warmth, cowardice, happiness, slow, sunshine, the Orient, electricity
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Yellow is the
colorevoked by light that stimulates both the L and M (long and medium wavelength) cone cells of the retinaabout equally, but does not significantly stimulate the S (short-wavelength) cone cells; that is, light with much redand greenbut not very much blue. [cite book | title = Introduction to Psychology | author = James W. Kalat | isbn = 053462460X | year = 2005 | publisher = Thomson Wadsworth | page = 105 | url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0534624626&id=AHBnar7sEIIC&pg=PA105&lpg=PA105&ots=m3Lzw8xCgQ&dq=yellow-light+long+medium+short+cones&sig=13IGJmaW6EZQPq3yadyxP5ds_QY] Light with a wavelength of 570–580 nm is yellow, as is light with a suitable mixture of somewhat longer and shorter wavelengths. Yellow's traditional RYB complementary coloris purple, violet or indigo. Yellow's colorimetrically defined complementary color in both RGBand CMYKcolor spaces is blue.
Electric yellow vs. process yellow
infobox color|title=Yellow|hex= FFFF00
c= |m= |y= |k= 0
source=HTML/CSS [http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-color/#html4 W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords] ]
The color box at right shows the most intense yellow representable in in 8-bit
RGB color model; yellow is a "secondary" color in an additive RGB space.
The measured light
spectrumfrom yellow pixels on a typical computer display is complex, and very unlike the reflectance spectrum of a yellow object such as a banana. [cite book | url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN3527405038&id=1oDOWr_yueIC&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&ots=Jrfi5sRwoo&dq=%22measured+spectrum+of+computer+display+yellow+pixels%22&sig=vtsTKGy_bYEuMOhmf23ysJJxuvQ | title = Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation | author = Craig F. Bohren and Eugene E. Clothiaux |publisher = Wiley-VCH | year = 2006 | isbn = 3527405038]
infobox color|textcolor=black| title= Process yellow (subtractive primary, sRGB approximation)| hex= FFEF00| r=255|g= 239|b=0| c= 0|m=0|y= 100|k= 0| h=56|s=100|v=100
Process yellow (also known as pigment yellow, printer's yellow or canary yellow) is one of the three colors typically used as subtractive
primary colors, along with magentaand cyan. The CMYK system for color printing is based on using four inks, one of which is a yellow color. This is in itself a standard color, and a fairly narrow range of yellow inks or pigments are used. Process yellow is based on a colorant that reflects the preponderance of red and green light, and absorbs most blue light, as in the reflectance spectra shown in the figure on the lower right.
Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different
color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigoor blue-violet.
Process yellow is not an
RGBcolor, and there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color that is pure yellow ink.
Etymology and definitions
The word "yellow" comes from the
Old English"geolu", or "geolwe" which derived from the Proto-Germanicword "gelwaz". [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=yellow&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary ] ] The oldest known usage of this word in English is in the Old English poem " Beowulf", in a description of a shield made of wood from a yew tree.Oxford English Dictionary] In the English language, yellow is used to describe objects having the color between green and orange in the visible light spectrum ( gold, egg yolks, sunflowers, etc.). The color is associated with age and aging, both with people and objects (e.g. yellowed-paper). Ethnographically, the term yellow has also been used as a slang term for both oriental persons and light-skinned African-Americans. The term is associated at times with jealousy, as well as cowardliness. Lastly, it is associated with sensational journalistic practices, or " yellow journalism", and resistance to militant trade unions.
Complements of yellow
Huntcite book | title = Measuring Color | author = J. W. G. Hunt | year = 1980 | publisher = Ellis Horwood Ltd | isbn = 0-7458-0125-0] defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli." That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white (achromatic, non-colored) light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, however, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists
Grassmannand Helmholtzdid experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet. Helmholtz says "Yellow and indigo blue" are complements. [cite book | title = Physiological Optics | author = Hermann von Helmholtz | publisher = Dover | year = 1924] Grassman reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie." [cite journal | title = Theory of Compound Colors | author = Hermann Günter Grassman | journal = Philosophical Magazine | volume = Vol. 4 | year = 1854 | pages = 254–264 ] Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, and the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower (that is, the white of an ordinary incandescent light bulb). More typically, with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, which is the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow.
