Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Infobox Settlement
official_name = City of Pittsburgh
nickname = City of Bridges, Steel City, The 'Burgh, Iron City, The Smoky City, Steel Town, The College City, Roboburgh
motto = Benigno Numine ("With the Benevolent Deity" also translated as "By the favor of heaven")

imagesize =


mapsize =
map_caption = Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

pushpin_label_position =
pushpin_map_caption =
pushpin_mapsize =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Commonwealth
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name = flag|United States
subdivision_name1 = flag|Pennsylvania
subdivision_name2 =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Luke Ravenstahl (D)
established_title = Founded
established_date = November 25, 1758
established_title2 = Incorporated
established_date2 = April 22, 1794 (borough)
established_title3 =
established_date3 = March 18, 1816 (city)
area_magnitude = 1 E8
area_total_sq_mi = 58.3
area_total_km2 = 151.1
area_land_sq_mi = 55.5
area_land_km2 = 143.9
area_water_sq_mi = 2.8
area_water_km2 = 7.1
area_urban_sq_mi =
area_urban_km2 =
area_metro_sq_mi = 5,343
area_metro_km2 = 13,839
population_as_of = U.S. Census Estimate, 2006
population_note = [cite web | url = http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/SUB-EST2006.html | title = Population Estimates for Places Over 100,000: 2000 to 2006 | work = U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division | accessdate = 2007-08-14 | date = 2007-06-27 ] [cite web | url = http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/CBSA-est2006-annual.html | title = Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas | work = U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division | date = 2007-04-04 | accessdate = 2007-08-14 ]
population_total = 312,819
population_metro = 2,462,571
population_urban =
population_density_km2 = 2174
population_density_sq_mi = 5636
area_code = 412, 724, 878
timezone = EST
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = EDT
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd=40 |latm=26 |lats=30 |latNS=N
longd=80 |longm=00 |longs=00 |longEW=W
elevation_m = 372.77
elevation_ft = 1223
website = [http://www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us]
footnotes =
Pittsburgh (pronEng|ˈpɪtsbɚg (originally pronEng|ˈpɪtsb(ə)rə)) is the second largest city (after Philadelphia) in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with a population of 312,819 in 55.5 sq mi.cite web |url=http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-01.csv | title = US Census Bureau 2006 city estimate] The population of the eight-county metropolitan area is 2,462,571.cite web |url=http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metro_general/2006/CBSA-EST2006-02.csv | title = US Census Bureau 2006 CSA estimate] The city averages 5,636 people per sq mi and has an urban oriented job market ranking 6th in the nation for jobs within the urban core.cite news | url = http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08216/901307-432.stm | title = Regional Insights: Pittsburgh is a national player in jobs per square mile but needs more population | work = Pittsburgh Post-Gazette | date = 2008-08-03 | accessdate = 2008-08-06 | last = Miller | first = Harold ] Pittsburgh is the county seat of Allegheny County, which has a population of 1,281,666. Downtown is built on a triangular tract where the Allegheny River and Monongahela River meet to form the Ohio River. The skyline features 151 high-rise buildings, [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/ci/bu/sk/?id=101313 "High-rise Buildings of Pittsburgh"] ] 446 bridges, [http://www.umc.pitt.edu/media/pcc/pittsburgh_cityofbridges_2006JUL10.html Pitt Chronicle: "Venice, Schmenice"] ] two inclined railways, and a pre-revolutionary fortification. Pittsburgh is known colloquially as "The City of Bridges" and "The Steel City" for its many bridges and former steel manufacturing base.

While the city is historically known for its steel industry, today it is largely based on healthcare, education, technology, robotics, fashion, and financial services. The city has made great strides in redeveloping abandonded industrial sites with new housing, shopping and offices, such as the SouthSide Works. While Pittsburgh faced economic troubles in the mid 1970s as the steel industry waned, modern Pittsburgh is economically strong. The housing market is relatively stable despite a national subprime mortgage crisis, and Pittsburgh has added jobs in 2008 even as the national economy is in a significant jobs recession.cite news | url = http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/business/s_580675.html | title = Growth of jobs locally bucks nationwide trend | work = Pittsburgh Tribune-Review | date = 2008-08-02 | accessdate = 2008-08-06 | last = Napsha | first = Joe ] This positive economic news is in contrast to 30 years ago when Pittsburgh lost its manufacturing base as those jobs moved offshore.

