- History of radio
The pre-history and early history of radio is the history of
technologythat produced radio instruments that use radio waves. Within the timeline of radio, many people contributed theory and inventions in what became radio. [http://inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio.htm The Invention of Radio] inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio.htm ] Radio development began as " wireless telegraphy". Later radio history increasingly involves matters of programming and content.
* * Date unconfirmed
FM and television start
FM radiowas patented by inventor Edwin H. Armstrong. FM uses frequency modulationof the radio wave to minimize static and interference from electrical equipment and the atmosphere, in the audio program. In 1937, W1XOJ, the first experimental FM radio station, was granted a construction permit by the FCC. In the 1930s, standard analog television transmissions started in Europe, and then in the 1940s in North America.
Marconi/Tesla priority dispute
In 1943, Tesla's patent (number "645576") was reinstated as holding priority in the "invention" of modern radio by the U.S. Supreme Court shortly after Tesla's death. The validity of the patent was never in question in the case. This decision was based on the fact that prior art existed before the establishment of Marconi's patent. Ignoring Tesla's
prior art, the decision may have enabled the U.S. government to avoid having to pay damages that were being claimed by the Marconi Company for use of its patents during World War I(as, it is speculated, the government's initial reversal to grant Marconi the patent right in order to nullify any claims Tesla had for compensation).
FM in Europe
World War II, the FM radiobroadcast was introduced in Germany. In 1948, a new wavelength plan was set up for Europe at a meeting in Copenhagen. Because of the recent war, Germany (which did not exist as a state and so was not invited) was only given a small number of medium-wave frequencies, which are not very good for broadcasting. For this reason Germany began broadcasting on UKW ("Ultrakurzwelle", i.e. ultra short wave, nowadays called VHF) which was not covered by the Copenhagen plan. After some amplitude modulationexperience with VHF, it was realized that FM radio was a much better alternative for VHF radio than AM. Because of this history FM Radio is still referred to as "UKW Radio" in Germany. Other European nations followed a bit later, when the superior sound quality of FM and the ability to run many more local stations because of the more limited range of VHF broadcasts were realized.
Later 20th century developments
In 1954 Regency introduced a pocket
transistorradio, the TR-1, powered by a "standard 22.5V Battery". In the early 1960s, VOR systems finally became widespread for aircraftnavigation; before that, aircraft used commercial AM radio stations for navigation. (AM stations are still marked on U.S. aviationcharts). In 1960 Sonyintroduced their first transistorized radio, small enough to fit in a vest pocket, and able to be powered by a small battery. It was durable, because there were no tubes to burn out. Over the next twenty years, transistors displaced tubes almost completely except for very high power, or very high frequency, uses.
Color television and digital
*1963: Color television was commercially transmitted, and the first (radio)
communication satellite, Telstar, was launched.
*Late 1960s: The USA long-distance telephone network began to convert to a digital network, employing
digital radios for many of its links.
LORANbecame the premier radio navigation system. Soon, the U.S. Navy experimented with satellite navigation.
*1987: The GPS constellation of satellites was launched.
amateur radioexperimenters began to use personal computers with audio cards to process radio signals.
*1994: The U.S. Army and
DARPAlaunched an aggressive successful project to construct a software radiothat could become a different radio on the fly by changing software.
*Late 1990s: Digital transmissions began to be applied to
Telex on radio
Telegraphydid not go away on radio. Instead, the degree of automation increased. On land-lines in the 1930s, Teletypewriters automated encoding, and were adapted to pulse-code dialing to automate routing, a service called telex. For thirty years, telex was the absolute cheapest form of long-distance communication, because up to 25 telex channels could occupy the same bandwidth as one voice channel. For business and government, it was an advantage that telex directly produced written documents.
Telex systems were adapted to short-wave radio by sending tones over
single sideband. CCITT R.44 (the most advanced pure-telex standard) incorporated character-level error detection and retransmission as well as automated encoding and routing. For many years, telex-on-radio (TOR) was the only reliable way to reach some third-world countries. TOR remains reliable, though less-expensive forms of e-mail are displacing it. Many national telecom companies historically ran nearly pure telex networks for their governments, and they ran many of these links over short wave radio.
