- Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
Born April 19, 1912
Ishpeming, Michigan, USA
Died February 25, 1999(aged 86)
Lafayette, California, USA
Nationality United States Fields Nuclear chemistry Institutions University of California, Berkeley
Atomic Energy Commission
Alma mater UC Los Angeles
Doctoral advisor George Ernest Gibson
Gilbert Newton Lewis
Doctoral students Ralph Arthur James
Joseph William Kennedy
Kenneth Ross Mackenzie
Known for Discovery of ten transuranium elements Notable awards Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1951)
Perkin Medal (1957)
Priestley Medal (1979)
Franklin Medal (1963)
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (Swedish: Glenn Teodor Sjöberg; April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American scientist who won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements", contributed to the discovery and isolation of ten elements, and developed the actinide concept, which led to the current arrangement of the actinoid series in the periodic table of the elements. He spent most of his career as an educator and research scientist at the University of California, Berkeley where he became the second Chancellor in its history and served as a University Professor. Seaborg advised ten presidents from Harry S. Truman to Bill Clinton on nuclear policy and was the chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission from 1961 to 1971 where he pushed for commercial nuclear energy and peaceful applications of nuclear science. Throughout his career, Seaborg worked for arms control. He was signator to the Franck Report and contributed to the achievement of the Limited Test Ban Treaty, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Seaborg was a well-known advocate of science education and federal funding for pure research. He was a key contributor to the report "A Nation at Risk" as a member of President Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education and was the principal author of the Seaborg Report on academic science issued in the closing days of the Eisenhower administration.
Seaborg was the principal or co-discoverer of ten elements: plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and element 106, which was named seaborgium in his honor while he was still living. He also developed more than 100 atomic isotopes, and is credited with important contributions to the chemistry of plutonium, originally as part of the Manhattan Project where he developed the extraction process used to isolate the plutonium fuel for the second atomic bomb. Early in his career, Seaborg was a pioneer in nuclear medicine and developed numerous isotopes of elements with important applications in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, most notably iodine-131, which is used in the treatment of thyroid disease. In addition to his theoretical work in the development of the actinide concept which placed the actinide series beneath the lanthanide series on the periodic table, Seaborg proposed the placement of super-heavy elements in the transactinide and superactinide series. After sharing the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Edwin McMillan, he received approximately 50 honorary doctorates and numerous other awards and honors. The list of things named after Seaborg ranges from his atomic element to an asteroid. Seaborg was a prolific author, penning more than 50 books and 500 journal articles, often in collaboration with others. He received so many awards and honors that he was once listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the person with the longest entry in Who's Who in America.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Graduate work
- 3 Career
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Publications
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Of Swedish, distant German and Belgian (Flemish and Walloon) ancestry, Seaborg was born in Ishpeming, Michigan, the son of Herman Theodore (Ted) and Selma Olivia Erickson Seaborg. He had one sister, Jeanette. When Glenn Seaborg was a boy, the family moved to the Seaborg Home in a subdivision called Home Gardens, that was later annexed to the City of South Gate, California, a suburb of Los Angeles.
He kept a daily journal from 1927 until he suffered a stroke in 1998. As a youth, Seaborg was both a devoted sports fan and an avid movie buff. His mother encouraged him to become a book-keeper as she felt his literary interests were impractical. He did not take an interest in science until his junior year when he was inspired by Dwight Logan Reid, a chemistry and physics teacher at David Starr Jordan High School in Watts.
He graduated from Jordan in 1929 at the top of his class and received a bachelor's degree in chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1933. While at UCLA, he was invited by his German professor to meet Albert Einstein, an experience that had a profound impact on Seaborg and served as a model of graciousness for his encounters with aspiring students in later years. Seaborg worked his way through school as a stevedore (longshoreman), fruit packer and laboratory assistant.
Seaborg took his Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1937 with a doctoral thesis on the inelastic scattering of neutrons in which he coined the term "nuclear spallation". He was a member of the professional chemistry fraternity Alpha Chi Sigma. As a graduate student in the 1930s Seaborg performed wet chemistry research for his advisor Gilbert Newton Lewis and published three papers with him on the theory of acids and bases. Seaborg then studied thoroughly the text Applied Radiochemistry by Otto Hahn, of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin and it had a major impact on his developing interests as a research scientist. For several years, Seaborg conducted important research in artificial radioactivity using the Lawrence cyclotron at UC Berkeley. He was excited to learn from others that nuclear fission was possible—but also chagrined, as his own research might have led him to the same discovery.