In 2007, Forbes Magazine named Pittsburgh the 10th cleanest city,cite web|url=http://www.forbes.com/2007/04/16/worlds-cleanest-cities-biz-logistics-cx_rm_0416cleanest_slide_16.html|title=World's Cleanest Cities] and in 2008 Forbes listed Pittsburgh as the 13th best city for young professionals to live.cite web|url=http://www.forbes.com/2008/07/09/cities-professionals-young-forbeslife-cx_mw_0709youngprofessionals_slide_29.html?thisSpeed=30000 | title=Top 40 Cities for Professionals] The city is consistently ranked high in livability surveys. In 2007, Pittsburgh was named "America's Most Livable City" by Places Rated Almanac.cite news | url = http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07116/781162-53.stm | title = Pittsburgh rated 'most livable' once again | work = Pittsburgh Post-Gazette | date = 2007-04-26 | accessdate = 2007-09-16 | last = Majors | first = Dan ]


Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes in honor of the British statesman, Sir William Pitt. Given that Forbes was a Scotsman, some speculate the intended pronunciation of the settlement was "Pitts"burra", similar to the pronunciation of Edinburgh. It was incorporated as a borough in 1794 and chartered as a city in 1816. [cite web |url=http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/03001/700027-209.stm |title=Pittsburgh Facts |work=Pittsburgh Post-Gazette |accessdate=2007-10-21]

Pittsburgh was officially named with its present spelling on April 22 1794, by an act of the Pennsylvania Department, stating, "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be, and the same is hereby, erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."cite web |url=http://www.carnegielibrary.org/exhibit/hname2.html |title=How to Spell Pittsburgh |work=Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh |accessdate=2006-09-22]

Pittsburgh is one of the few American cities to be spelled with an "h" at the end of a "burg" suffix. This style is commonly used for many other cities and towns of Western Pennsylvania. [cite web |url=http://www.epodunk.com/top10/misspelled/index.html |title=Most Misspelled Cities in America |accessdate=2007-10-21] While briefly referred to as "Pittsburg" during the late 19th century, the "Pittsburgh" spelling was officially restored in 1911 after a public campaign by the citizens of the city.


The area surrounding the headwaters of the Ohio was inhabited by the tribes of Allegawis, Adena, Hopewell, Delaware, Jacobi, Seneca, Shawnee, and several settled groups of Iroquois.Fact|date=March 2008 The first European was the French discoverer/trader Sieur de La Salle in his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River from Lake Ontario and Quebec. [http://www.friendsoftheriverfront.org/new_pages/historical.htm friendsoftheriverfront.org ] ] This discovery was followed by European pioneers, primarily French, in the early 1700s and 1710s. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript in 1717, and later that year European traders established posts and settlements in the area. [http://digital.library.pitt.edu/cgi-bin/chronology/chronology_driver.pl?searchtype=dbrowse&year=1717&year2=1749 Pittsburgh Chronology] ] In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched a serious expedition to the forks in hopes of uniting French Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia sent Major George Washington to warn the French to withdraw. During 1753–1754, the English hastily built Fort Prince George, but a larger French expedition forced them to evacuate and constructed Fort Duquesne on the site. With the French citing the 1669 discovery by LaSalle, these events led to the French and Indian War. British General Edward Braddock's campaign (with Washington as his aide) to take Fort Duquesne failed, but General John Forbes's subsequent campaign succeeded. After the French abandoned and destroyed Fort Duquesne in 1758, Forbes ordered the construction of Fort Pitt, named after British Secretary of State William Pitt the Elder. He also named the settlement between the rivers "Pittsborough."cite book| title=Pittsburgh, The Story of an American City | edition=5th edition | author=Lorant, Stefan | publisher=Esselmont Books, LLC. | year=1999]

During Pontiac's Rebellion, Ohio Valley and Great Lakes tribes besieged Fort Pitt for two months. The siege was ended after Colonel Bouquet defeated the native forces in the Battle of Bushy Run just to the east of the forks.

In the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the descendants of William Penn purchased from the Six Nations western lands that included most of the present site of Pittsburgh. In 1769, a survey was made of the land situated between the two rivers, called the "Manor of Pittsburgh."cite book| title=Pittsburgh First, the Official Organ of The Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh | author=Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh| year=1921] Both Virginia and Pennsylvania claimed the Pittsburgh area during colonial times and would continue to do so until 1780 when both states agreed to extend the Mason-Dixon Line westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania.

Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was building boats for settlers to enter the Ohio Country. In 1784, the laying out of the "Town of Pittsburgh" was completed by Thos. Viceroy of Bedford County and approved by the attorney of the Penns in Philadelphia. The year 1794 saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion. The Act of March 5, 1804, which modified the provision of the old charter of the Borough of Pittsburgh in 1794 (the original of which is not known to exist), refers throughout to the "Borough of Pittsburgh."Facts|date=February 2007

The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American manufacture. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin and glass products. The Act of March 18, 1816 incorporated the City of Pittsburgh. The original charter was burned when the old Court House was destroyed by fire. In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the steelworks of Merthyr migrated to the city following the civil strife and aftermath of the Merthyr Riots of 1831. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. A great fire burned over a thousand buildings in 1845, but the city rebuilt. By 1857, Pittsburgh's 1,000 factories were consuming 22,000,000 bushels of coal yearly.

The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased production of iron and armaments. Steel production began by 1875, when Andrew Carnegie founded the J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works in North Braddock, which eventually evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company. The success and growth of Carnegie Steel was attributed to Henry Bessemer, inventor of the Bessemer Process.