Plants and animals
yellow birch("Betula alleghaniensis") is a birch speciesnative to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and southern Quebecwest to Minnesota, and south in the Appalachian Mountainsto northern Georgia. They are medium-sized deciduoustrees and can reaching about 20 m tall, trunks up to 80 cm in diameter. The bark is smooth and yellow-bronze and the wood is extensively used for flooring, cabinetry, and toothpicks.
Yellow-breasted Chats ("Icteria virens") are large foraging songbirdfound in southern parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Central America. They are olive with a white bellies and a yellow throat and breast, with a long tail, a thick heavy bill, a large white eye ring, and dark legs.
*A yellow-fever mosquito is a mosquito in the "
Aedes" genus, so named because they transmit dengue feverand yellow fever, the mosquito-born viruses.
Yellow-green alga, also called "xanthophytes", are a class of algaein the " Heterokontophyta" division. Most live in freshwater, but some are found in marine and soil habitats. They vary from single-celled flagellates to simple colonial and filamentous forms. Unlike other heterokonts, yellow-green algae's chloroplasts do not contain fucoxanthin, which is why they have a lighter color.
Yellowhammer("Emberiza citrinella") is a passerinein the buntingfamily " Emberizidae". It breeds across Europeand much of Asia. Most yellowhammers are resident, but some far northern birds migrate south in winter. It is common in all sorts of open areas with some scrub or trees. They are large with a thick seed-eater's bill. The males have a bright yellow head, yellow underparts, and a heavily streaked brown back. Females are much duller and more streaked below.
Yellowjackets are black-and-yellow wasps of the genus "Vespula" or "Dolichovespula" (though some can be black-and-white, the most notable of these being the bald-faced hornet, "Dolichovespula maculata"). They can be identified by their distinctive black-and-yellow color, small size (slightly larger than a bee), and entirely black antennae.
*Yellow poplar is a common name for "
Liriodendron", the tuliptree. The name is inaccurate as this genusis not related to poplars.
Yellow-shafted Flicker("Colaptes auratus") is a large woodpeckerspecies of eastern North America. They have yellow shafts on their wing and tail feathers.
Yellowtailis the common name for dozens of different fishspecies that have yellow tails or a yellow body.
Goldenrodis a yellow flowering plant in the Family Asteraceae
Labrador Retrieverrefers to the lightest color that occurs in the breed, lighter than chocolate and back Labrador retrievers.
Yellow in human culture
Stars of spectral classG, such as our sun"Sol", have a color temperature that we characterize as "yellowish".
planet Saturnis yellowish, like a class G star. Calendars
* Yellow is associated with
Mondayon the Thai solar calendar. Anyone may wear yellow on Mondays, and anyone born on a Monday may adopt yellow as their color.
English language, yellow has traditionally been associated with jaundiceand cowardice. In American slang, a coward is said to be "yellowbellied" or "yellow".
giallo"), in Italy, refers to crime stories, both fictional and real. This association began about in 1930 because the first series of crime novels published in Italy had a yellow cover.
Pencils are often painted yellow, originally because of the association of this color with the Orient, where the best graphitewas found.
*The phrase "Yellow Yellow, dirty fellow" is used by children to mock someone wearing yellow.
*Yellow movies = blue movies in Chinese (黃色電影) reference: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1045153.stm]
Asian peopleare sometimes referred to as the "yellow race". The use of "yellow" to refer to people of East Asian descent is usually regarded as offensive today in most contexts. In early 20th-century North America, immigrants from China and other East Asian nations were derogatorily referred to as a " yellow peril."
High yellow" is African-American slangfor someone who is a very light-skinned African-American. This term was widely used in the early 20th century but it is seldom heard nowadays. Games
*Yellow is the color of the
snooker ballthat has a 2-point value.
*A semi-popular game in the UK is "Yellow Car", which involves yelling "Yellow Car" and striking someone close to you on spotting a yellow car. There are multiple variations of this game depending on area or group played with, but the above is the common rule between them.
*The legendary first emperor of China was known as the
Yellow Emperoror Huang Di(Chinese: 黃帝, Simplified Chinese: 黄帝).
Yellow Turbanswere a Daoistsect that staged an extensive rebellionduring the Han Dynasty. Journalism
Yellow journalism" was sensationalist journalismthat distorts, exaggerates, or exploits news to maximize profit. The term came from Joseph Pulitzer's " New York World" and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal American, who engaged in sensational reporting during the late 19th and early 20th century, most famously during the Spanish-American War. The term was derived from the color comic strip" The Yellow Kid", which appeared in both papers. Literature
The Yellow Wallpaperwritten by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Medicine
*Yellow is associated with
jaundice, since someone who has that diseasemay turn yellow. Mining
Yellowcake(also known as urania and uranic oxide) is concentrated uranium oxide, obtained through the milling of uranium ore. Yellowcake is used in the preparation of fuel for nuclear reactors and in uranium enrichment, one of the essential steps for creating nuclear weapons. Music
The Beatles1966 album Revolver (album)features the #1 hit, "Yellow Submarine."
