- Philo Farnsworth
name = Philo Taylor Farnsworth
caption = 1983 United States postage stamp honoring Farnsworth
birth_date = birth date|1906|8|19
birth_place = Beaver,
death_date = death date and age|1971|3|11|1906|8|19
death_place = Salt Lake City,
resting_place = Provo City Cemetery, Provo,
nationality = American
known_for = Inventor of the first electronic
television, over 300 United States and foreign patents
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
spouse = Elma "Pem" Gardner
parents = Lewis and Serena Farnsworth
website = [http://philotfarnsworth.com/ philotfarnsworth.com]
Philo Taylor Farnsworth (
August 19, 1906– March 11, 1971) was an American inventor. He is best known for inventing the first completely electronic television. In particular, he was the first to make a working electronic image pickup device ( video camera tube), and the first to demonstrate an all-electronic television system to the public.
In his later life, Farnsworth also invented a small nuclear fusion device known as a
Many inventors had written about, worked on or built various electro-"mechanical" television systems prior to Farnsworth's seminal contribution, among them Alexander Bain,
Paul Nipkow, Aleksandr Stoletov, Karl Ferdinand Braun, Boris Rosing, Herbert E. Ives, and John Logie Baird. Several inventors also wrote about, devised or built electronic apparatus prior to Farnsworth, including Boris Rosing, Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton, Kalman Tihanyi, Vladimir Zworykinand Kenjiro Takayanagi. Farnsworth made the world's first working television system with electronic scanning of both the pickup and display devices, which he first demonstrated to news media on September 1 1928, televising a motion picture film; and to the public at the Franklin Institutein Philadelphia on August 25 1934, televising live images.
In 1930, after a visit to Farnsworth's laboratory,
Vladimir Zworykincopied this apparatus for RCA, though he found it impractical and returned to his work on the iconoscope. The U.S. Patent Officerendered a decision in 1935 that the "electrical image" of Farnsworth's image dissector was not in Zworykin's inventions, and priority of that invention was awarded to Farnsworth. Farnsworth nevertheless lost some court decisions for other key television inventions. Some aspects of Farnsworth's 1930 camera and receiver designs remain in use today.
Farnsworth was born into a
Mormonfamily in Beaver, Utahon August 19, 1906. His parents were Lewis Edwin and Serena Bastian Farnsworth. [cite web
title = Farnsworth Archives
url = http://philotfarnsworth.com/AboutSite.htm
accessdate = 2007-09-11 ] His father later relocated the family to
Rigby, Idaho, where he worked as a sharecropper. When they moved to their new home, Philo was apparently excited to find it was wired for electrical power, something that was still fairly rare at that point, at least in the countryside. It had electric lighting, and power hoists to lift hay into the barn. Farnsworth converted a washing machine from hand to electric power by winding an armature to construct an electric motor. [ Collier's Magazine, October 3, 1936 ] Young Philo developed an early interest in electronicsafter his first telephoneconversation with an out-of-state relative and the discovery of a large cache of technology magazines in the attic of the family’s new home.
Farnsworth excelled in
chemistryand physicsat [http://www.rigbyhigh.org/indexx.php Rigby High School] , and produced sketches and prototypes of electron tubes. One of the drawings he did on a blackboard for his chemistry teacher, Justin Tolman, was recalled and reproduced for a patent interference case between Farnsworth and Radio Corporation of America (RCA). [cite web | last = Godfrey | first = Donald | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = | url = http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/F/htmlF/farnsworthp/farnsworthp.htm | title = FARNSWORTH, PHILO: U.S. Inventor | format = | work = | publisher = The Museum of Broadcast Communications | accessdate = 2007-07-05] Philo took violin lessons from Reuben Wilkins in Ucon, Idaho. After a brief stint in the Navy, Farnsworth returned to Idaho to help support his mother.
The Farnsworth family moved to
Provo, Utahin 1923, where Philo enrolled at Brigham Young University. By the end of the year, his father Lewis was dead from pneumonia, Philo was forced to quit his studies, and the family moved into half of a two-family house. It was here that Farnsworth developed a close friendship with Cliff Gardner, who shared Farnsworth's interest in electronics. The two moved to Salt Lake Cityto start a radio repair business.