In 1901, the U.S. Steel Corporation was formed, and by 1911 Pittsburgh was producing between a third and a half of the nation's steel. The city's population swelled to half a million, many of whom were immigrants from Europe who arrived via the great migration through Ellis Island. During World War II, Pittsburgh produced 95 million tons of steel. By this time, the pollution from burning coal and steel production created a black fog (or smog), which even a century earlier had induced author writer James Parton to dub the city "hell with the lid off". [cite web
last = Kalson
first = Sally
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Cartoonist draws, fires a blank with Pittsburgh joke
work = Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
publisher =
date = 2003-11-19
url = http://www.post-gazette.com/columnists/20031119sally104col2p2.asp
format =
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accessdate =

Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." This much-acclaimed effort was followed by the "Renaissance II" project, begun in 1977 and focusing more on cultural and neighborhood development than its predecessor. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but beginning in the 1970s and 1980s, the steel industry in the region imploded, with massive layoffs and mill closures.

Beginning in the 1980s, the city shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare, medicine, and high technology such as robotics. During this transition, however, the city's population shrank from 680,000 in 1950 to 330,000 in 2000. [Note: Although medical research is often cited as a recent addition to Pittsburgh's economic portfolio, major advances go back several decades. Working at the University of Pittsburgh in the 1950s, Jonas Salk developed the first successful vaccine for large-scale immunization against poliomyelitis (a.k.a. polio or infantile paralysis). Also, several types of organ transplants were pioneered in Pittsburgh by Dr. Thomas Starzl beginning in 1983. Pittsburgh's hospitals and universities remain the hosts for some of the premier medical research facilities in the world.]


Pittsburgh is located at coord|40|26|29|N|79|58|38|W|type:city_region:GR|display=inline,title (40.441419, -79.977292).GR|1 According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of convert|58.3|sqmi|km2|0|abbr=on, of which, convert|55.6|sqmi|km2|0|abbr=on of it is land and convert|2.8|sqmi|km2|0|abbr=on of it is water. The total area is 4.75% water.

The city is on the Allegheny Plateau, where the confluence of the Allegheny River from the northeast and Monongahela River from the southeast form the Ohio River. The Downtown area between the rivers is known as the Golden Triangle, and the site at the actual convergence, which is occupied by Point State Park, is referred to simply as "the Point." In addition to the downtown Golden Triangle, the city extends northeast to include the Oakland and Shadyside sections, which are home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carnegie Museum and Library, and many other educational, medical, and cultural institutions.

Pittsburgh occupies the slopes of the river valley on the opposite side of the Monongahela and the ridges beyond. Many of the city's neighborhoods, particularly the city's North Side and those areas south of the Bungalow, are steeply sloped. In fact, of all U.S. cities, only San Francisco and Seattle have more extreme terrain.

This topography is often utilized for physical activity. The city has some 712 sets of stairs, comprising 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet (more than San Francisco, Cincinnati, and Portland, Oregon combined) for pedestrians to traverse its many hills. With the drop of pedestrian traffic across much of the city, and the fact that many of these stairs are outside nuclear neighborhoods, many have fallen into disrepair, covered with vines and weeds. There are hundreds of 'paper streets' composed entirely of stairs and many other steep streets with stairs for sidewalks. [cite news |work=Pittsburgh Post-Gazette |title=Learning the steps: Pitt researcher fell for city's stairs and has published a book that maps them |url=http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04076/286278.stm |date=2004-03-16 |author=Patricia Lowry] Many provide views of the Pittsburgh area. ["The Steps of Pittsburgh: Portrait of a City" "by Bob Regan, photos by Tim Fabian, published by The Local History Company, Pittsburgh, ISBN 0-9711835-6-2"]

The city has established bike and walking trails along its riverfronts and hollows, but steep hills and variable weather can make biking challenging. However, the city will be connected to downtown Washington, D.C. (some convert|245|mi|km|0|abbr=on away) by a continuous bike/running trail through the Alleghenies and along the Potomac Valley. Known as the Great Allegheny Passage and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Towpath, about 95% of this trail has been completed.


Pittsburgh's climate is classified as a humid subtropical climate ("Cfa") on the Koppen climate classification. This is a climate with abundant precipitation throughout the year and four defined seasons. While there are wide variations in seasonal temperature common to temperate climates, winters are somewhat moderated by both proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and mountains that block the advance of cold air from the north. However, Pittsburgh's average winter temperatures are notably lower than that of Philadelphia. Overall, the city's climate features cold winters with snow, and warm, humid summers with frequent clouds and precipitation.

The warmest month of the year in Pittsburgh, as in most of the northern hemisphere, is July. The average high temperature is convert|83|F|C|0|abbr=on, with overnight low temperatures averaging convert|62|F|C|0|abbr=on. July is often humid, resulting in a considerable heat index. The coldest month of the year is January, when the average high temperature is convert|37|F|C|0|abbr=on. Overnight low temperatures average convert|20|F|C|0|abbr=on. The moderating influence of Pittsburgh's proximity to the Atlantic Ocean is evident in the fact that Chicago, which is less than convert|110|mi|km|0|abbr=on north of Pittsburgh (and about convert|400|mi|km west), experiences average January temperatures 7°F (4°C) colder on average. The highest temperature ever recorded in Pittsburgh was convert|101|F|C|0|abbr=on, on July 16, 1988, and the coldest temperature ever recorded was convert|-19|F|C|0|abbr=on, on January 19, 1994. [cite web|url=http://weather.yahoo.com/Pittsburgh-Pennsylvania-United-States/USPA1290/statistics.html|title=Pittsburgh Weather|publisher=Yahoo!|accessdate=2008-08-28]