21st century development
Internet radioconsists of sending radio-style audio programming over streaming Internetconnections: no radio transmitters need be involved at any point in the process.
*"Early technology wars": Push or pull, streaming media or multicast
Digital audio broadcasting
Digital audio broadcasting(DAB): appears to be set to grow in importance relative to FM radio for airborne broadcasts in several countries.
Digital audio broadcasting
Sirius Satellite Radio
Personal area networks
Digital Radio Mondiale
Legal issues with radio
When radio was first introduced in the 1930’s many predicted the end of records. Radio was a free medium for the public to hear music for which they would normally pay. While some companies saw radio as a new avenue for promotion, other feared it would cut into profits from record sales and live performances. Many companies had their major stars sign agreements that they would not appear on radio. [ [http://www.serci.org/docs/liebowitz.pdf liebowitz.dvi ] ] [ [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/music/inside/cron.html frontline: the way the music died: inside the music industry: chronology - technology and the music industry | PBS ] ]
Indeed, the music recording industry had a severe drop in profits after the introduction of the radio. For a while, it appeared as though radio was a definite threat to the record industry. Radio ownership grew from 2 out of 5 homes in 1931 to 4 out of 5 homes in 1938. Meanwhile record sales fell from $75 million in 1929 to $26 million in 1938 (with a low point of $5 million in 1933). Although it should be noted that the economics of the situation were also affected by the fact this took place during the Great Depression. [ [http://www.edwardsamuels.com/copyright/beyond/articles/csusa6.htm Creativity Wants to be Paid ] ]
The copyright owners of these songs were concerned that they would see no gain from the popularity of radio and the ‘free’ music it provided. Luckily, everything they needed to make this new medium work for them already existed in previous copyright law. The copyright holder for a song had control over all public performances ‘for profit.’ The problem now was proving that the radio industry, which was just figuring out for itself how to make money from advertising and currently offered free music to anyone with a receiver, was making a profit from the songs.
The test case was against Bamberger Department Store in Newark, New Jersey in 1922. The store was broadcasting music throughout its store on the radio station WOR. No advertisements were heard, except for at the beginning of the broadcast which announced “L. Bamberger and Co., One of America’s Great Stores, Newark, New Jersey.” It was determined through this and previous cases (such as the lawsuit against Shanley’s Restaurant) that Bamberger was using the songs for commercial gain, thus making it a public performance for profit, which meant the copyright owners were due payment.
With this ruling the
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers(ASCAP) began collecting licensing fees from radio stations in 1923. The beginning sum was $230 for all music protected under ASCAP, but for larger stations the price soon ballooned up to $5,000. Edward Samuel’s reports in his book The Illustrated Story of Copyright that “radio and TV licensing represents the single greatest source of revenue for ASCAP and its composers […] and average member of ASCAP gets about $150-$200 per work per year, or about $5,000-$6,000 for all of a member’s compositions. Not long after the Bamberger ruling, ASCAP had to once again defend their right to charge fees in 1924. The Dill Radio Bill would have allowed radio stations to play music without paying and licensing fees to ASCAP or any other music-licensing corporations. The bill did not pass. [ [http://www.edwardsamuels.com/illustratedstory/isc2.htm Chapter Two ] ]
* Earth-Moon-Earth communication
Amateur radio history
History of science and technology
History of television
Timeline of radio
Birth of public radio broadcasting
Spark gap transmitter
Notes and Citations
# Broadcasts had also been available from Louisiana and Alabama since 1922.
# Broadcasts were also available from North Carolina and Georgia.
# Broadcasts were also available from Colorado since 1921.
# Radio broadcasting in Java briefly ceased after a station was destroyed by lightning.
# Broadcasts from Argentina had also been available as is the case today.
# Radio broadcasting had also been received from Italy, since Vatican City lies within the vicinity of Rome as is the case today.