The business failed, and Gardner returned to Provo. However, Farnsworth remained in Salt Lake City and, through enrollment in a
University of Utahjob-placement service, he became acquainted with Leslie Gorrell and George Everson, a pair of San Francisco philanthropists who were conducting a Salt Lake City Community Chest program [cite web|url=http://www.farnovision.com/chronicles/tfc-part02.html|author=Paul Schatzkin|title=The Farnsworth Chronicles|accessdate=2008-09-21] . They agreed to fund Farnsworth's early televisionresearch, and set up a laboratory in Los Angeles for Farnsworth to carry out his experiments [cite web|url=http://www.earlytelevision.org/philo_farnsworth.html|title=Early Electronic TV|accessdate=2008-09-21|publisher=Early Television Foundation] . Before relocating to California, Farnsworth married the sister of his friend and associate Cliff Gardner, Elma “Pem” Gardner Farnsworth ( February 25, 1908- April 27, 2006) [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/03/arts/television/03farnsworth.html?_r=1&scp=2&sq=philo+farnsworth&st=nyt&oref=slogin "Elma Gardner Farnsworth, 98, Who Helped Husband Develop TV, Dies,"] "New York Times." May 3, 2006.] , and the two traveled to the West Coast in a Pullman coach.
Within months, Farnsworth was ready to demonstrate his models and blueprints to a patent attorney who was a national authority on electrophysics. Everson and Gorrell agreed Farnsworth should apply for patents, which became critical to later disputes with
RCA. To that point the development of television relied on mechanical whirling disks to scan the image. Farnsworth's innovation was to recognize that a satisfactory image, using whirling disks, would require a speed that was a mechanical impossibility, and that his own all-electronic system could produce an image for broadcast much more effectively. [Collier's Magazine October 3, 1936]
September 7, 1927, Farnsworth's Image dissectorcamera tube transmitted its first image, a simple straight line, at his laboratory at 202 Green Street in San Francisco. The source of the image was a glass slide, backlit by an arc lamp. This was due to the lack of light sensitivity of the Image Dissector tube design, a problem Farnsworth never managed to resolve independently. By 1928, Farnsworth had developed the system sufficiently to hold a demonstration for the press. His backers had demanded to know when they would see dollars from the invention.Schwartz, Evan I., 2002. "The Last Lone Inventor: A Tale of Genius, Deceit & the Birth of Television". HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-621069-0] The first image shown to them was a dollar sign. In 1929, the system was further improved by elimination of a motor-generator; the television system now had no mechanical moving parts. That year, Farnsworth transmitted the first live human images using his television system, including a three and a half-inch image of his wife, Pem (with her eyes closed because of the blinding light required).
Vladimir Zworykin, who had been developing his own all-electronic television system at Westinghouse, in Pittsburgh, since 1923, was recruited by RCAand visited Farnsworth's laboratory. Zworykin was impressed with the performance of the Image Dissector and had his engineers make a working copy of it, though he saw that the dissector's need for excessive light requirements made it impractical. In 1931, David Sarnoffof RCA offered to buy Farnsworth's patents for $100,000, with the stipulation that Farnsworth become an employee at RCA, but Farnsworth refused; in June of that year Farnsworth joined the Philcocompany and moved his laboratory to Philadelphia, along with his wife and two children.
