 10,000 or 15,000 cycles per second were proposed several times for special purposes, such as high frequency experiments. In 1902 Nikola Tesla proposed some forms of alternators having a large number of small poles, which would generate currents up to a frequency of 15,000 cycles per second. Later, the Westinghouse Company constructed an experimental machine of the inductor alternator type for generating currents having a frequency of 10,000 cycles per second.
  50. ^ The principles of electric wave telegraphy By Sir John Ambrose Fleming (1906). Page 12.
  51. ^ a b Tesla: man out of time By Margaret Cheney. Page 357.
  52. ^ At the time, electrostatic or magnetic conditions of the Earth were not know well. Later, Marconi's Law would be developed to help engineers transmit signals through the physical mechanism of such a circuit.
  53. ^ The principles of electric wave telegraphy By Sir John Ambrose Fleming (1906). pg 421.
  54. ^ a b The principles of electric wave telegraphy By Sir John Ambrose Fleming (1906). pg 30.
  55. ^ Journal of the Franklin Institute, Volume 136 By Persifor Frazer, Franklin Institute (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  56. ^ "On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena". Philadelphia/St. Louis; Franklin Institute in 1893.
  57. ^ Electrical engineer, Volume 16. Pg. 208.
  58. ^ The inventions, researches and writings of Nikola Tesla By Thomas Commerford Martin, Nikola Tesla. Page 486.
  59. ^ Routledge, R., & Pepper, J. H. (1903). Discoveries and inventions of the nineteenth century. London: G. Routledge and sons. Page 545.
  60. ^ Archie Frederick Collins, Wireless Telegraphy: Its History, Theory and Practice. McGraw publishing company, 1905. Page 131
  61. ^ THE Electrical Engineer. Vol. XVII. January 10, 1894. No. 297. The Tesla Electrical Oscillators.
  62. ^ Tesla would be awarded the American Institute of Electrical Engineers' Edison medal for this work.
  63. ^ Electrical world, Volume 69, Part 2. Page 954
  64. ^ a b "On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena". Delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, February 1893, and before the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, March 1893.
  65. ^ a b "Experiments with Alternating Currents of High Potential and High Frequency". Delivered before the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, February 1892.
  66. ^ The Electrical world, Volume 29. Page 210.
  67. ^ "On Electricity" by Nikola Tesla (The Address On the Occasion of the Commemoration of the Introduction of Niagara Falls Power In Buffalo At the Ellicot Club, January 12, 1897
  68. ^ On Electricity. Tesla. Elec. Rev., Jan. 27.
  69. ^ a b The Electrical world, Volume 29. Page 470.
  70. ^ The same concepts were patented by Tesla in U.S. Patent 462,418.
  71. ^ Fleming, J. A. (1919). The principles of electric wave telegraphy and telephony. London: Longmans, Green. Page 232.
  72. ^ A. Oberbeck, "Ueber den Vcrlauf der Klcctrischen Schwingungen bei den Tesla'schen Versuchen," (tr., Over the course of the electric vibrations of Tesla's experiments) Wied. Ann. der Physii., 1895, vol. 55, p. B23.
  73. ^ G. W. Pierce, "On Experiments on Resonance in Wireless Telegraph Circuits, Physical Review, vol. 24, February 1902, p. 152.
  74. ^ Those two patents were issued in early 1900.
  75. ^ a b U.S. Supreme Court, "Marconi Wireless Telegraph co. of America v. United States". 320 U.S. 1. Nos. 369, 373. Argued April 9–12, 1943. Decided June 21, 1943. (cf. The Tesla patent No. 645,576, applied for September 2, 1897, [...] disclosed a four-circuit system, having two circuits each at transmitter and receiver, and recommended that all four circuits be tuned to the same frequency. [... the apparatus could be] used for wireless communication, which is dependent upon the transmission of electrical energy.)
  76. ^ These are known as electric circuit controllers.
  77. ^ U.S. Patent 609,245, U.S. Patent 609,246, U.S. Patent 609,247, U.S. Patent 609,250, U.S. Patent 609,251, and U.S. Patent 611,719
  78. ^ Corum, K. L., and J. F. Corum, "Tesla's Colorado Springs Receivers (A Short Introduction)".