# Radio broadcasts did exist in the Bahamas prior to 1936. Before then, they were received from the United States.
# Also received radio broadcasts from nearby Yugoslavia.
# Broadcasting in Aden ceased in 1946-1947 and again from 1948-1955.
# Andorra also received radio broadcasts from Spain.
# Radio broadcasts from the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands had also been available.
# Broadcasts had also been received from Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
# Broadcasts had previously been received from South Africa
# Malta had also received radio broadcasts from Italy. The British adopted a radio service on the island to counter Fascist propaganda.
* De Lee Forest. "Father of Radio: The Autobiography of Lee de Forest" (1950).
* Gleason L. Archer Personal Papers (MS108), Suffolk University Archives, Suffolk University; Boston, MA. [http://www.suffolk.edu/files/Archives/MS108_findaid.pdf Gleason L. Archer Personal Papers (MS108) finding aid]
* Kahn Frank J., ed. "Documents of American Broadcasting," fourth edition (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1984).
* Lichty Lawrence W., and Topping Malachi C., eds. "American Broadcasting: A Source Book on the History of Radio and Television" (Hastings House, 1975).
* Aitkin, Hugh G. J. "The Continuous Wave: Technology and the American Radio, 1900-1932" (Princeton University Press, 1985).
* Anderson, Leland. "Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power", Sun Publishing Company, LC 92-60482, ISBN 0-9632652-0-2 ("ed". [http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/nt_on_ac.htm excerpts available online] )
* Anderson, Leland I. "Priority in the Invention of Radio — [http://www.tfcbooks.com/mall/more/431pir.htm Tesla vs. Marconi] ", Antique Wireless Association monograph, 1980, examining the 1943 decision by the
US Supreme Courtholding the key Marconi patent invalid (9 pages). (21st Century Books)
* Archer, Gleason L. Big Business and Radio (The American Historical Society, Inc., 1939)
* Archer, Gleason L. History of Radio to 1926 (The American Historical Society, Inc., 1938).
* Barnouw, Erik. "The Golden Web" (Oxford University Press, 1968); "The Sponsor" (1978); "A Tower in Babel" (1966).
* Belrose, John S., " [http://www.ieee.ca/millennium/radio/radio_differences.html Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of this Century] ". International Conference on 100 Years of Radio (5-
7 September 1995).
* Briggs, Asa. "The BBC — the First Fifty Years" (Oxford University Press, 1984).
* Briggs, Asa. "The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom" (Oxford University Press, 1961).
* Brodsky, Ira. "The History of Wireless: How Creative Minds Produced Technology for the Masses" (Telescope Books, 2008)
* Butler, Lloyd (VK5BR), " [http://www.qsl.net/vk5br/Before_Valve_Amp.pdf Before Valve Amplification] - Wireless Communication of an Early Era"
* Coe, Douglas and Kreigh Collins (ills), "Marconi, pioneer of radio". New York, J. Messner, Inc., 1943. LCCN 43010048
* Covert, Cathy and Stevens John L. "Mass Media Between the Wars" (Syracuse University Press, 1984).
* Craig, Douglas B. "Fireside Politics: Radio and Political Culture in the United States, 1920–1940" (2005)
* Crook, Tim. "International Radio Journalism: History, Theory and Practice" Routledge, 1998
*Douglas, Susan J., "Listening in : radio and the American imagination : from Amos ’n’ Andy and Edward R. Murrow to Wolfman Jack and Howard Stern ", New York, N.Y. : Times Books, 1999.
* Ewbank Henry and Lawton Sherman P. "Broadcasting: Radio and Television" (Harper & Brothers, 1952).
* Garratt, G. R. M., "The early history of radio : from Faraday to Marconi", London, Institution of Electrical Engineers in association with the Science Museum, History of technology series, 1994. ISBN 0-85296-845-0 LCCN gb 94011611
* Geddes, Keith, "Guglielmo Marconi, 1874-1937". London : H.M.S.O., A Science Museum booklet, 1974. ISBN 0-11-290198-0 LCCN 75329825 ("ed". Obtainable in the U.S.A. from Pendragon House Inc., Palo Alto, California.)