Due to its position on the windward side of the Allegheny Mountains, Pittsburgh receives heavy precipitation, and many days are subject to overcast skies. Precipitation is greatest in May, due to frequent thunderstorms and more organized low pressure systems which track up the eastern coast of the United States. On average, convert|4.04|in|mm|0|abbr=on of precipitation falls during this month. The driest month of the year is February, when most precipitation falls in the form of low moisture content snow. However, Pittsburgh's February precipitation, convert|2.47|in|mm|0|abbr=on, is relatively heavy compared to other cities located further inland, mainly because the city is east enough that it can be impacted by Nor'easters in some way, but usually lighter than in the central and eastern parts of the state.Fact|date=January 2008

Infobox Weather
location =Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Jan_Hi_°F =37 |Jan_REC_Hi_°F =74
Feb_Hi_°F =39 |Feb_REC_Hi_°F =76
Mar_Hi_°F =50 |Mar_REC_Hi_°F =84
Apr_Hi_°F =62 |Apr_REC_Hi_°F =90
May_Hi_°F =71 |May_REC_Hi_°F =92
Jun_Hi_°F =80 |Jun_REC_Hi_°F =96
Jul_Hi_°F =85 |Jul_REC_Hi_°F =101
Aug_Hi_°F =83 |Aug_REC_Hi_°F =97
Sep_Hi_°F =76 |Sep_REC_Hi_°F =92
Oct_Hi_°F =64 |Oct_REC_Hi_°F =85
Nov_Hi_°F =53 |Nov_REC_Hi_°F =79
Dec_Hi_°F =42 |Dec_REC_Hi_°F =74
Jan_Lo_°F =20 |Jan_REC_Lo_°F = -19
Feb_Lo_°F =21 |Feb_REC_Lo_°F = -2
Mar_Lo_°F =29 |Mar_REC_Lo_°F = 2
Apr_Lo_°F =38 |Apr_REC_Lo_°F =21
May_Lo_°F =48 |May_REC_Lo_°F =29
Jun_Lo_°F =56 |Jun_REC_Lo_°F =38
Jul_Lo_°F =62 |Jul_REC_Lo_°F =37
Aug_Lo_°F =60 |Aug_REC_Lo_°F =47
Sep_Lo_°F =53 |Sep_REC_Lo_°F =35
Oct_Lo_°F =41 |Oct_REC_Lo_°F =22
Nov_Lo_°F =33 |Nov_REC_Lo_°F =13
Dec_Lo_°F =25 |Dec_REC_Lo_°F =2
Jan_Precip_inch =2.59
Feb_Precip_inch =2.47
Mar_Precip_inch =3.24
Apr_Precip_inch =3.07
May_Precip_inch =4.04
Jun_Precip_inch =3.93
Jul_Precip_inch =3.90
Aug_Precip_inch =3.15
Sep_Precip_inch =3.13
Oct_Precip_inch =2.35
Nov_Precip_inch =3.05
Dec_Precip_inch =2.86
source=The Weather Channelcite web
url=http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USPA1290?from=36hr_bottomnav_undeclared |title=Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information |accessdate=2008-01-26 |wokr=Weather Channel
accessdate = 2008-01-26


Panorama simple

fullwidth = 5816
fullheight = 1200
caption = The city of Pittsburgh at dawn
height = 250
The city can be broken down into the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle, [ [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bo/?id=102614 Golden Triangle (Pittsburgh) ] ] and four main areas surrounding it. These four surrounding areas are further subdivided into distinct neighborhoods (in total, Pittsburgh contains 90 neighborhoods. [cite web |url=http://www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us/portal/neighborhoods.html |accessdate=2007-07-17 |title=Pittsburgh Neighborhoods |work=City of Pittsburgh Portal] ) These areas, relative to downtown, are known as the North Side, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End.

Downtown Pittsburgh is tight and compact, featuring many skyscrapers, 9 of which top convert|500|ft|m|0|abbr=on. which is located on the border of Downtown and Uptown.

The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. What is known today as Pittsburgh's North Side was once known as Allegheny City and operated as a city independently of Pittsburgh. Allegheny City merged with Pittsburgh under great protest from its citizens. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. The North Side is also home to many popular attractions such as Heinz Field, PNC Park, Carnegie Science Center, National Aviary, Andy Warhol Museum, Mattress Factory installation art museum, Children's Museum of Pittsburgh, Penn Brewery and Allegheny Observatory.

