- Mustard (condiment)
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white or yellow mustard, Sinapis hirta; brown or Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra). The whole, ground, cracked, or bruised mustard seeds are mixed with water, salt, lemon juice or other liquids, and sometimes other flavorings and spices, to create a paste or sauce ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown. Mustard often has a sharp, pungent flavor, as mixing the ground seed with cold liquid allows the enzyme myrosinase which it contains to act on glucosinolates also present to make isothiocyanates, responsible for mustard's characteristic heat. The isothiocyanates, such as allyl isothiocyanate, activate the TRPA1 channel, a chemosensor. English Mustard is among the strongest, made from only mustard flour, water, salt and, sometimes, lemon juice; but not with vinegar. French Mustard, or Moutarde de Dijon, has added vinegar, and is milder. German Mustard or Senf is milder still. Homemade mustards are often far hotter and more intensely flavored than commercial preparations. A strong mustard can cause the eyes to water, sting the palate and inflame the nasal passages and throat. Mustard can also cause allergic reactions: since 2005, products in the European Union must be labelled as potential allergens if they contain mustard. Commonly paired with meats and cheeses, mustard is also a popular addition to sandwiches, hamburgers, and hot dogs. It is also used as an ingredient in many dressings, glazes, sauces, soups, and marinades; as a cream or a seed, mustard is used in the cuisine of India, the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, northern Europe, the British Isles, the Balkan States, Asia, North America, and Africa, making it one of the most popular and widely used spices and condiments in the world.
The English word "mustard" derives from the Anglo-Norman mustarde and Old French mostarde. The first element is ultimately from Latin mustum, ("must", young wine) – the condiment was originally prepared by making the ground seeds into a paste with must. It is first attested in English in the late 13th century, though it is found as a surname a century earlier.
Romans were probably the first to experiment with the preparation of mustard as a condiment. They mixed unfermented grape juice, known as "must", with ground mustard seeds (called sinapis) to make "burning must", mustum ardens — hence "must ard". A recipe for mustard appears in Apicius (also called De re coquinaria), the anonymously compiled Roman cookbook from the late 4th or early 5th century; the recipe calls for a mixture of ground mustard, pepper, caraway, lovage, grilled coriander seeds, dill, celery, thyme, oregano, onion, honey, vinegar, fish stock, and oil, and was intended as a glaze for spit-roasted boar.
The Romans likely exported mustard seed to Gaul, and by the 10th century, monks of St. Germain des Pres in Paris absorbed the mustard-making knowledge of Romans and began their own production. The first appearance of mustard makers on the royal registers in Paris dates back to 1292. Dijon, France, became a recognized centre for mustard making by the 13th century. The popularity of mustard in Dijon is evidenced by written accounts of guests consuming 70 gallons of mustard creme in a single sitting at a gala held by the Duke of Burgundy in 1336. In 1777, one of the most famous Dijon mustard makers, Grey-Poupon, was established as a partnership between Maurice Grey, a mustard maker with a unique recipe containing white wine, and Auguste Poupon, his financial backer. Their success was aided by the introduction of the first automatic mustard making machine. In 1937, Dijon mustard was granted an Appellation d'origine contrôlée. Due to its long tradition of mustard making, Dijon is regarded as the mustard capital of the world
An early use of mustard as a condiment in England was in the form of mustard balls—coarse ground mustard seed combined with flour and cinnamon, moistened, rolled into balls, and dried—which were easily stored and combined with vinegar or wine to make mustard paste as needed. The town of Tewkesbury was well known for its high-quality mustard balls, which were exported to London and other parts of the country, and are even mentioned in William Shakespeare's play King Henry the Fourth, Part II.