When Farnsworth traveled to England in 1932 while raising money in his legal battles with RCA, he met with
John Logie Baird, a Scottish inventor who had developed mechanical-scan cameras, and was seeking to develop electronic television receivers. Baird demonstrated his mechanical system for Farnsworth. According to Farnsworth accounts, Baird explained "the superiority of his system to Farnsworth", but after watching several minutes of Farnsworth's version, he left the room without a word, "having realized the futility of his efforts"Fact|date=September 2007. Baird himself had supported an earlier merger with Farnsworth's competitors in the U.K., the Marconi Company; the merger did not succeed. Marconi had a patent-sharing agreement with RCA. Baird company directors decided later to merge with Farnsworth. Baird's company paid Farnsworth $50,000 to supply electronic television equipment, and provide access to Farnsworth television patents. Baird and Farnsworth competed with EMIfor forming the standard U.K. television system. EMIhowever merged with Marconi in 1934, gaining access to the RCA Iconoscopepatents. After trials of both systems, the BBCcommittee chose the Marconi-EMI system, which was by then virtually identical to RCA's ( Zworykin's) system. The Image dissectorcamera scanned well, but had poor light sensitivity compared to the Marconi-EMI Iconoscopes, which were called Emitrons. Farnsworth's old adversary, Vladimir Zworykin, also made an appearance at the BBC television trials.
After sailing to Europe in 1934, Farnsworth also secured an agreement with the Goerz-Bosch-Fernseh interests in Germany. [Collier's Magazine October 3, 1936] Some image dissector cameras were used to broadcast Hitler's 1936 Berlin Olympics.
Philcodenied Farnsworth time to travel to Utah to bury his young son Kenny, who died in March 1932; this death put a strain on Farnsworth's marriage and may have marked the beginning of his struggle with depression. In 1934, because Farnsworth was making poor progress with in his television work, Philcosevered their relationship.
Farnsworth returned to his lab. By 1936, Farnsworth's company was transmitting regular entertainment programs experimentally. In addition, Farnsworth, working with University of Pennsylvania biologists, developed a process to sterilize milk by passing radio waves through it. He had also invented a fog-penetrating beam for ships and airplanes. [Collier's Magazine October 3, 1936]
In 1938, he established the Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation in
Fort Wayne, Indiana, with E.A. Nicholas as president, and himself as director of research. In 1939, Farnsworth sold his television patents to RCA Victorfor $1 million. The New York World's Fair showcased electronic television sets in April 1939, and soon afterward, RCA electronic televisions went on sale to the public.
Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation was purchased by
International Telephone and Telegraph(ITT) in 1951. During his time at ITT, Farnsworth worked in a basement lab known as “the cave” on Pontiac Street in Fort Wayne. From here he introduced a number of breakthrough concepts, including: a defense early warning signal, submarinedetection devices, radarcalibration equipment, and an infrared telescope. “Philo was a very deep person – tough to engage in conversation because he was always thinking about what he could do next,” says Art Resler, an ITT photographer who documented Farnsworth’s work in pictures. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = | url = http://www.itt.com/news/adv_prog/safer.html | title = ITT, Advancing Human Progress | format = | work = | publisher = ITT | accessdate = 2007-07-05] One of Farnsworth's most significant contributions at ITT was the PPI Projector, which allowed safe control of air traffic from the ground. This system developed in the 1950s was the forerunner of today’s sophisticated air traffic controlsystems.
In addition to his electronics research, ITT management agreed to nominally fund Farnsworth's controlled fusion ideas. He and staff members invented and refined a series of fusion reaction tubes called "
fusors." For scientific reasons unknown to Farnsworth and his staff, the necessary reactions lasted no longer than thirty seconds. In December 1965, ITT came under pressure from its board of directors to terminate the expensive fusion research and sell the Farnsworth subsidiary. It was only from the urging of President Harold Geneenthat the 1966 budget was accepted, permitting ITT's fusion research one additional year. However, the stress associated with this managerial ultimatum threw Farnsworth into relapse. One year later he was terminated and eventually allowed medical retirement.cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = | url = http://db3-sql.staff.library.utah.edu/lucene/Manuscripts/null/Ms0648.xml/Bioghist | title = Biography of Philo Taylor Farnsworth | format = | work = | publisher = University of Utah Marriott Library Special Collections | accessdate = 2007-07-05]
In the spring of 1967, Farnsworth and his family moved back to
Utahto continue his fusion research at Brigham Young University, which presented him with an honorary doctorate. The university also offered him office space and an underground concrete bunker location for the project. Realizing the fusion lab was to be dismantled at ITT, Farnsworth invited staff members to accompany him to Salt Lake City as team members in his planned Philo T. Farnsworth Associates (PTFA) organization. By late 1968 the associates began holding regular business meetings and PTFA was underway. However, although a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administrationwas promptly secured and more possibilities were within reach, the financing needed to pay the $24,000 in monthly expenses for equipment rental and salaries was stalled.