Seaborg also became expert in dealing with noted Berkeley physicist Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer had a daunting reputation, and often answered a junior man's question before it had even been stated. Often the question answered was more profound than the one asked, but of little practical help. Seaborg learned to state his questions to Oppenheimer quickly and succinctly.
Pioneering work in nuclear chemistry
Seaborg remained at the University of California, Berkeley for post-doctoral research. He followed Frederick Soddy's work investigating isotopes and contributed to the discovery of more than 100 isotopes of elements. Using one of Lawrence's advanced cyclotrons, John Livingood, Fred Fairbrother, and Seaborg created a new isotope of iron, iron-59 (Fe-59) in 1937. Iron-59 was useful in the studies of the hemoglobin in human blood. In 1938, Livingood and Seaborg collaborated (as they did for five years) to create an important isotope of iodine, iodine-131 (I-131) which is still used to treat thyroid disease. (Many years later, it was credited with prolonging the life of Seaborg's mother.) As a result of these and other contributions, Seaborg is regarded as a pioneer in nuclear medicine and is one of its most prolific discoverers of isotopes.
In 1939 he became an instructor in chemistry at Berkeley, was promoted to assistant professor in 1941 and professor in 1945.
UC Berkeley physicist Edwin McMillan had led a team that discovered element 93, neptunium in 1940. In November 1940, McMillan was persuaded to leave Berkeley temporarily to assist with urgent research in radar technology. Since Seaborg and his colleagues had perfected McMillan's oxidation-reduction technique for isolating neptunium, he asked McMillan for permission to continue the research and search for element 94. McMillan agreed to the collaboration. Seaborg first reported alpha decay proportionate to only a fraction of the element 93 under observation. The first hypothesis for this alpha particle accumulation was contamination by uranium, which produces alpha-decay particles; analysis of alpha-decay particles ruled this out. Seaborg then postulated that a distinct alpha-producing element was being formed from element 93. In February 1941, Seaborg and his collaborators produced plutonium-239 through the bombardment of uranium. This experimental achievement changed the course of human history in ways more profound than they could have ever imagined: the production of plutonium-239 was successful. In their experiments bombarding uranium with deuterons, they observed the creation of neptunium, element 93. But it then underwent beta-decay, forming a new element, plutonium, with 94 protons. Plutonium is fairly stable, but undergoes alpha-decay, which explained the presence of alpha particles coming from neptunium. Thus, on March 28, 1941, Dr. Seaborg, physicist Emilio Segrè and Berkeley chemist Joseph W. Kennedy were able to show that plutonium (then known only as element 94239) underwent fission with slow neutrons, an important distinction that was crucial to the decisions made in directing Manhattan Project research. Room 307 of Gilman Hall on the campus at the University of California, Berkeley, where Seaborg did his work, has since been declared a U.S. National Historic Landmark.
In addition to plutonium, he is credited as a lead discoverer of americium, curium, and berkelium, and as a co-discoverer of californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium. He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1951 with Edwin McMillan for "their discoveries in the chemistry of the first transuranium elements." He obtained patents on americium and curium, which were developed in 1944 in Chicago at the wartime metallurgical laboratory during the Manhattan project. His research contributions to all of the other elements were conducted at the University of California, Berkeley.
Scientific contributions during the Manhattan Project
On April 19, 1942, Seaborg reached Chicago, and joined the chemistry group at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago, where Enrico Fermi and his group would later convert U238 to plutonium in the world's first controlled nuclear chain reaction using a chain-reacting pile. Seaborg's role was to figure out how to extract the tiny bit of plutonium from the mass of uranium. Plutonium-239 was isolated in visible amounts using a transmutation reaction on August 20, 1942 and weighed on September 10, 1942 in Seaborg's Chicago laboratory. He was responsible for the multi-stage chemical process that separated, concentrated and isolated plutonium. This process was further developed at the Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and then entered full-scale production at the Hanford Engineer Works, in Richland, Washington.