The South Side was once an area composed primarily of dense inexpensive housing for mill workers, but has in recent years become a local Pittsburgher destination. In fact, South Side is one of the most popular neighborhoods in which to own a home in Pittsburgh. The value of homes in the South Side has increased in value by about 10 percent annually for the past 10 years. The South Side's East Carson Street is one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, pulsing nightlife and live music venues. In 1993 the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh purchased the South Side Works steel mill property, and worked together with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development including a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pitt Panthers indoor practice fields. Construction began in 1998, and the Southside Works is now open for business with many store, restaurants, offices, and the world headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters. [cite news |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2005_Oct_21/ai_n15726879 |title=American Eagle Outfitters Announces Pittsburgh's SouthSide Works Location As New Corporate Headquarters |date=2005-10-21 |accessdate=2007-10-21 |work=Business Wire]

The East End is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carlow University, Chatham University, The Carnegie Institute's Museums of Art and Natural History, Frick Art & Historical Center (Clayton and the Frick art museum), Phipps Conservatory, Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods of Shadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods featuring large shopping/business districts. Oakland, heavily populated by undergraduate and graduate students, is home to most of the universities, Schenley Park and the Petersen Events Center. Bloomfield is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers. The Strip District is a popular open-air marketplace by day and one of Pittsburgh's hottest clubbing destinations by night.

The West End includes Mt. Washington, with its famous view of the Downtown skyline and numerous other residential neighborhoods like Sheraden and Elliott.

Pittsburgh's patchwork of neighborhoods still retain an ethnic character reflecting the city's immigrant history. These include:
*"African American": Hill District, Larimer and Homewood
*"Jewish": Squirrel Hill
*"Italian": Bloomfield, Morningside, and Beechview
*"German": Troy Hill, Mt. Washington, and East Allegheny (Deutschtown)
*"Polish" and other Eastern European: South Side, Lawrenceville, and Polish Hill

Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages giving a more characteristic suburban feel, while other aforementioned neighborhoods, such as Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, and the Golden Triangle are characterized by a more diverse, urban feel.


Media and popular culture

There are two major daily newspapers in Pittsburgh; the "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" and the "Pittsburgh Tribune-Review". Alternative weekly papers in the region include the "Pittsburgh City Paper", "Pittsburgh Catholic", "The Jewish Chronicle of Pittsburgh", "The New People", and the "Pittsburgh Courier". Independent student-written university based newspapers include "The Pitt News" of the University of Pittsburgh, "The Tartan" of "Carnegie Mellon University", and "The Globe" of Point Park University.

The Pittsburgh metro area is served by many local television and radio stations. The Pittsburgh designated market area (DMA) is the 22nd largest in the U.S. with 1,163,150 homes (1.045% of the total U.S.).Holmes, Gary. " [http://www.nielsenmedia.com/nc/portal/site/Public/menuitem.55dc65b4a7d5adff3f65936147a062a0/?vgnextoid=6573d3b8b0c3d010VgnVCM100000ac0a260aRCRD# Nielsen Reports 1.1% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2006-2007 Season] ." "Nielsen Media Research." September 23, 2006. Retrieved on January 26, 2008.] The major network television affiliates are KDKA-TV 2 (CBS), WTAE 4 (ABC), WPXI 11 (NBC), WPGH-TV 53 (FOX), WPCW 19 (CW), WQEX 16 (ShopNBC), WPMY (MyNetworkTV), and WPCB 40 (Cornerstone). WBGN 59 is an independent station owned and operated by the Bruno-Goodworth Network.

WQED 13 is the local PBS station in Pittsburgh. It was established on April 1, 1954, and was the first community-sponsored television station and the fifth public station in the United States. The station has produced much original content for PBS, including "Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood", several National Geographic specials, and "Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?"Hoover, Bob; Kalson, Sally; Vancheri, Barbara. " [http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04088/291370.stm WQED at 50: Born in television's Golden Age, Pittsburgh's public broadcasting station pioneered educational programming] ." "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette." March 28, 2004. Retrieved on January 26, 2008.]

There are a wide variety of radio stations serving the Pittsburgh market. The first was KDKA 1020 AM, which is also the first commercially-licensed radio station in the United States, receiving its license on October 27, 1920." [http://www.ieee-virtual-museum.org/collection/event.php?id=3456885&lid=1 KDKA, First Commercial Radio Station] ." " [http://www.ieee-virtual-museum.org/ IEEE Virtual Museum] ." Retrieved on January 26, 2008.] Other popular stations include KQV 1410 AM (news), WEAE 1250 AM (sports), WKST-FM 96.1 FM (pop and hip-hop), WZPT 100.7 FM (adult contemporary), WDVE 102.5 FM (album rock), WPGB 104.7 FM (talk), WXDX 105.9 FM (modern rock), and WAMO 106.7 (hip-hop, rap). There are also three public radio stations in the area; including WDUQ 90.5 FM (National Public Radio affiliate operated by Duquesne University), WQED 89.3 FM (classical), and WYEP 91.3 FM (adult alternative). Three non-commercial stations are run by Carnegie Mellon University (WRCT 88.3 FM), the University of Pittsburgh (WPTS 92.1 FM), and Point Park University (WPPJ 670 AM)

According to the Pittsburgh Film Office, over 123 major motion pictures have been filmed, in whole or in part, in Pittsburgh, including the "The Mothman Prophecies", "Wonder Boys", "Dogma", "Hoffa", and "The Silence of the Lambs"." [http://www.pghfilm.org/about/about_filmography.jsp Filmography] ." " [http://www.pghfilm.org/ Pittsburgh Film Office] ." Retrieved on January 26, 2008.] Powell, Kimberly; Powell, Albrecht. " [http://pittsburgh.about.com/cs/movies/a/filmed.htm Movies Made in Pittsburgh] ." "About.com." Retrieved on January 26, 2008.]