  79. ^ a b Tesla, N., & Anderson, L. I. (1998). Nikola Tesla: guided weapons & computer technology. Tesla presents series, pt. 3. Breckenridge, Colo: Twenty First Century Books.
  80. ^ Tesla, N., & Anderson, L. I. (2002). Nikola Tesla on his work with alternating currents and their application to wireless telegraphy, telephony, and transmission of power: an extended interview. Tesla presents series, pt. 1. Breckenridge, Colo: Twenty-First Century Books.
  81. ^ The schematics are illustrated in U.S. Patent 613,809 and describes "rotating coherers".
  82. ^ Trevert, E. (1904). The A.B.C. of wireless telegraphy: A plain treatise on Hertzian wave signaling; embracing theory, methods of operation, and how to build various pieces of the apparatus employed. Lynn, Mass: Bubier Pub. Co. Page 23.
  83. ^ "The True Wireless" by Nikola Tesla
  84. ^ In La, F. R. M., La, F. R. M., Handy, W. M., & Higgins, C. (1906). The making of America. Chicago: Making of America Pg 163
  85. ^ Collegio Pio-Latino-Americano Pontificio
  86. ^ Dias, A., & Raposo, L. (1907). The Brazil of to-day: A book of commercial, political and geographical information on Brazil; impressions of voyage, descriptive and picturesque data about the principal cities, prominent men and leading events of our days, with illustrations and statistics. Nivelles: Lanneau & Despret, printers.
  87. ^ Arthur Dias, in his book "The Brazil of to-day", refers to de Moura, describing, among other things, the following:
    [. . . ] as soon as they arrived in São Paulo in 1893, began making preliminary experiments in order to achieve its purpose of conveying the voice of humans to a distance of 8, 10 or 12 miles, without wires.[citation needed]
  88. ^ U.S. Patent 771,917 and U.S. Patent 775,337.
  89. ^ U.S. Patent 775,846 claims a set of Hertz wave antennae, a source of cathodic waves, and a source of actinic waves, means whereby the changes of a pre-arranged code may be impressed upon one or more sets of the waves, and means to direct them toward a distant station.
  90. ^ "Experiments on the Discharge of Leyden Jars." By Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S. Received May 2, 1891.
  91. ^ a b c d The principles of electric wave telegraphy By John Ambrose Fleming
  92. ^ a b Proceedings, Volume 14 By Royal Institution of Great Britain. Pg 321+
  93. ^ Sir Oliver Lodge Invented Radio - Not Marconi".
  94. ^ In 1895, the Royal Society recognized this scientific breakthrough at a special ceremony at Oxford University. For more information, see Past Years: An Autobiography, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p231.
  95. ^ Wiedemann's Annalen, vol. xlii. p. 142 (Jan. 1801)
  96. ^ Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles Geneve, 1890, t. xxiii, p. 113
  97. ^ On the sudden acquisition of conduction power by a series of discrete metallic particles, By Oliver Lodge. Proceedings: Volume 23 Institution of Electrical Engineers (1895). Page 252. (Contained in, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 224, p. 94.)
  98. ^ Peter Rowlands (ed.) and J. Patrick Wilson (ed.) "Oliver Lodge and the Invention of Radio" ISBN 1-873694-02-4
  99. ^ Sir O. J. Lodge, "The Work of Hertz", Proceedings Royal Institution, June 1, 1904, Vol. 14, page 321.
  100. ^ Transactions, Volume 27, Part 1 By American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Page Pg 558+
  101. ^ Filings coherer in hydrogen under reduced pressure
  102. ^ This in a note added July, 1894
  103. ^ The connection of the coherer to a grounded conductor; i.e., a gas pipe system.
  104. ^ The method of making the coherer so connected respond by setting up oscillations in a separate grounded system, i.e., a hot-water pipe system, in another part of the building.
  105. ^ The method of detecting distant thunder storms by connecting the coherer to a grounded gas pipe system
  106. ^ speaking galvanometer
  107. ^ Papers by command, Volume 8 By Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Page 151.
  108. ^ "Jagadish Chandra Bose".
  109. ^ "Jagadish Chandra Bose" (PDF). Pursuit and Promotion of Science: The Indian Experience (Chapter 2). Indian National Science Academy. 2001. pp. 22–25. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  110. ^ The Work of Jagdish Chandra Bose: 100 years of mm-wave research
  111. ^ "Jagadish Chandra Bose,
  112. ^ a b c Sir Patrick Geddes. The life and work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose. Longmans, Green, 1920. 61 - 65.