Preparation and varieties
Mustard, yellow Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 276 kJ (66 kcal) Carbohydrates 8 g - Sugars 3 g - Dietary fiber 3 g Fat 3 g Protein 4 g Magnesium 49 mg (14%) Sodium 1120 mg (75%) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
There are many varieties of mustard which come in a wide range of strengths and flavors. The basic taste and "heat" of the mustard is largely determined by seed type, preparation and ingredients. Black seeded mustard is generally regarded as the hottest type. Preparation also plays a key role in the final outcome of the mustard. Mustard, in its powdered form, lacks any potency and needs to be fixed; it is the production of allyl isothiocyanate from the reaction of myrosinase and sinigrin during soaking that causes gustatory heat to emerge. One of the factors that determines the strength of a prepared mustard is the temperature of the water, vinegar, or other liquid mixed with the ground seeds: hotter liquids are more hostile to the strength-producing compounds. Thus, hot mustard is made with cold water, while using hot water results in milder mustard (other factors remaining the same).
The pungency of mustard is always reduced by heating, not just at the time of preparation; if added to a dish during cooking much of the effect of the mustard is lost.
Locations renowned for their mustard include Dijon (medium strength) and Meaux in France; Norwich (very hot) and Tewkesbury, famed for its variety, in the United Kingdom; and Düsseldorf (hot) and Bavaria in Germany. There are variations in the subsidiary spices and in the preparation of the mustard seeds. The husks may be ground with the seeds, or winnowed away after the initial crushing; "whole-grain mustard" retains some unground or partially ground mustard seeds. Bavarian "sweet mustard" contains very little acid, substituting copious amounts of sugar for preservation. Sometimes prepared mustard is simmered to moderate its bite, sometimes it is aged. Irish mustard is a wholegrain type blended with whiskey, stout (commonly Guinness), and/or honey.
Basic mustards are the most commonly consumed and often the simplest of the mustard varieties, including mustard seed, dry mustard powder, spicy brown/deli-style mustard, Dijon mustard, stone-ground mustard, whole-grain mustard, and yellow mustard.
While most mustards contain the whole seed ground, the oils can be extracted from the chaff and meal of the seed. Mustard oil is used where the normal consistency of ground mustard seeds is undesirable. Very concentrated, it is used in food preparation rather than a post-preparation condiment.
Yellow mustard is the most commonly used mustard in the United States and Canada, where it is sometimes referred to simply as "mustard". Outside North America it is called American mustard. This is a very mild mustard colored bright yellow by the inclusion of turmeric. It was introduced in 1904 by George T. French as "cream salad mustard". This mustard is closely associated with hot dogs, sandwiches, and hamburgers. Along with its use on various sandwiches, yellow mustard is a key ingredient in many potato salads, barbecue sauces, and salad dressings. Yellow mustard can be rubbed on barbecue meat prior to applying a dry rub, to form a crust, called bark, on the meat.
Spicy brown/deli-style mustard
Spicy brown or "deli style" mustard is also commonly used in the United States. The seeds are coarsely ground, giving it a speckled brownish yellow appearance. It is generally spicier than yellow mustard. Spicy brown or "deli style" or Indian mustard is used in the cuisine of India.
American beer mustard
American beer mustard, substituting beer for vinegar, originated in the 20th century somewhere in the Midwest and has remained a popular local condiment.
Dijon mustard is not covered by a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or a Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) under the auspices of the European Union; thus, while there are major mustard plants in Dijon and suburbs, most Dijon mustard is manufactured outside of Dijon.
Dijon mustard originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe.
Mustards from Dijon today generally contain both white wine and red wine. Mustards marketed as Dijon style may contain one or both of these wines or may substitute vinegar or another acid in order to conform to local laws.
Whole grain mustard or granary mustard
In whole grain mustard (sometimes known as granary mustard, esp. in North Yorkshire), the seeds are not ground, but are mixed whole with other ingredients. Different flavors and strengths can be achieved by using different blends of mustard seed species. Some variations have additives such as sun-dried tomato mustard and chili mustard.