* Gibson, George H. "Public Broadcasting; The Role of the Federal Government, 1919-1976" (Praeger Publishers, 1977).
* Hancock, Harry Edgar, "Wireless at sea; the first fifty years. A history of the progress and development of marine wireless communications written to commemorate the jubilee of the Marconi International Marine Communication Company limited". Chelmsford, Eng., Marconi International Marine Communication Co., 1950. LCCN 51040529 /L
* Jackaway, Gwenyth L. "Media at War: Radio's Challenge to the Newspapers, 1924-1939" Praeger Publishers, 1995
* Journal of the Franklin Institute. " [http://earlyradiohistory.us/1897jfi.htm Notes and comments; Telegraphy without wires] ", Journal of the Franklin Institute, December, 1897, pages 463-464.
* Katz, Randy H., " [http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~randy/Courses/CS39C.S97/radio/radio.html Look Ma, No Wires": Marconi and the Invention of Radio] ". History of Communications Infrastructures.
* Lazarsfeld, Paul F. "The People Look at Radio" (University of North Carolina Press, 1946).
* Maclaurin, W. Rupert. "Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry" (The Macmillan Company, 1949).
* Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, "Year book of wireless telegraphy and telephony", London : Published for the Marconi Press Agency Ltd., by the St. Catherine Press / Wireless Press. LCCN 14017875 sn 86035439
* Marincic, Aleksandar and Djuradj Budimir, " [http://www.mwr.medianis.net/pdf/Vol7No2-05-AMarincic.pdf Tesla contribution to radio wave propagation] ". (
* Masini, Giancarlo. "Guglielmo Marconi". Turin: Turinese typographical-publishing union, 1975. LCCN 77472455 ("ed". Contains 32 tables outside of the text")
* Massie, Walter Wentworth, "Wireless telegraphy and telephony popularly explained". New York, Van Nostrand, 1908.
* McChesney, Robert W. "Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy: The Battle for the Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928-1935" Oxford University Press, 1994
* McCourt, Tom. "Conflicting Communication Interests in America: The Case of National Public Radio" Praeger Publishers, 1999
* McNicol, Donald. " [http://earlyradiohistory.us/1917erly.htm The Early Days of Radio in America] ".
The Electrical Experimenter, April, 1917, pages 893, 911.
* Peers, Frank W. "The Politics of Canadian Broadcasting, 1920–1951" (University of Toronto Press, 1969).
* Pimsleur, J. L. " [http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist/radio.html Invention of Radio Celebrated in S.F.] ; 100th birthday exhibit this weekend ". San Francisco Chronicle, 1995.
*"The Prestige", 2006, Touchstone Pictures.
* The Radio Staff of the Detroit News, "WWJ-The Detroit News" (The Evening News Association, Detroit, 1922).
* Ray, William B. "FCC: The Ups and Downs of Radio-TV Regulation" (Iowa State University Press, 1990).
* Rosen, Philip T. "The Modern Stentors; Radio Broadcasting and the Federal Government 1920-1934" (Greenwood Press, 1980).
* Rubin, Julian " [http://www.juliantrubin.com/bigten/marconiradioexperiments.html Guglielmo Marconi: The Invention of Radio] ". January 2006.
* Rugh, William A. "Arab Mass Media: Newspapers, Radio, and Television in Arab Politics" Praeger, 2004
* Scannell, Paddy, and Cardiff, David. "A Social History of British Broadcasting, Volume One, 1922-1939" (Basil Blackwell, 1991).
* Schramm Wilbur, ed. "Mass Communications" (University of Illinois Press, 1960).
* Schwoch James. "The American Radio Industry and Its Latin American Activities, 1900-1939" (University of Illinois Press, 1990).
* Seifer, Marc J., "The Secret History of Wireless". Kingston, Rhode Island.
* Slater, Robert. "This ... is CBS: A Chronicle of 60 Years" (Prentice Hall, 1988).