  113. ^ Bondyopadhyay, Probir K., "Sir J. C. Bose's Diode Detector Received Marconi's First Transatlantic Wireless Signal Of December 1901 (The "Italian Navy Coherer" Scandal Revisited)". Proc. IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 1, January 1988.
  114. ^ The life and work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose By Sir Patrick Geddes. "The Response of Plants to Wireless Stimulation"
  115. ^ a b Journal of the Society of Arts, Volume 51 By Society of Arts (Great Britain). Pg 761
  116. ^ Phil. Trans, clxxxix. (1897) p. 8
  117. ^ Philosophical magazine. Taylor & Francis., 1902. Pg 588
  118. ^ The Wireless Age, Volume 5. Page 709 - 713.
  119. ^ The Electrical engineer, Volume 23. Page 159.
  120. ^ Wireless telegraphy By Jonathan Adolf Wilhelm Zenneck. Pg 175
  121. ^ a b c d The Electrical magazine and engineering monthly, Volume 1 edited by Theodore John Valentine Feilden (1904). Page 508.
  122. ^ The Electrical magazine and engineering monthly, Volume 1 edited by Theodore John Valentine Feilden. Page 508.
  123. ^ Marconi had adopted this way of increasing the available energy, the potentials attainable by his now familiar arrangement being exceedingly high, but the method is wasteful owing to the length of spark gap used.
  124. ^ This method was described by Braun some time ago.
  125. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909 Guglielmo Marconi, Ferdinand Braun
  126. ^ M. Radovsky (2001). Alexander Popov Inventor of Radio. Page 44
  127. ^ "Alexander Popov in Chicago." Soviet Life (Oct. 1985): 27-28.
  128. ^ A.S. Popov. "On the relation between metal powder and electric oscillations".Zh. Russ. Fiz.-Khim. Obshchestva (Physics, pt 1) 1895, 27, pp 259-260.
  129. ^ A.S. Popov. "Apparatus for the detection and recording of electrical oscillations." Zh. Russ. Fiz.-Khim. Obshchestva (Physics, pt 1) 1896, 28, pp 1-14
  130. ^ "An Application of the Coherer." The Electrician, 1897.
  131. ^ Journal Russian Physico-Chemical Society, Voi.27. April 25, 1895
  132. ^ Transactions, Volume 27, Part 1 By American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Pg 558-559.
  133. ^ a b c "Early Radio Transmission Recognized as Milestone". IEEE. Retrieved July 16, 2006. 
  134. ^ D.T. Emerson, "The work of Jagadis Chandra Bose: 100 years of mm-wave research". National Radio Astronomy Observatory, February 1998.
  135. ^ "Popov's Contribution to the Development of Wireless Communication, 1895". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone.
  136. ^ "Russia's Popov: Did he "invent" radio?". The First Electronic Church of America.
  137. ^ A. S. Popov, " Apparatus for detection and registration of electrical vibrations ", Journal Russian Physico-Chemical Society, Vol. 28, Dec. 1895.
  138. ^ Л.Н.Никольский. Кто "изобрел" радио?
  139. ^ Research by professor Ángel Faus credits Baviera with inventing the radio in 1902 and patenting it in England, Germany, Belgium, and Spain. see News, Latest news, The Spaniard Julio Cervera Baviera, and not Marconi, was the inventor of the radio, according to professor Ángel Faus. University of Navarra.
  140. ^ Miessner, B. F. (1916). Radiodynamics: The wireless control of torpedoes and other mechanisms. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co. Page 31-32
  141. ^ "Electric signalling without wires", paper by W. H. Preece
  142. ^ Journal of the Society of Arts, Volume 42 By Society of Arts (Great Britain). 1894. Pg 274+
  143. ^ Haydn's dictionary of dates and universal information relating to all ages and nations By Joseph Haydn, Benjamin Vincent. G. P. Putnam's sons, 1904. page 413.
  144. ^ The Wireless age. (1914). N.Y. [New York] City: Macroni Pub. Corp'n (Wireless Press). "Wireless as a Commercial Fact, From the Inventor's Testimony in the United States Court in Brooklyn. G. Marconi, Part III". Page 75.(cf. "I read parts of a book by Martin, entitled "Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla," published in 1894".)