Honey mustard, as the name suggests, is a blend of mustard and honey, usually 1:1. It is most often used as a topping for sandwiches and as a dip for chicken strips, french fries, onion rings, and other finger foods. It can also be combined with vinegar and/or olive oil to make a salad dressing. The most basic honey mustard is a mixture of equal amounts of honey and mustard; however, most varieties include other ingredients to modify the flavor and texture. Combinations of English mustard with honey or demerara sugar are popularly used in British cuisine to coat grilled lamb cutlets or pork chops. Peppers and spices are sometimes added to give honey mustard a distinct hot and spicy taste.
Fruit and mustard have been combined since the Lombard creation of mostarda di frutta in the 14th century. Large chunks of fruit preserved in a sweet, hot mustard syrup were served with meat and game, and were said to be a favorite of the Dukes of Milan. Variations of fruit mustards include apple mustard, apricot-ginger mustard, berry mustard, cranberry mustard, lemon mustard, orange and honey mustard, and pineapple and honey mustard.
Variations of herb mustards include basil mustard, dill mustard, fennel mustard, garlic mustard, lemon-dill mustard, peppercorn mustard, roasted garlic mustard, rosemary mustard, rosemary-mint mustard, tarragon mustard, and tomato-basil mustard.
Variations of hot mustards include chipotle pepper, habanero pepper, horseradish, and jalapeño mustards. However, generally speaking, "hot mustards" do not refer to mustards with chili peppers added. Instead, the term usually refers to the mustards which have been prepared in such a way to bring out the natural piquancy created by the myrosinase and two sulfur compounds, myrosin and sinigrin, that are naturally present in mustard seeds. When mustard seeds are crushed and mixed with cold water, these compounds break down to form a volatile oil which vaporizes to produce the "hot" sensation one experiences when consuming hot mustards. Usually, additives like flour are used by manufacturers to tone down this natural spicy/pungent flavor to produce the milder mustards popularly consumed. However, certain brands and manufacturers strive for mustards which produce a pungent and sharp flavor by using the more pungent black or brown mustard seeds rather than the white mustard seeds used to make mild mustards. The heat of mustard also dissipates with time and if the mustard is exposed to heat. That is why hot mustard manufacturers often use cold water and/or add an acidic agent to preserve the heat of the mustard. Hot mustard can also be made from dried mustard powder. In its powder form, the chemicals responsible for mustard's pungent flavor do not evaporate or disappear and can thus be stored for much longer periods of time.
Horseradish mustard contains horseradish as well as mustard. The horseradish adds a sour flavor plus additional heat. Horseradish mustard is generally available as either mild or hotter than English mustard.
Old World mustards
Variations of Old World mustards include English mustard, Dutch mustard, French Dijon mustard, Polish mustard, Russian mustard, Tewkesbury horseradish mustard, Swedish mustard, and sweet or hot Austrian, Bavarian, and German mustards.
Spirited mustards have added alcoholic spirits or beer for added flavor, but do not contain alcohol. Variations include Arran mustards with highland malt scotch, brandied peach mustard, cognac mustard, Irish "pub" mustard, Jack Daniel's mustard, and stout mustard.
Irish mustard is a blend of wholegrain mustard with honey and/or Irish whiskey.
Popular at the quintessential Australian barbecue, prepackaged mustard marketed as "Australian" is equal parts English yellow mustard mixed with equal parts wholegrain mustard, which results in a texture between the two.
Russian mustard is a sharp, strong version of mustard, prepared with a high acid vinegar.
Mustard is often used at the table as a condiment on meat. It is also used as an ingredient in mayonnaise, vinaigrette, marinades and barbecue sauce. It can also be used as a base for salad dressing when combined with vinegar and/or olive oil. Mustard is a popular accompaniment to hot dogs, pretzels, and Bratwurst. Mustard is also an emulsifier which can stabilize a mixture of two or more unblendable liquids such as oil and water. Added to Hollandaise sauce, mustard can reduce the possibility of curdling.
Dry mustard, typically sold in cans, is used in cooking and can be mixed with water to become prepared mustard.