Christmas1970, PTFA had failed to secure the necessary financing, the Farnsworths had sold all their own ITT stock and cashed out Philo's life insurancepolicy to maintain organization stability. The underwriterhad failed to provide the financial backing that was to have supported the organization during its critical first year. The banks called-in all outstanding loans. Repossessionnotices were placed on anything not previously sold and the Internal Revenue Serviceput a lock on the laboratory door until delinquent taxes were paid. During January 1970, Philo T. Farnsworth Associates disbanded. Farnsworth became seriously ill with pneumoniaand died on 11 March 1971.
Farnsworth's wife Elma fought for decades after his death to assure his place in history. Farnsworth always gave her equal credit for creating television, saying "my wife and I started this TV." She died on
April 27, 2006, at the age of 98. [ [http://www.heraldextra.com/content/view/177009/ Hummel, Debbie. "Elma Farnsworth, widow of TV pioneer, dies at 98,"] "Daily Herald" (Provo, Utah). April, 28, 2006, p. D5.] The inventor's long-lived wife was survived by two sons, Russell (then living in New York), and Kent (then living in Fort Wayne, Indiana).
Philo Farnsworth had been credited as the "father of television."
Farnsworth's wife's name was Elma Gardner "Pem" Farnsworth. "Pem" died in 2006.
Scientific American" Magazine called him one of the ten greatest mathematiciansof his time.
Farnsworth worked out the principle of the
image dissectortelevision camera at age 14, and produced the first working version at age 21. A farm boy, his inspiration for the scanning lines of the cathode ray tube(CRT) came from the back-and-forth motion used to plow a field. During a patent lawsuitagainst RCAin 1935, his high school chemistry teacher, Justin Tolman, reproduced a drawing that Farnsworth, when he was just 14, had made on the blackboard at the school. Farnsworth won the suit and was paid royalties but never became wealthy. The video camera tubedeveloped from a combination of the work of Farnsworth and Zworykin, was used in all television cameras until the late 20th century, when alternate technologies such as charge-coupled devices started to appear.
Farnsworth developed the "image oscillite", a
cathode ray tubereceiver that could display images captured by the image dissector.
The Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Farnsworth to create
nuclear fusion. Unlike most controlled fusion systems, which slowly heat a magnetically confined plasma, the fusor injects high temperature ions directly into a reaction chamber, thereby avoiding a considerable amount of complexity.
When Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor was first introduced to the fusion research world in the late 1960s, the Fusor was the first device that could clearly demonstrate it was producing any fusion reactions at all. Hopes at the time were high that it could be quickly developed into a practical power source. However, as with other fusion experiments, development into a power source has proven difficult. Nevertheless, the fusor has since become a practical
neutronsource and is produced commercially for this role.