  145. ^ Henry M. Bradford, "Marconi's Three; Transatlantic Radio Stations In Cape Breton". Read before the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society, 31 January 1996. (ed. the site is reproduced with permission from the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society Journal, Volume 1, 1998.)
  146. ^ Marconi's Three; Transatlantic Radio Stations In Cape Breton.
  147. ^ P.J.Papadopoulos, "Nikola Tesla; The Guglielmo Marconi Case, Who is the True Inventor of Radio?"
  148. ^ The dispute over patent rights between the Marconi Company and Tesla began in August, 1914, when the Marconi Company sued Fritz Lowenstein, a German engineer, alleging that certain wireless apparatus sold by him to the United States Navy was made in violation of the Marconi U.S. Patent 763,772. It was announced then 'that Tesla would testify for Lowenstein, alleging that the Lowenstein devices were developed from Tesla patents U.S. Patent 645,576 and U.S. Patent 649,621, which were granted prior to the Marconi patent. In the present suit, Tesla bases his action on the allegation that his two patents were granted in 1900, and that the Marconi patent was not granted until 1904. (Wireless world, Volume 3 By Wireless Society of London. s.n., 1915)
  149. ^ WH Preece, "Signalling through Space without Wires," Proc. Roy. Inst. Lond., 1897, vol. xv. p. 467.
  150. ^ Report of the Board of Regents By Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents, United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution. 1899. Pg 249+
  151. ^ The principles of electric wave telegraphy By Sir John Ambrose Fleming Pg. 429
  152. ^ source: Elements of radiotelegraphy By Ellery W. Stone
  153. ^ Apparatus similar to that used by Marconi in 1897.
  154. ^ Wireless telegraphy and telephony without wires By Charles Robert Gibson. Pg 79
  155. ^ James Erskine-Murray (1907). A handbook of wireless telegraphy: its theory and practice, for the use of electrical engineers, students, and operators. Crosby Lockwood and Son. Page 39
  156. ^ The Electrical review, Volume 40. IPC Electrical-Electronic Press, 1897. Page 715
  157. ^ The Electrical world, Volume 29 Page 822
  158. ^ Earlier, in 1885, a wired telephonic system was established here also. See, The Electrical review, Volume 17. Pg 81
  159. ^ A summary of his work on wireless telegraphy up to the beginning of 1899 is given in a paper read by Marconi to the Institution of Electrical Engineers on March 2, 1899. See Journal of the li st. Elee. Eng., 1899, vol. 28, p. 273.
  160. ^ a b The principles of electric wave telegraphy By Sir John Ambrose Fleming. Page 431-432.
  161. ^ The Electrical engineer (1899). Volume 23. Pg 307, 342, 361, 368
  162. ^ Journal of the Society of Arts, Volume 47 By Society of Arts (Great Britain). 1899. Page 519+
  163. ^ A story of wireless telegraphy By Alfred Thomas Story. Pg 161
  164. ^ Wireless telegraphy: its origins, development, inventions, and apparatus By Charles Henry Sewall, pg 144
  165. ^ Henry M. Bradford, "Marconi in Newfoundland: The 1901 Transatlantic Radio Experiment"
  166. ^ a b Henry M. Bradford, "Did Marconi Receive Transatlantic Radio Signals in 1901? - Part 1". Wolfville, N.S.
  167. ^ a b Henry M. Bradford, "Did Marconi Receive Transatlantic Radio Signals in 1901? Part 2, Conclusion: The Trans-Atlantic Experiments". Wolfville, N.S..
  168. ^ a b John S. Belrose, "Fessenden and Marconi; Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of this Century" International Conference on 100 Years of Radio, 5–7 September 1995. Retrieved 2008-08-09.
  169. ^ "Marconi's Error: The First Transatlantic Wireless Telegraphy in 1901"
  170. ^ a b In December, 1902, he established wireless telegraphic communication between Canada (Cape Breton) and England, the first message inaugurating the system being transmitted from the Governor General of Canada to King Edward VII, and a few weeks later a message inaugurating wireless connection between America (Cape Cod, Massachusetts) and Cornwall, England was transmitted from the President of the United States to the King of England. (Encyclopaedia of ships and shipping edited by Herbert B. Mason. The Shipping Encyclopaedia, 1908.)