Seaborg's theoretical development of the actinide concept resulted in a redrawing of the Periodic Table of the Elements into its current configuration with the actinide series appearing below the lanthanide series. Seaborg developed the chemical elements americium and curium while in Chicago. He managed to secure patents for both elements. His patent on curium never proved commercially viable because of the element's short half-life. Americium is commonly used in household smoke detectors, however, and thus provided a good source of royalty income to Seaborg in later years. Prior to the test of the first nuclear weapon, Seaborg joined with several other leading scientists in a written statement known as the Franck Report (secret at the time but since published) calling on President Truman to conduct a public demonstration of the atomic bomb witnessed by the Japanese rather than engaging in a surprise attack. Truman instead proceeded to drop two bombs, credited by most observers at the time with ending the war, a uranium bomb on Hiroshima and a plutonium bomb on Nagasaki.
Professor and Chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley
After the conclusion of World War II and the Manhattan Project, Seaborg was eager to return to academic life and university research free from the restrictions of wartime secrecy. In 1946, he added to his responsibilities as a professor by heading the nuclear chemistry research at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory operated by the University of California on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Seaborg was named one of the "Ten Outstanding Young Men in America" by the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce in 1947 (along with Richard Nixon and others). Seaborg was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1948. From 1954 to 1961 he served as associate director of the radiation laboratory. He was appointed by President Truman to serve as a member of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, an assignment he retained until 1960.
Seaborg served as chancellor at University of California, Berkeley from 1958 to 1961. His term as Chancellor came at a time of considerable controversy during the time of the free speech movement. In October 1958, he announced that the University had relaxed its prior prohibitions on political activity on a test basis. Seaborg served on the Faculty Athletic Committee for several years and is the co-author of a book concerning the Pacific Coast Conference scandal and the founding of the Pac-10 (formerly Pac-8), in which he played a role. Seaborg served on the President's Science Advisory Commission during the Eisenhower administration, which produced the report "Scientific Progress, the Universities, and the Federal Government," also known as the "Seaborg Report," in November 1960. The Seaborg Report is credited with influencing the federal policy towards academic science for the next eight years. In 1959, he helped found the Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory with UC president Clark Kerr.
Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission
After appointment by President John F. Kennedy and confirmation by the United States Senate, Seaborg was chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1961 to 1971. His pending appointment by President Kennedy was nearly derailed in late 1960 when members of the Kennedy transition team learned that Seaborg had been listed in a U.S. News and World Report article as a member of "Nixon's Brain Trust." Seaborg said that as a lifetime Democrat he was baffled when the article appeared associating him with Vice President Nixon, whom he considered a casual acquaintance.
While chairman of the AEC, Seaborg participated on the negotiating team for the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT). Seaborg considered his contributions to the achievement of the LTBT as his greatest accomplishment. Despite strict rules from the Soviets about photography at the signing ceremony, Seaborg sneaked a tiny camera past the Soviet guards to take a close-up photograph of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev as he signed the treaty.
Seaborg was ardent supporter of large scale massive nuclear plants for electricity generation despite concerns by industry insiders that such large plants were vulnerable in that their nuclear cores could not be properly contained in the event of an accident or operating emergency. Seaborg received a letter dated August 16, 1966 from industry engineers expressing these concerns at the time of the licensing of New York's Indian Point reactor. This letter advised Seaborg and other AEC senior members of these containment concerns which would later become known as the "China Syndrome" resulting from uncontained core meltdowns. Seaborg directed this letter not be released to the public as he feared it would be misunderstood and therefore damage the nuclear industry in the public's view even though the law required such letters be released for public disclosure. This disclosure first came to light for public view in the BBC documentary series, "Pandora's Box, A Is For Atom" dealing with the early history of commercial nuclear development.
Seaborg enjoyed a close relationship with President Lyndon Johnson and influenced the administration to pursue the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Seaborg was called to the White House in the first week of the Nixon Administration in January 1969 to advise President Richard Nixon on his first diplomatic crisis involving the Soviets and nuclear testing. Seaborg clashed with Nixon presidential adviser John Ehrlichman over the treatment of a Jewish scientist whom the Nixon administration suspected of leaking nuclear secrets to Israel.
Seaborg published several books and journal articles during his tenure at the Atomic Energy Commission. His predictions concerning development of stable super-heavy elements are considered among his most important theoretical contributions. Seaborg theorized the transactinide series and the superactinide series of undiscovered synthetic elements. While most of these theoretical future elements have extremely short half-lives and thus no expected practical applications, Seaborg theorized an island of stability for isotopes of certain elements.