At his death, Farnsworth held 300 U.S. and foreign
patents. His inventions contributed to the development of radar, the infra-rednight light, the electron microscope, the baby incubator, the gastroscope, and the astronomical telescope. [cite web
url = http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/farnsworth.cfm
title=About the statue of Philo T. Farnsworth, given by Utah to the National Statuary Hall Collection
accessdate = 2008-04-08 ]
Appearances on television
Although he was the man responsible for its technology, Farnsworth appeared only once on a television program. On July 3, 1957, he was a mystery guest ("Doctor X") on the TV quiz show "
I've Got A Secret". He fielded questions from the panel as they unsuccessfully tried to guess his secret ("I invented electronic television."). For stumping the panel, he received $80 and a carton of Winston cigarettes. [cite web | last = Schatzkin | first = Paul | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = | url = http://www.farnovision.com/chronicles/tfc-secret.html | title = The Farnsworth Chronicles| format = | work = | publisher = Farnovision.com | accessdate = 2006-09-08]
In the interview with host
Garry Moore, Dr. Farnsworth said: "There had been attempts to devise a television system using mechanical disks and rotating mirrors and vibrating mirrors--all mechanical. My contribution was to take out the moving parts and make the thing entirely electronic, and that was the concept that I had when I was just a freshman in high school [in 1922, at age 14] ." When Moore asked about others' contributions, Dr. Farnsworth agreed, "There are literally thousands of inventions important to television. I hold something in excess of 165 American patents." The host then asked about his current research, and the inventor replied, "In television, we're attempting first to make better utilization of the bandwidth, because we think we can eventually get in excess of 2000 lines instead of 525 ... and do it on an even narrower channel ... which will make for a much sharper picture. We believe in the picture-frame type of a picture, where the visual display will be just a screen. And we hope for a memory, so that the picture will be just as though it's pasted on there."
In a 1996 videotaped interview by the
Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, available on Google video, [ [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6558604449508100748&q=elma Archive of American Television Interview with Elma Farnsworth Part 10 of 12 ] ] Elma Farnsworth recounts Philo's change of heart about the value of television, after seeing how it showed man walking on the moon, in real time, to millions of viewers::Interviewer: The image dissector was used to send shots back from the moon to earth.:Elma Farnsworth: Right.:Interviewer: What did Phil think of that?:Elma Farnsworth: We were watching it, and, when Neil Armstrong landed on the moon, Phil turned to me and said, "Pem, this has made it all worthwhile." Before then, he wasn't too sure.
A letter to the editor of the Idaho Falls-based Post Register disputed the single television appearance claim. Published in the December 10, 2007 edition (page A4, digital version requires subscription), Roy Southwick claimed "... I interviewed Mr. [Philo] Farnsworth back in 1953 - the first day KID-TV went on the air." KID-TV later became KIDK-TV, and was the first local broadcaster in southeast Idaho. The KID-TV affiliate is located a 15 minute drive from the Rigby area where Farnsworth worked in the potato fields and struck on his idea for electrons forming an image.
Although Philo T. Farnsworth is sometimes quoted as telling his son Kent, with regard to television::“"There’s nothing on it worthwhile, and we’re not going to watch it in this household, and I don’t want it in your intellectual diet."” His family's website makes it clear that this is Kent's summation of his father's view, rather than a quote.
*In 2006, Farnsworth was posthumously presented the Eagle Scout award when it was discovered he'd earned it but had never been presented with it. The award was presented to his wife, Pem, who died four months later.cite journal |author= | title=TV Pioneer Recognized as Eagle Scout | journal=Eagletter|year=Fall 2006 |volume=Vol:32 |issue=No:2 |pages= pp: 10]
*A statue of Farnsworth represents Utah in the
National Statuary Hall Collection, located in the U.S. Capitol building.
* The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission marker located at 1260 E. Mermaid Lane,
Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania commemorating the "Farnsworth Television" shop established there in the summer of 1933. The Plaque reads "Inventor of electronic television, he led some of the first experiments in live local TV broadcasting in the late 1930s from his station W3XPF located on this site. A pioneer in electronics, Farnsworth held many patents and was inducted into the Inventors Hall of Fame."
*A plaque honoring Farnsworth as "The Genius of Green Street" is located on the 202 Green Street location (37.80037N, 122.40251W) of his research laboratory in San Francisco,
* The scenic "Farnsworth Steps" in San Francisco lead from Willard Street (just above Parnassus) up to Edgewood Avenue, passing Farnsworth's former residence at the top.
*A plaque honoring Farnsworth is located near his former home in a historical district in
Fort Wayne, Indiana.
*Farnsworth's television-related work, including an original TV tube he developed, are on display at the Farnsworth TV & Pioneer Museum at 118 W. 1st S. Rigby, Idaho.
*A Farnsworth image dissector is on display at
Fry's Electronicsin Sunnyvale, California, along with other artifacts of the history of electronics in Silicon Valley.