  171. ^ "Note on a Magnetic Detector of Electric Waves, which can be employed as a Eeceiver for Space Telegraphy." By G. Marconi, M.I.E.E. Communicated by Dr. J. A. Fleming, F.E.S. Received June 10, Read June 12, 1902. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Volume 70 By Royal Society (Great Britain). Pg 341
  172. ^ How to become a wireless operator. American technical society, 1918. Pg 202
  173. ^ New Marconi Wireless Telegraph Apparatus. The Electrical world and engineer, Volume 40. Pg 91.
  174. ^
  175. ^ The Inland printer, Volume 38 pg 389
  176. ^ An almanack for the year of our Lord [...], Volume 39 By Joseph Whitaker, 1907.
  177. ^ The Marconi company Departments 1912 - 1970 Martin Bates, accessed 2010-10-04
  178. ^ United States., & Smith, W. A. (1912). "Titanic" disaster: Hearing before a subcommittee of the Committee on Commerce, United States Senate : Sixty-second Congress, second session, pursuant to S. Res. 283, directing the Committee to investigate the causes leading to the wreck of the White Star liner "Titanic" ... : [April 19-May 25, 1912]. Washington [D.C.: G.P.O.]
  179. ^ United States Naval Institute proceedings, Volume 25 By United States Naval Institute. Page 857
  180. ^ Notes On The Marconi Wireless Telegraphy By Lieut. JB Blish, USN
  181. ^ a b Locomotive engineers journal, Volume 44 By Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (U.S.). Pg 77
  182. ^ The ship was sold for scrap in 1905.
  183. ^ Ballard, G. A., Admiral (1980). The Black Battlefleet. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-924-3.  pp. 158–59
  184. ^ Captain Henry Jackson developed the tuned receiver.
  185. ^ a b Fleming, J. A. (1906). The principles of electric wave telegraphy. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. Page 520.
  186. ^ a b c Wireless telegraphy: its history, theory and practice By Archie Frederick Collins. Page 164
  187. ^ a b Maver's wireless telegraphy: theory and practice By William Maver (jr.). Page 126.
  188. ^ a b Text-book on wireless telegraphy, Volume 1 By Rupert Stanley. Longmans, Green, 1919. Pg 300.
  189. ^ filed December 15, 1899
  190. ^ Wireless telegraphy: its origins, development, inventions, and apparatus By Charles Henry Sewall. page 114
  191. ^ a b c d e f Wireless telegraphy: its origins, development, inventions, and apparatus By Charles Henry Sewall. pages 66–71.
  192. ^ a b c d e f g R. A. Fessenden (1909). "Wireless Telephony". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (New York: American Institute of Electrical Engineers) 27, Part 1. 
  193. ^ such as were employed by the Marconi Company
  194. ^ While the telephone was used as a recorder of signals, he said he could also get good service from a siphon recorder.
  195. ^ Assisted by H. R. Hadfield, J. W. Lee, F. P. Mansbendel, G. Davis, M. L. Wesco, A. Stein, Jr., H. Sparks, and Guv Hill.
  196. ^ The regular operating frequency would be 81.7 kilohertz
  197. ^ contained in U.S. Patent 793,649
  198. ^ contained in U.S. Patent 793,649, U.S. Patent 706,747, U.S. Patent 706,742, U.S. Patent 727,747
  199. ^ Governing by resonance was invented and patented by Kempster B. Miller, U.S. Patent 559,187, Feb. 25, 1896.
  200. ^ contained in U.S. Patent 793,652
  201. ^ An amusing instance may be mentioned as illustrating the incredulity with which the wireless telephone was received. Some of the local papers having published an account of the experiments with the schooner above referred to the following appeared under the heading "Current News and Notes" in the columns of a prominent technical journal, Nov. 10, 1906.
    "A New Fish Story. — It is stated from Massachusetts that the wireless telephone has successfully entered into the deep sea fishing industry. For the last week experiments have been conducted by the wireless telegraph station at Brant Rock, which is equipped with a wireless telephone, with a small vessel stationed in the fleet of the South Shore fishermen, twelve miles out in Massachusetts Bay. Recently, it is asserted, the fishermen wished to learn the prices ruling in the Boston market. The operator on the wireless fitted boat called up Brant Rock and telephoned the fishermen's request. The land operator asked Boston by wire and the answer was forwarded back to the fishermen. This is a rather fishy fish story".