When Seaborg resigned as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1971, he had served longer than any other Kennedy appointee.
Return to California
Following his service as Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, Seaborg returned to UC Berkeley where he was awarded the position of University Professor. At the time, there had been fewer University Professors at UC Berkeley than Nobel prize winners. He also served as Chairman of the Lawrence Hall of Science. Seaborg served as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1972 and as President of the American Chemical Society in 1976. In 1976, when the Swedish king visited the United States, Seaborg played a major role in welcoming the Swedish Royal Family.
In 1980, he transmuted several thousand atoms of bismuth into gold at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. His experimental technique, using nuclear physics, was able to remove protons and neutrons from the bismuth atoms. Seaborg's technique would have been far too expensive to enable routine manufacturing of gold, but his work is the closest to the mythical Philosopher's Stone.
In 1983, President Ronald Reagan appointed Seaborg to serve on the National Commission on Excellence in Education. Upon seeing the final draft report, Seaborg is credited with making comments that it was far too weak and did not communicate the urgency of the current crisis. He compared the crisis in education to the arms race, and stated that we are "a nation at risk." These comments led to a new introduction to the report and gave the report the famous title which focused national attention on education as an issue germane to the federal government.
Seaborg lived most of his later life in Lafayette, California, where he devoted himself to editing and publishing the journals that documented both his early life and later career. He rallied a group of scientists who criticized the science curriculum in the State of California which he viewed as far too socially oriented and not nearly focused enough on hard science. California Governor Pete Wilson appointed Seaborg to head a committee that proposed sweeping changes to California's science curriculum despite outcries from labor organizations and others.
On August 24, 1998, while in Boston to attend a meeting by the American Chemical Society, Seaborg suffered a stroke, which led to his death six months later on February 25, 1999 at his home in Lafayette.
During his lifetime, Seaborg is said to have been the author or co-author of more than 50 books and 500 scientific journal articles, many of them brief reports on fast-breaking discoveries in nuclear science while other subjects, most notably the actinide concept, represented major theoretical contributions in the history of science. He held more than 40 patents — among them the only patents ever issued for chemical elements, americium and curium. He is also said to have received more than 50 degrees and honorary degrees in his lifetime. At one time, he was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as having the longest entry in Marquis Who's Who in America. In February 2005, Seaborg was posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
In 1942, Seaborg married Helen Griggs, the secretary of Ernest Lawrence.
Under wartime pressure, Seaborg had moved to Chicago while engaged to Griggs. When Seaborg returned to accompany Griggs for the journey back to Chicago, friends expected them to marry in Chicago. But, eager to be married, Seaborg and Griggs impulsively got off the train in the town of Caliente, Nevada for what they thought would be a quick wedding. When they asked for City Hall, they found Caliente had none—they would have to travel 25 miles north to Pioche, the county seat. With no car, this was no easy feat but, happily, one of Caliente's newest deputy sheriffs turned out to be a recent graduate of the Cal Berkeley chemistry department and was more than happy to do a favor for Seaborg. The deputy sheriff arranged for the wedding couple to ride up and back to Pioche in a mail truck. The witnesses at the Seaborg wedding were a clerk and a janitor.
Glenn Seaborg and Helen Griggs Seaborg had six children, of whom the first, Peter Glenn Seaborg, died in 1997. The others were Lynne Seaborg Cobb, David Seaborg, Steve Seaborg, Eric Seaborg, and Dianne Seaborg.
Seaborg was an avid hiker. Upon becoming Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1961, he commenced taking daily hikes through a trail which he blazed at the headquarters site in Germantown, Maryland. He frequently invited colleagues and visitors to accompany him and the trail became known as the "Glenn Seaborg Trail."
He and his wife Helen are credited with blazing a 12 mile trail in the East Bay area near their Lafayette, California home. This trail has since become a part of the American Hiking Association's cross-country network of trails. Seaborg and his wife walked the trail network from Contra Costa County all the way to the California-Nevada border.
Seaborg was honored as Swedish-American of the Year in 1962 by the Vasa Order of America. In 1991, the organization named "Local Lodge Glenn T. Seaborg No. 719" in his honor during the Seaborg Honors ceremony at which he appeared. This lodge maintains a scholarship fund in his name, as does the unrelated Swedish-American Club of Los Angeles.