Showtime Networks, a premium cable and satellite tv content provider, made Pittsburgh the setting of the hugely popular and groundbreaking series Queer as Folk. The series now runs edited versions on the Logo Network. While Queer as Folk was filmed in nearby Toronto, Ontario, Canada; the setting in Pittsburgh has given the city noticed publicity in the gay community.

Government and politics

From the American Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold. Democratic candidates have been elected consecutively to either the mayor's office or city council since 1933, when David L. Lawrence was able to lead the party to power due to the alleged corruption and fraction of the Pittsburgh Republican Party and the election of President Roosevelt whose New Deal began the recovery from the Great Depression, by which the workers of Pittsburgh were especially hard hit. [cite book | author=Weber, Michael P. | title=Don't Call Me Boss: David L. Lawrence: Pittsburgh's Renaissance Mayor| location=Pittsburgh | publisher=University of Pittsburgh Press | year=1988 | id=ISBN 0-8229-3565-1] Today, the ratio of Democratic to Republican registrations within the city limits is 5 to 1. [http://biz.yahoo.com/ap/070905/pittsburgh_mayor.html?.v=1]

The mayor, like the nine-member council, serves a four-year term. The seat of government is the Pittsburgh City-County Building. After the death of Mayor Bob O'Connor in September 2006, City Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn as the new mayor of Pittsburgh. Sworn in at age 26, he is the youngest mayor in the history of any major American city. [cite news | url = http://kdka.com/video/?id=19751@kdka.dayport.com | format = video | title = Ravenstahl Among Youngest Mayors Ever | date = 2006-09-04 | accessdate = 2007-08-20 | work = KDKA-TV ] He served in this position until a special mayoral election was held in November 2007, when he was reelected. [cite news | url = http://www.postgazette.com/pg/06286/729694-182.stm | title = Ravenstahl must run next year | author = Gary Rotstein | date = 2006-10-13 | accessdate = 2007-08-20 | work = Pittsburgh Post-Gazette ]
City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The current members of the city council are: Darlene Harris (1), Daniel Deasy (2), Bruce Kraus (3), Jim Motznik (4), Douglas Shields (5), Tonya Payne (6), Patrick Dowd (7), Bill Peduto (8), and Rev. Ricky Burgess (9)." [http://www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us/council/ City Council] ." " [http://www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us/ City of Pittsburgh (official website)] ." Retrieved on May 19, 2008.]

Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts and nine House Districts. Pittsburgh's State Senators include Jim Ferlo (38th District), Wayne D. Fontana (42), and Jay Costa (43). Representatives in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives include Jake Wheatley (19th District), Don Walko (20), Lisa Bennington (21), Chelsa Wagner (22), Dan Frankel (23), Joseph Preston, Jr. (24), Thomas C. Petrone (27), Paul Costa (34), and Harry Readshaw (36). In the United States House of Representatives, Pittsburgh is included in one Congressional District, the 14th District, and is represented by Mike Doyle (D).

The Pittsburgh Police Bureau is the law enforcement arm of the city and the Pittsburgh Fire Bureau is a major emergency response unit in Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh EMS provides heavy rescue and river rescue services to the city.

As of April 4 2008, the city and Allegheny County, are discussing a plan to merge as early as 2009 in the interests of consolidating government and enhancing the status of the region. [ [http://kdka.com/politics/Pittsburgh.Allegheny.County.2.692217.html kdka.com - Local Officials Look For Ways To Improve City-County Merger Recommendation ] ] If approved, the city of Pittsburgh will annex the entire land of Allegheny County in a Metropolitan Government, and the population will stand at 1.4 million making it the 7th largest city in the United States.Failed verification|date=August 2008


The City of Pittsburgh is home to many colleges, universities and research facilities, the most well known of which are Carnegie Mellon University, Duquesne University, and the University of Pittsburgh. Also located in the city are Carlow University, Chatham University, Point Park University, The Art Institute of Pittsburgh, and a branch campus of suburban Robert Morris University as well as the Community College of Allegheny County and the Pittsburgh Institute of Mortuary Science. The greater Pittsburgh region boasts even more colleges and universities, including LaRoche College and Slippery Rock University north of the city, Robert Morris University and Geneva College west of the city, Washington & Jefferson College and California University of Pennsylvania to the south, and Seton Hill University and Saint Vincent College to the east.