    The doubt expressed was, however, only natural. Fessenden remembered the astonishment displayed by one of the company's new operators some months previously on placing the receiving telephone to his head while the vessel was almost out of sight of land and hearing the operator at the land station call his name and begin to talk to him.
  202. ^ "Long Distance Wireless Telephony," The Electrician, Oct. 4, 1907.
  203. ^ Fleming Valve patent U.S. Patent 803,684
  204. ^ It was also called a thermionic valve, vacuum diode, kenotron, thermionic tube, or Fleming valve.
  205. ^ The wonders of wireless telegraphy explained in simple terms for the non-technical reader By John Ambrose Fleming. Society for promoting Christian knowledge, 1914. Page 149.
  206. ^ J. A. Fleming, Proc. Roy. Soc, Jan., 1905, p. 476
  207. ^ The thermionic vacuum tube and its applications By Hendrik Johannes Van der Bijl
  208. ^ "Misreading the Supreme Court: A Puzzling Chapter in the History of Radio". November 1998,
  209. ^ "The Audion: A New Receiver for Wireless Telegraphy". Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers By American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Pg 735
  210. ^ The Audion—Detector and Amplifier. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Volume 2 By Institute of Radio Engineers. Pg 15
  211. ^ Statement of Dr. Lee de Forest, Radio Telephone Company, A Brief on the Proposed Resolution for Federal Regulation of Wireless. United States. (1910). Hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Naval Affairs of the House of Representatives on H.J. Resolution 95: A bill to regulate and control the use of wireless telegraphy and wireless telephony. Washington: Gov. Print. Off. Pg 75
  212. ^ Industrial plant was located at 1391 Sedgwick Avenue in Bronx Borough, New York City.
  213. ^ [[Charles Gilbert (treasurer)|]] was the treasurer of the company.
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  215. ^ Fleming, J. A. (1908). The principles of electric wave telegraphy. London: New York and Co. (cf., Joseph Henry, in the United States, between 1842 and 1850, explored many of the puzzling facts connected with this subject, and only obtained a clue to the anomalies when he realized that the discharge of a condenser through a low resistance circuit is oscillatory in nature. Amongst other things, Henry noticed the power of condenser discharges to induce secondary currents which could magnetize steel needles even when a great distance separated the primary and secondary circuits.)
  216. ^ See "The Scientific Writings" of Joseph Henry, vol. i. pp. 203, 20:-i ; also Proceedings of tltc American Assoc. fur Advancement of Science, 1850, vol. iv. pp. 877, 378, Joseph Henry, "On the Phenomena of the Leyden Jar." The effect of the oscillatory discharge on a magnetized needle is clearly described in this paper.
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  218. ^ Eugenii Katz, "Joseph Henry". Biographies of Famous Electrochemists and Physicists Contributed to Understanding of Electricity, Biosensors & Bioelectronics.
  219. ^ Ivan Smith. "Timeline of the First Thirty Years of Radio". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  220. ^ Ames, J. S., Henry, J., & Faraday, M. (1900). The discovery of induced electric currents. New York: American book (cf., [...] experiment was performed in August 1829.)
  221. ^ "Researches of Prof. D. E. Hughes (1899)". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  222. ^ Fritz, Jose (2006-03-06). "Arcane Radio Trivia: bio: David E. Hughes". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  223. ^ a b c Darrel T. Emerson, The Stage Is Set: Developments before 1900 Leading to Practical Wireless Communication
  224. ^ Eugenii Katz, "David Edward Hughes". Biographies of Famous Electrochemists and Physicists Contributed to Understanding of Electricity, Biosensors & Bioelectronics.
  225. ^ "Electromagnetism, Maxwell’s Equations, and Microwaves". IEEE Virtual Museum (2011). Retrieved on 2011-06-21.
  226. ^ James Clerk Maxwell, A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 155, 459-512 (1865).
  227. ^ Estabrooks, M. (1995). Electronic technology, corporate strategy, and world transformation. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books. Page 27. (cf., [...] Maxwell did not prove that these waves actually existed [...])