*The March 1967 album by
Donovancalled "Mellow Yellow" was very popular among the hippies. The featured song on the album, " Mellow Yellow," popularized during the Spring of 1967 a widely believed hoaxthat it was possible to get high by smoking scrapings from the inside of bananapeels, although this rumor was actually started in 1966 by a different musicianpopular among the hippies, Country Joe McDonald.
Coldplayachieved worldwide fame with their 2000 single "Yellow." It is a song that associates things the singer sees with the color yellow. Mysticism
* In the
metaphysicsof the " New AgeProphetess", Alice A. Bailey, in her system called the Seven Rayswhich classifies humans into seven different metaphysical psychological types, the "fourth ray" of "harmony through conflict" is represented by the color "yellow". People who have this metaphysical psychological type are said to be "on the Yellow Ray". " [cite book | last = Bailey| first= Alice A. | authorlink = Alice Bailey | title = The Seven Rays of Life | location= New York| year= 1995 |publisher = Lucis Publishing Company | isbn = 0853301425]
Hinduism, yellow is used to symbolically represent the third, solar plexus chakra( Manipura). [Stevens, Samantha. The Seven Rays: a Universal Guide to the Archangels. City: Insomniac Press, 2004. ISBN 1894663497 pg. 24]
Psychics who claim to be able to observe the aura with their third eyereport that someone with a yellow aura is typically someone who is in an requiring intellectualacumen, such as a scientist. [ Swami Panchadasi"The Human Aura: Astral Colors and Thought Forms" Des Plaines, Illinois, USA:1912--Yogi Publications Society Page 33] Politics
*Yellow was also the color of the New Party in the
Republic of China( Taiwan), which supports Chinese reunification.
*In the United States, a
yellow dog Democratwas a Southern voter who consistently voted for Democratic candidates in the late 19th and early 20th centuries because of lingering resentment against the Republicans dating back to the Civil War and Reconstruction period. Today the term refers to a hard-core Democrat, supposedly referring to a person who would vote for a "yellow dog" before voting for a Republican.
Monster Raving Loony Party(OMRLP) has made use of yellow, along with black, as its primary party colors.
*In the 1986
People Power Revolution, yellow was the dominant theme, the color being associated with former president Corazon Aquino. Sports
*In Association football (soccer), the referee shows a yellow card to indicate that a player has been officially cautioned.
American Football, a yellow flag is thrown onto the field by a referee to indicate a penalty.
Rugby Leagueand then later, also in Rugby Union, the referee shows a yellow cardto indicate that a player has been sent to the sin bin.
auto racing, a yellow flagsignals caution. Cars are not allowed to pass one another under a yellow flag.
*In cycle racing, the
yellow jersey- or "maillot jaune" - is awarded to the leader in a stage race. The tradition was begun in the Tour de Francewhere the sponsoring "L'Auto" newspaper(later " L'Équipe") was printed on distinctive yellow newsprint. Transportation
*In some countries,
taxicabs are commonly yellow. This practice began in Chicago, where taxi entrepreneur John D. Hertzpainted his taxis yellow based on a University of Chicagostudy alleging that yellow is the color most easily seen at a distance.
Canadaand the United States, school buses are almost uniformly painted a yellow color (often referred to as " school bus yellow") for purposes of visibility and safety, and British busoperators such as FirstGroup plcare attempting to introduce the concept there
*"Caterpillar yellow" and "high-visibility yellow" are used for highway construction equipment.
rules of the road, yellow (called "amber" in Britain) is a traffic lightsignal warning that the period in which passage is permitted is coming to an end. It is intermediate between green(go) and red(stop). In railway signaling, yellow is often the color for warning, slow down, such as with distant signals.
light railand rapid transitlines on various public transportationhave a Yellow Line. Vexillology
International maritime signal flagsa yellow flag denotes the letter "Q". It also means a ship asserts that it does not need to be Quarantined.
List of colors
CMYK color model
RYB color model
* [http://www.sensationalcolor.com/content/view/1064/144/ All About the Color Yellow]
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