Storage and shelf life
Because of its antibacterial properties, mustard does not require refrigeration; it will not grow mold, mildew or harmful bacteria. Unrefrigerated mustard will lose pungency more quickly, and should be stored in a tightly sealed, sterilized container in a cool, dark place. Mustard can last indefinitely, though it may dry out, lose flavor, or brown from oxidation. Mixing in a small amount of wine or vinegar will often revitalize dried out mustard. Some types of prepared mustard stored for a long time may separate, causing mustard water, which can be corrected by stirring or shaking. If stored for a long time, unrefrigerated mustard can acquire a bitter taste.
In Poland, during the early Communist period, mustard was sold in small glass jars without twist opening. In the Communist economy, almost all commodities were in shortage, so mustard jars ware commonly used as glasses ("musztardówka" in Polish). This resulted in the phenomenon of "mustard glasses," used mostly for vodka. Similarly in Germany, most mustard brands package the mustard in a drinking-glass shaped jar, and indeed Bautzner Senf has produced promotional series' of decorated jars featuring children's TV characters, with a view to them being used as children's drinking vessels.
The amounts of various nutrients in mustard seed are to be found in the USDA National Nutrient Database. As a condiment, mustard averages approximately five calories per teaspoon. Some of the many vitamins and nutrients that mustard seeds are high in are selenium and omega 3 fatty acid.
Notable mustard manufacturers
- De Kroon
- Hacienda Gourmet
- Turun sinappi
- Born Feinkost
- Develey (Bautz'ner Senf)
- Düsseldorfer Löwensenf
- Luise Händlmaier
- De Marne mosterd, Groningen
- Centro proizvod, Belgrade
- Dijamant, Zrenjanin
- Polimark, Zemun (Belgrade)
- Sunce (Uniliver), Sombor
- Vital, Vrbas
- Eta, Kamnik
- ^ Hazen, p. 14
- ^ Hazen, p. 15
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- ^ Hazen, p. 13
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- ^ Hazen, p. 6
- ^ Antol, p. 16.
- ^ a b Hazen, p. 10
- ^ Antol, p. 19
- ^ a b Hazen, p. 10.
- ^ a b c Antol, p. 19.
- ^ a b Antol, p. 21.
- ^ Antol, pp. 21–22.
- ^ Antol, p. 22.
- ^ Antol, p. 23.
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- ^ What makes mustard hot?, About.com, http://homecooking.about.com/od/cookingfaqs/f/faqhotmustard.htm, retrieved 2008-02-03
- ^ See Irma S. Rombauer & Marion R. Becker, Joy of Cooking. Bobbs-Merrill, 1975, p. 583; Irma S. Rombauer, Marion Rombauer Becker & Ethan Becker, Joy of Cooking, Scribner, 1997, p. 71.
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- ^ a b Sawyer, p. 24.
- ^ a b Sawyer, p. 11.
- ^ Sawyer, p. 10.
- ^ USDA National Nutrient Database – Mustard Nutrition, http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/cgi-bin/list_nut_edit.pl?NDB_NO=02024&FDGP_CD=0200&FOOD_NAME=Spices%252c%2520mustard%2520seed%252c%2520ground&SCI_NAME=Sinapis%2520alba%2520and%2520Brassica%2520juncea&COM_NAME=&GRAMS_100=1.00&1=1.00&MSRE_NO2=2024*1%2520tsp%2520%253d%25202%2520g&2=1.00&NUMBER_OF_CHECKBOXES=2
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- ^ From Ghent, a Mustard Known in Napoleon's Day, The New York Times, 1986-11-23, http://www.nytimes.com/1986/11/23/travel/fare-of-the-country-from-ghent-a-mustard-known-in-napoleon-s-day.html
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- Sawyer, Helene. Gourmet Mustards: How to Make and Cook with Them. Culinary Arts Ltd., 1990 ISBN 0914667157
- Mustard (seed) recipes
- Recipe for honey mustard dressing
- Recipe for Caramelised Onion and Mustard Relish
- Common Varieties of Mustard
- What Makes Mustard So Mustardy? (from The Straight Dope)
- Polish mustard jar, used as a glass (Wikipedia PL)
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