  228. ^ Branley, Comtes Rendues, 1890, page 785, and 1891, page 90.
  229. ^ In 1592, at the meeting of the British Association at Edinburgh, George Forbes suggested that such a tube would respond to Hertzian waves. (Guthe "Coherer action" Transactions of the International Electrical Congress, St. Louis, 1904, page 242.) (Munck. Poggendorff Ann 1838, Vol. 43, p. 193.)
  230. ^ In 1893 Professor Minchen demonstrated experimentally that such powders would respond to electromagnetic waves generated at a distance. He used a battery and galvanometer shunted around the powder to detect the effect of the waves. (Minchen, Proceedings Physical Society, London 1893, page 455.)
  231. ^ Fleming, J. A. (1908). The principles of electric wave telegraphy. London: New York and. (cf., [...] researches of Professor J. C. Bose are of particular interest. He states that the sensitiveness of any form of contact cymoscope consisting of conducting particles depends upon the proper adjustment of the pressure between the particles and the value of the external electromotive force which is in waiting, so to speak, to send or increase the current through the contacts.) See J. C. Bose, Proc. Soy. Soc. Land., 1899, vol. G5, p. 166 ; or Science Abstracts, vol. ii. No. 1716.
  232. ^ Institution of Electrical Engineers, Physical Society (Great Britain), American Physical Society, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Electrochemical Society, & Associazione elettrotecnica italiana. (1898). Science abstracts. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers. Page 963
  233. ^ Prof Rajesh Kochhar, J.C. BOSE: The Inventor Who Wouldn’t Patent. Science Reporter, Feb 2000
  234. ^ The life and work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose on page 62
  235. ^ In 1896, the Daily Chronicle of England reported on his UHF experiments: "The inventor (J.C. Bose) has transmitted signals to a distance of nearly a mile and herein lies the first and obvious and exceedingly valuable application of this new theoretical marvel."
  236. ^ "Jagadis Chandra Bose and His Pioneering Research on Microwave" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  237. ^ jcbose,
  238. ^ "Jagadish Chandra Bose",
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  240. ^ Kurylo, F. (1965). Nobel Prize Physics 1909: Leben und Wirken des Erfinders der Braunschen Röhre, München: Heinz Moos Verlag.
  241. ^ U.S. Patent 447,920
  242. ^ Tesla's presentation at the Franklin Institute was reported across America (such as in The Century Magazine) and throughout Europe.
  243. ^ "Nikola Tesla, 1856–1943". IEEE History Center, IEEE, 2003. (cf., In 1891 he lectured on his high-frequency devices to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and this lecture, coupled with a spectacular demonstration of these apparatuses, made him famous. He [later in 1892] repeated his performance in Europe, to great acclaim, and enjoyed international celebrity.)
  244. ^ Tesla; Man Out of Time By Margaret Cheney. Page 144.
  245. ^ Ljubo Vujovi, "Tesla Biography; Nikola Tesla, The genius who lit the world".
  246. ^ "Nikola Tesla, 1856–1943". IEEE History Center, IEEE, 2003. (cf., In a lecture-demonstration given in St. Louis in [1893] – two years before Marconi's first experiments — Tesla also predicted wireless communication; the apparatus that he employed contained all the elements of spark and continuous wave that were incorporated into radio transmitters before the advent of the vacuum tube.)
  247. ^ Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony and Transmission of Power : An Extended Interview. Chapter IV ISBN 1-893817-01-6 (cf., [Counsel] What form of device did you use, and where did you use it, for noting the generation of these oscillations or waves in the antenna?
    [Tesla] [...] With such an instrument, I operated, for instance, in West Point — I received signals from my laboratory on Houston Street in West Point.
    [Counsel] This was then the machine that you used when working with West Point?
    [Tesla] I operated once or twice with it at that distance, but usually as I was investigating in the city. [...]")
  248. ^ Tesla, N., & Childress, D. H. (2000). The Tesla papers. Kempton, Ill: Adventures Unlimited. Page 136.
  249. ^ Who Invented Radio? (cf., By early 1895, Tesla was ready to transmit a signal 50 miles to West Point, New York ... But in that same year, disaster struck. A building fire consumed Tesla's lab, destroying his work.)