The campuses of Carlow University, Carnegie Mellon University, and the University of Pittsburgh are located adjacent to each other in the Oakland neighborhood that is the traditional cultural and education center of the city. Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university founded by Andrew Carnegie and is ranked #22 overall on "US News & World Report" list of America's Best National Universities.cite web|url=http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/usnews/edu/college/rankings/brief/t1natudoc_brief.php|title=National Universities: Top Schools|date=2008|publisher=US News & World Report|accessdate=2008-05-02] Carnegie Mellon is known primarily for its computer science, engineering, business, public policy, and fine arts programs. The University of Pittsburgh, established in 1787 and popularly referred to as "Pitt", is a state-related school with one of the country's largest research programs. [cite web | url= http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf08300/pdf/tab31.pdf | title= R&D expenditures at universities and colleges, ranked by all R&D expenditures for the first 200 institutions, by source of funds: FY 2006 |author= |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |format= PDF |work= | publisher= National Science Foundation | pages= TABLE 31 | accessdate= 2008-04-29 ] [cite web | url= http://mac10.umc.pitt.edu/u/FMPro?-db=ustory&-lay=a&-format=d.html&storyid=7904&-Find | title= "Pitt No. 6 in NIH funding" | date= 2008-01-24 | work= University Times | publisher= University of Pittsburgh | accessdate= 2008-04-29 ] Pitt is ranked as the 19th national public university by "US News & World Report" and 57th overall, and is known for its programs in philosophy, international studies, information science, engineering, business, law, medicine, and other biomedical and health-related sciences. [cite web| url=http://mac10.umc.pitt.edu/u/FMPro?-db=ustory.fp5&-format=d.html&-lay=a&-sortfield=issueid%3a%3aissuedate&-sortorder=descend&keywords=U.S.%20News&-max=50&-recid=39345&-find= | title= University Times|last = Hart| first = Peter| date = 2007-08-30|accessdate= 2008-05-23] [cite web | url= http://www.philosophicalgourmet.com/ | title= Welcome to the 2006–2008 Philosophical Gourmet Report | last= Leiter | first= Brian |date= 2006-11-10 |work= |publisher= | accessdate= 2008-04-29 ] cite web | url= http://www.pittmag.pitt.edu/fall2007/feature1.html | title= "The Company We Keep" | last= Gill |first= Cindy | date= Fall 2007 | work= Pitt | publisher= University of Pittsburgh | accessdate= 2008-04-29 ] [cite news| last = Hart | first = Peter | coauthors = | title = U.S. News ranks Pitt grad schools | publisher = University Times | date = 2007-04-05 | url = http://mac10.umc.pitt.edu/u/FMPro?-db=ustory.fp5&-format=d.html&-lay=a&-sortfield=issueid%3a%3aissuedate&-sortorder=descend&keywords=School%20of%20Public%20Health%20ranked&-max=50&-recid=39152&-find= | accessdate = 2008-03-24 ] Carlow University is a small private Roman Catholic university that while coeducational, has traditionally educated women. Chatham University, a liberal arts women's college with coeducational graduate programs, is located in the nearby Shadyside neighborhood, but also maintains a 400-acre Eden Hall Farm campus located in the North Hills. Duquesne University, a private Catholic university, is located in the Bluff neighborhood of Pittsburgh and is noted for its song and dance company, the Tamburitzans, as well as programs in law, business, and pharmacy. Point Park University, which recently announced a major expansion of its downtown campus, is the youngest university in the city and well known for its Conservatory of Performing Arts and its operation of the Pittsburgh Playhouse. Robert Morris University is based in the suburb of Moon Township, Pennsylvania and maintains a satellite center in downtown Pittsburgh.

Pittsburgh Public School teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary offered to teachers with a BA ($34,300).Fact|date=May 2008 Pittsburgh ranked fifth in the highest maximum salary offered to teachers with an MA ($66,380).Fact|date=May 2008 Local public schools include many charter and magnet schools, including City Charter High School (computer and technology focused), Pittsburgh Montessori School (formerly Homewood Montessori), Pittsburgh Gifted Center, Frick International Studies Academy, Rogers Middle School for the Creative and Performing Arts, Pittsburgh High School for the Creative and Performing Arts, and several schools for blind, deaf, or otherwise challenged children. Private schools in Pittsburgh include Bishop Canevin High School, Seton-La Salle Catholic High School, Central Catholic High School, Oakland Catholic High School, Winchester Thurston School, and The Ellis School. Shady Side Academy, whose main campuses are located in Fox Chapel, has a junior high school in the neighborhood of Point Breeze.

The city also has an extensive library system, both public and university. Most notable are the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh's University Library System, which rank 9th largest (public) and 18th largest (academic) in the nation, respectively. [ cite web | url = http://www.libraryspot.com/lists/listlargestlibs.htm | title = Nation's Largest Libraries | work = LibrarySpot | accessdate = 2007-10-21 | date = 1996u20131998 ]


Pittsburgh is a city of bridges—446 in total. Pittsburgh has more bridges than Venice, Italy, which has historically held the title of "City of Bridges". Around 40 bridges cross the three rivers near the city. The southern "entrance" to Downtown is through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and over the Fort Pitt Bridge. The Panhandle Bridge carries the Port Authority's 42-S/47-L/52 subway lines across the Monongahela River. All told, over 2,000 bridges dot the landscape of Allegheny County. [ [http://www.pghbridges.com/articles/fieldnote_howmany.htm Bruce S. Cridlebaugh's website: Bridges and Tunnels of Allegheny County and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] ]

The main highway connecting Pittsburgh to the Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-76) on the east is I-376, locally known as the "Parkway East", while I-279 (called either the "Parkway North" or the "Parkway West", depending on its location relative to Downtown) connects the city with points north and west. I-76 (Pennsylvania Turnpike), I-79, and I-70, roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway". Navigation around Pittsburgh can also be accomplished via the Pittsburgh/Allegheny County Belt System.