*The Philo Awards named after Philo Farnsworth is an annual
Public access televisioncompetition where the winners receive notice for their efforts in various categories in producing Community Media.
*Several buildings and streets around rural
Brownfield, Maineare named for Farnsworth as he lived there for some time. [ [http://db3-sql.staff.library.utah.edu/lucene/Manuscripts/null/Ms0648.xml/complete The Philo T. and Elma G. Farnsworth Papers] ]
* "The West Wing" writer
Aaron Sorkinhas written a screenplay about Farnsworth's and RCA's conflict, " The Farnsworth Invention". It was originally to be produced as a film, however production was abruptly cancelled in 2005 with no explanation. The play was first produced at the La Jolla Playhouse, in California; and it can now be seen on Broadway in New York at the Music Box Theaterfeaturing Jimmi Simpsonas Farnsworth and Hank Azariaas Farnsworth's nemesis Sarnoff. Sorkin's earlier work, " Sports Night", features William H. Macytelling a fictionalized anecdoteabout Farnsworth.
*The character Professor Farnsworth on the popular animated series "
Futurama" was named after him. The character Philo from "UHF" was also named after him, as he works in a television station. Oliver Farnsworth, a character in the Walter Tevis novel " The Man Who Fell to Earth" was also named after him.
*Farnsworth appears as a fictionalized character in
Glen David Gold's novel " Carter Beats the Devil", in which television gets its first application as part of a magician's stage show.
*In March 2008, the
Letterman Digital Arts Centerinstalled a statue of Farnsworth in front of its D building.
*Since 2003, the
Academy of Television Arts & Sciences(ATAS) has awarded the Philo T. Farnsworth Corporate Achievement Awardon an irregular schedule, to companies who have significantly affected the state of television and broadcast engineering over a long period of time.
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|1773980: Television system (filed
7 January 1927, issued 26 August 1930)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|1773981: Television receiving system (filed 7 January 1927, issued
26 August 1930)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|1758359: Electric oscillator system (filed 7 January 1927, issued
May 13 1930)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|1806935: Light valve (filed 7 January 1927, issued 26 May 1931)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2168768: Television method (filed 9 January 1928, issued 8 August 1939)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|1970036: Photoelectric apparatus (filed 9 January 1928, issued 14 August 1934)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2246625: Television scanning and synchronization system (filed
May 5 1930, issued June 24 1941)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|1941344: Dissector target (filed 7 July 1930, issued 26 December 1933)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2140284: Projecting oscillight (filed 14 July 1931, issued 13 December 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2059683: Scanning oscillator (filed 3 April 1933, issued 3 November 1936)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2087683: Image dissector (filed 26 April 1933, issued 20 July 1937)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2071516: Oscillation generator (filed 5 July 1934, issued 23 February 1937)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2143145: Projection means (filed 6 November 1934, issued 10 January 1939)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2233887: Image projector (filed 6 February 1935, issued 4 March 1941)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2143262: Means of electron
multipaction(filed 12 March 1935, issued 10 January 1939)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2174488: Oscillator (filed 12 March 1935, issued 26 September 1939)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2221473: Amplifier (filed 12 March 1935, issued 12 November 1940)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2155478: Means for producing incandescent images (filed 7 May 1935, issued 25 April 1939)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2140695: Charge storage dissector (filed 6 July 1935, issued 20 December 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2228388: Cathode ray amplifier (filed 6 July 1935, issued 14 January 1941)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2233888: Charge storage amplifier (filed 6 July 1935, issued 4 March 1941)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2251124: Cathode ray amplifying tube (filed 10 August 1935, issued 29 July 1941)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2100842: Charge storage tube (filed 14 September 1935, issued 30 November 1937)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2137528: Multipactor oscillator (filed 27 January 1936, issued 22 November 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2214077: Scanning current generator (filed 10 February 1936, issued 10 September 1940)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2089054: Incandescent light source (filed 9 March 1936, issued 3 August 1937)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2159521: Absorption oscillator (filed 9 March 1936, issued 23 May 1939)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2139813: Secondary emission electrode (filed 24 March 1936, issued 13 December 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2204479: Means and method for producing electronic multiplication (filed 16 May 1936, issued 11 June 1940)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2140832: Means and method of controlling electron multipliers (filed 16 May 1936, issued 20 December 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2260613: Electron multiplier (filed 18 May 1936, issued 28 October 1941)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2141837: Multistage multipactor (filed 1 June 1936, issued 27 December 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2216265: Image dissector (filed 18 August 1936, issued 1 October 1940)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2128580: Means and method of operating electron multipliers (filed 18 August 1936, issued 30 August 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2143146: Repeater (filed 31 October 1936, issued 10 January 1939)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2139814: Cathode ray tube (filed 2 November 1936, issued 13 December 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2109289: High power projection oscillograph (filed 2 November 1936, issued 22 February 1938)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2184910:
Cold cathodeelectron discharge tube (filed 4 November 1936, issued 26 December 1939)
* Philo T. Farnsworth, US patent|2179996: Electron multiplier (filed 9 November 1936, issued 14 November 1939)
* P.T. Farnsworth, US patent|2221374:
* P.T. Farnsworth, US patent|2263032: Cold cathode electron discharge tube
* P.T. Farnsworth, US patent|3258402: Electric discharge device for producing interaction between nuclei
* P.T. Farnsworth, US patent|3386883: Method and apparatus for producing
* P.T. Farnsworth, US patent|3664920:
Electrostaticcontainment in fusion reactors
* Farnsworth, Elma Gardner. (1989). "Distant Vision: Romance & Discovery on an Invisible Frontier". Salt Lake City, Utah: Pemberley Kent Publishers. ISBN 0962327603
* Farnsworth, Russell. (2002). "Philo T. Farnsworth: The Life of Television's Forgotten Inventor." Hockessin, Delaware: Mitchell Lane Publishers. 10-ISBN 1-584-15176-5; ISBN 13-ISBN 978-1-584-15176-0 (cloth)
* Fisher, David E. and Marshall J., 1996. "Tube, the Invention of Television". Washington D.C.: Counterpoint. ISBN 1-887178-17-1
* Godfrey, D. G., 2001. "Philo T. Farnsworth: The Father of Television". University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-675-5
* Schatzkin, Paul, 2002. "The Boy Who Invented Television". Silver Spring MD: Teamcom Books. ISBN 1-928791-30-1
* Schwartz, Evan I., 2002. "The Last Lone Inventor: A Tale of Genius, Deceit & the Birth of Television". New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-060935-59-6
* Stashower, Daniel, 2002. "The Boy Genius and the Mogul: The Untold Story of Television". New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-0759-0
* [http://thefarnsworthinvention.com/ The Farnsworth Invention (Broadway Play) Fact -v- Fiction ]
* [http://philotfarnsworth.com/ Official Homepage: “Philo. T Farnsworth Archives” (managed by Farnsworth heirs)]
* [http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/1_1_6_detail.asp?vInventorID=56 National Inventors Hall of Fame profile]
* [http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/p437/p437.html Philo Farnsworth photo archive]
* [http://rigby.govoffice.com Rigby, Idaho: Birthplace of Television (Jefferson County Historical Society and Museum)]
* [http://www.farnovision.com The Boy Who Invented Television; by Paul Schatzkin]
* [http://www.timelines.ws/subjects/Television.HTML Television Timeline]
* [http://www.earlytelevision.org/farnsworth_1939_article.html 1939 Farnsworth Article] (from the
Fort Wayne News-Sentinel)
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=3661 Philo Farnsworth's Gravesite]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKM4MNrB25o YouTube video of Farnsworth on Television's "I've Got a Secret"]
* [http://www.farnsworthonbroadway.com The Farnsworth Invention on Broadway]
* [http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=%22elma+farnsworth%22 Archive of American Television oral history interview with Philo Farnsworth's widow, Elma "Pem" Farnsworth]
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