  250. ^ Leland I. Anderson (ed.), "John Stone Stone, Nikola Tesla's Priority in Radio and Continuous-Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus". The AWA Review, Vol. 1. 1986. 24 pages, illustrated. (ed., available at 21st Century Books)
  251. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation. (2008). Inventors and inventions. New York: Marshall Cavendish. Page 1395
  252. ^ Tesla, N., & Anderson, L. I. (2002). Nikola Tesla on his work with alternating currents and their application to wireless telegraphy, telephony, and transmission of power: an extended interview. Tesla presents series, pt. 1. Breckenridge, Colo: Twenty-First Century Books.
  253. ^ The schematics are illustrated in U.S. Patent 613,809 and describes "rotating coherers".
  254. ^ a b Collins, A. F. (1913). Manual of wireless telegraphy and telephony. New York: J. Wiley. Page 177–209
  255. ^ "Wardenclyffe — A Forfeited Dream". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  256. ^ Ludovico Gualandi, La Radio, la vera storia di un'invenzione incompresa. 2008. ISBN 8889150998 ISBN-13 9788889150993 (Italian; tr., "The radio. The true story of an invention misunderstood.")
  257. ^ Tesla, Nikola (1892). "Experiments with Alternate Currents of Very High Frequency and Their Application to Methods of Artificial Illumination".
  258. ^ The True Wireless. Electrical Experimenter, May 1919, pages 28-30, 61-63, 87. (cf., The popular impression is that my wireless work was begun in 1893, but as a matter of fact I spent the two preceding years in investigations, employing forms of apparatus, some of which were almost like those of today.)
  259. ^
  260. ^
  261. ^ De Forest, L. (1950). Father of radio: the autobiography of Lee de Forest. Chicago: Wilcox & Follett.
  262. ^ Lee de Forest.
  263. ^ Fritz E. Froehlich, Allen Kent, (1992). The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 4 – Communications Human Factors to Cryptology. CRC Press. Page 285. ISBN 082472903X
  264. ^ "MARCONI WIRELESS TEL. CO. V. UNITED STATES, 320 U. S. 1 (1943)". 
  265. ^ a b Guglielmo Marconi -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  266. ^ BBC Wales, "Marconi's Waves"
  267. ^ "Marconi's Achievement (1902)". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  268. ^ "Radio's First Message — Fessenden and Marconi". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  269. ^ Marconi's Wellfleet (Cape Cod) Wireless. Stormfax.
  270. ^ "Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company" was formed on 20 July 1897 after granting of a British patent
  271. ^ "The Marconi System". Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  272. ^ Beauchamp, K. G. (2001). History of telegraphy. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers. Page 206
  273. ^ American Institute of Electrical Engineers. (1884). Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. New York: American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Page 120
  274. ^ "Guglielmo Marconi: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909"
  275. ^ "Marconi Wireless Tel. Co. v. United States, 320 U.S. 1 (U.S. 1943)", 320 U.S. 1, 63 S. Ct. 1393, 87 L. Ed. 1731 Argued April 9,12, 1943. Decided June 21, 1943. (cf., But it is now held that in the important advance upon his basic patent Marconi did nothing that had not already been seen and disclosed.)
  276. ^ United States Naval Institute, Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. The Institute, 1899. Page 857.
  277. ^ Eugenii Katz, "Alexander Stepanovich Popov". Biographies of Famous Electrochemists and Physicists Contributed to Understanding of Electricity, Biosensors & Bioelectronics.

Further reading

  • Anderson, L.I., "Priority in the Invention of Radio: Tesla vs. Marconi", Antique Wireless Association Monograph No. 4, March, 1980.
  • Anderson, L.I., "John Stone Stone on Nikola Tesla's Priority in Radio and Continuous-Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus", The A.W.A. (Antique Wireless Association) Review, Vol. 1, 1986, pp. 18–41.
  • Brand, W.E., "Rereading the Supreme Court: Tesla's Invention of Radio", Antenna, Volume 11 No. 2, May 1998, Society for the History of Technology
  • Lauer, H., & Brown, H. L. (1919). Radio engineering principles. New York: McGraw-Hill book company; [etc., etc.]
  • Rockman, H. B. (2004). Intellectual property law for engineers and scientists. New York [u.a.: IEEE Press].

External links

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