A planned highway system called the Mon-Fayette/Southern Beltway project would allow access from the south and southwest of the city via a limited-access tolled expressway system. [ [http://www.paturnpike.com/MonFaySB/ PA Turnpike Construction - Mon/Fayette & Southern Beltway Projects ] ] The projects are in the planning stages with some sections already open to traffic. The projects are being planned by The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. [ [http://www.paturnpike.com The Pennsylvania Turnpike ] ]


The city is served by the highly-ranked Pittsburgh International Airport Airport codes|PIT about convert|10|mi|km to the west in Findlay Township. [ [http://www.visitpittsburgh.com/static/index.cfm?contentID=141 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Convention and Visitors Bureau ] ] The airport also promotes the region as a focus city for US Airways and has been a major operation for the airline since the company's inception in the 1940s with the city being recently chosen by the airline to house its entire dispatch center, relocating it from its headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona. Art deco style Allegheny County Airport (AGC) handles 139,000 general aviation flights a year, and is located south-southeast of the city in West Mifflin. There are a few smaller airports located near the city as well. Rock Airport is a small airport located northeast of Pittsburgh in Tarentum, and is used primarily for corporate jets and private aircraft. Pittsburgh-Monroeville Airport is another airfield located east of the city in Monroeville, Pennsylvania.

Public Transportation

Port Authority of Allegheny County, commonly known as the Port Authority, but sometimes referred to by its former nickname "PAT" or "PAT Transit", is the region's mass transit system. While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area's 20th largest metro area it is the 11th largest transit agency in the nation. Port Authority runs a network of inter- and intracity bus routes, the Monongahela Incline funicular railway (more commonly known as "inclines") on Mount Washington, a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway systems. [http://www.apta.com/research/stats/ridership/riderep/documents/07q1bus.pdf] . The Duquesne Incline is operated by a non-profit preservation trust [http://incline.pghfree.net/] , but it does accept Port Authority passes and charge standard Port Authority tolls.

The city has Amtrak intercity rail service at Pennsylvania Station, as well as various freight railroads. Current railroads include Norfolk Southern, CSX and Amtrak.

ister cities

Pittsburgh has sixteen sister cities:" [http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/usa/PA Sister Cities Online Directory: Pennsylvania, USA] ." [http://www.sister-cities.org/ Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI)] . Retrieved on January 26, 2008.]
*flagicon|Ireland Dublin, Ireland
*flagicon|Spain Bilbao, Spain
*flagicon|Ukraine Donetsk, Ukraine
*flagicon|Paraguay Fernando de la Mora, Paraguay
*flagicon|Israel Karmiel, Israel
*flagicon|Cuba Matanzas, Cuba
*flagicon|Israel Misgav, Israel
*flagicon|Japan Omiya, Japan
*flagicon|Czech Republic Ostrava, Czech Republic
*flagicon|Slovakia Prešov, Slovakia
*flagicon|Japan Saitama, Japan
*flagicon|Nicaragua San Isidro, Nicaragua
*flagicon|United Kingdom Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
*flagicon|Bulgaria Sofia, Bulgaria
*flagicon|People's Republic of China Wuhan, China
*flagicon|Croatia Zagreb, Croatia

ee also

* Allegheny, Pennsylvania
* Cities and Towns of Allegheny County
* Jewish history in Pittsburgh
* List of cities and towns along the Ohio River
* List of famous people from Pittsburgh
* List of fiction set in Pittsburgh
* List of hospitals in Pittsburgh
* List of people from Pittsburgh
* Pittsburgh Council for International Visitors
* Pittsburgh Coalfield
* Pittsburgh buildings
* "The Mysteries of Pittsburgh" (novel)


External links


* [http://www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us City of Pittsburgh Government]
* [http://www.VisitPittsburgh.com/ Pittsburgh Convention and Visitors Bureau - Tourism]
* [http://www.phlf.org Pittsburgh History & Landmarks Foundation]
* [http://www.pghica.org Pittsburgh's Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority]


* [http://www.geology.pitt.edu/PAgeo/index.html The Geological History of Pittsburgh]
* [http://digital.library.pitt.edu/maps/ Historic Pittsburgh Maps Collection]
* [http://www.pghbridges.com/ Bridges of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County]
* [http://pittsburgh.indymedia.org Pittsburgh Independent Media Center]
* [http://www.washjeff.edu/german/pittsburgh/ German Heritage Sites in Pittsburgh]

Geographic Location
Centre = Downtown Pittsburgh
North = Etna, McCandless, Cranberry Township
Northeast = Aspinwall, Fox Chapel
East = Penn Hills, Monroeville,Plum
Southeast = West Mifflin, McKeesport
South = Bethel Park, Castle Shannon
Southwest = Carnegie, Dormont
West = Robinson, Pittsburgh Int'l Airport
Northwest = McKees Rocks, Sewickley

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