* Smith, F. Leslie, John W. Wright II, David H. Ostroff; "Perspectives on Radio and Television: Telecommunication in the United States" Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998
* Sterling, Christopher H. "Electronic Media, A Guide to Trends in Broadcasting and Newer Technologies 1920–1983" (Praeger, 1984).
* Sterling, Christopher, and Kittross John M. "Stay Tuned: A Concise History of American Broadcasting" (Wadsworth, 1978).
* Stone, John Stone. "John Stone Stone on Nikola Tesla's Priority in Radio and Continuous-Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus". [http://www.tfcbooks.com/mall/more/436ntpr.htm Twenty First Century Books, 2005] .
* Sungook Hong, "Wireless: from Marconi's Black-box to the Audion", Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001, ISBN 0-262-08298-5
* Waldron, Richard Arthur, "Theory of guided electromagnetic waves". London, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970. ISBN 0-442-09167-2 LCCN 69019848 //r86
* Weightman, Gavin, "Signor Marconi's magic box : the most remarkable invention of the 19th century & the amateur inventor whose genius sparked a revolution" 1st Da Capo Press ed., Cambridge, MA : Da Capo Press, 2003.
* White, Llewellyn. "The American Radio" (University of Chicago Press, 1947).
* White, Thomas H. " [http://earlyradiohistory.us/sec007.htm Pioneering U.S. Radio Activities (1897-1917)] ", United States Early Radio History.
* Wunsch, A. David " [http://www.mercurians.org/nov98/misreading.html Misreading the Supreme Court: A Puzzling Chapter in the History of Radio] ". Mercurians.org.
* " [http://www.tfcbooks.com/teslafaq/q&a_038.htm A Comparison of the Tesla and Marconi Low-Frequency Wireless Systems] ". Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Co.
* [http://www.ieee.org/web/aboutus/history_center/swiss_marconi.html Marconi's Early Wireless Experiments, 1895] IEEE History Center
* [http://www.zianet.com/sparks/sparkmakers2.html Sparks Telegraph Key Review]
* [http://earlyradiohistory.us/ Early Radio History]
* [http://www.esmartstart.com/_framed/250x/radiondistics/hertzian_radiation.htm Radio waves, the Hertzian Radiation: what it is and how it happens.]
* [http://www.infoage.org Information on the development of Radio at
Camp Evans, NJ]
* " [http://inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio.htm The Invention of Radio] ". inventors.about.com.
* [http://langaitis.zenonas-old.radios.fotopic.net/ Zenonas Langaitis — Old radios from Lithuania * (Europa, Baltic States, past USSR]
*" [http://library.thinkquest.org/27887/gather/history/radio.shtml The Invention of the Radio] ". Through the wires, a century of communication, library.thinkquest.org.
* " [http://www.lostartsmedia.com/nikolatesla.html Presentation of the Edison Medal to Nikola Tesla] ". Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Held at the Engineering Society Building, New York City, Friday evening,
May 18, 1917.
*" [http://www.marconi.com/Home/about_us/Our%20History/Publications%20Archive/GEC%20Publications%20Archive/GEC%20Journals/GEC%20Review/v11n1s/p37.pdf Guglielmo Marconi and Early Systems of Wireless Communication] ". Marconi.com. (
* " [http://ns1763.ca/radio30/radio-first-30yrs.html Timeline of the First Thirty Years of Radio 1895 – 1925] ; An important chapter in the Death of Distance". Nova Scotia, Canada,
March 14, 2006.
* [http://ontarioplaques.com/Plaque_Toronto89.html Ontario Plaques - The Rogers Batteryless Radio]
* Brazilian experimenter [http://paginas.terra.com.br/arte/landell_de_moura/english.htm Roberto Landell de Moura]
* Portuguese Radio History: [http://telefonia.no.sapo.pt Telefonia Sem Fios - História da Rádio em Portugal]
* [http://www.cybertelecom.org/notes/history_wireless.htm Cybertelecom :: Radio History (legal and regulatory)]
* [http://archives.cbc.ca Canadian Broadcasting Corporation archives]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.