Seaborg kept a close bond to his Swedish origin. He visited Sweden every so often and his family were members of the Swedish Pemer Genealogical Society, a family association open for every descendant of the Pemer family, a Swedish family with German origin, from which Seaborg was descended on his mother's side.
He was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1972 and the Royal Society of London.
Seaborg was an enthusiastic supporter of Cal's sports teams. San Francisco columnist Herb Caen was fond of pointing out that Seaborg's surname is an anagram of "Go Bears", a popular cheer at UC Berkeley.
The element seaborgium was named after Seaborg by Albert Ghiorso, E. Kenneth Hulet, and others, who also credited Seaborg as a co-discoverer. It was so named while Seaborg was still alive, which proved controversial. He influenced the naming of so many elements that with the announcement of seaborgium, it was noted in Discover magazine's review of the year in science that he could receive a letter addressed in chemical elements: seaborgium, lawrencium (for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory where he worked), berkelium, californium, americium.
While it has been commonly stated that seaborgium is the only element to have been named after a living person, this is not entirely accurate; both einsteinium and fermium were proposed as names of new elements discovered by Albert Ghiorso while Enrico Fermi and Albert Einstein were still living. The discovery of these elements and their names were kept secret under Cold War era nuclear secrecy rules, however, and thus the names were not known by the public or the broader scientific community until after the deaths of Fermi and Einstein. Thus seaborgium is the only element to have been publicly named after a living person.
- Seaborg, G. T.; James, R.A.; Morgan, L.O. (January 1948), The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95), US Atomic Energy Commission, OSTI 4435330, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0046&numPages=43&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T.; James, R.A.; Ghiorso, A. (January 1948), The New Element Curium (Atomic Number 96), US Atomic Energy Commission, OSTI 4421946, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0049&numPages=13&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S.G.; Ghiorso, A. (April 1950), The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97), UC Berkeley, Radiation Laboratory, OSTI 4421999, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0045&numPages=38&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S.G.; Street, K. Jr.; Ghiroso, A. (June 1950), The New Element Californium (Atomic Number 98), UC Berkeley, Radiation Laboratory, OSTI 4424011, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0050&numPages=28&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T. (December 1951), The Transuranium Elements – Present Status: Nobel Lecture, UC Berkeley, Radiation Laboratory, OSTI 4406579, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0048&numPages=42&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S.G.; Harvey, B.G.; Choppin, G.R. (July 1954), Chemical Properties of Elements 99 and 100 (Einsteinium and Fermium), UC Berkeley, Radiation Laboratory, OSTI 4405197, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0047&numPages=40&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T. (September 1967), The First Weighing of Plutonium, US Atomic Energy Commission, OSTI 814965, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0071&numPages=35&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T. (July 1970), Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy: A Collection of Speeches, US Atomic Energy Commission, OSTI 4042849, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0070&numPages=164&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T., ed. (January 1980), Symposium Commemorating the 25th Anniversary of the Discovery of Mendelevium, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, OSTI 6468225, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0051&numPages=71&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T. (August 1990), Transuranium Elements: a Half Century, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, OSTI 6604648, http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0052&numPages=72&fp=N
- Seaborg, G. T. (March 1995), "My career as a radioisotope hunter", Journal of the American Medical Association 273 (12): 961–964, doi:10.1001/jama.273.12.961, PMID 7884957
- ^ a b Hoffman, D. C. (2007). "Glenn Theodore Seaborg. 19 April 1912 -- 25 February 1999". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 53: 327. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2007.0021.
- ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951". Nobel Foundation. 1951. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/index.html. Retrieved 2007-09-20.
- ^ Peggy House. "Glenn T. Seaborg: Citizen-Scholar". Glenn T. Seaborg Center Website, Northern Michigan University. http://webb.nmu.edu/Centers/Seaborg/SiteSections/AboutUs/CitizenScholar.shtml. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
- ^ Glenn Seaborg: His Biography, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory website. Retrieved November 9, 2006.
- ^ Science Beat, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory website. Retrieved November 9, 2006.
- ^ Seaborg Institute website. Retrieved November 9, 2006.
- ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. and Eric Seaborg, Adventures in the Atomic Age: From Watts to Washington. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 13-14. ISBN 0-374-29991-9
- ^ biographical entry, website. Retrieved July 8, 2006.
- ^ [dead link] Glenn T. Seaborg, Early History of LBNL. Online LBL transcript of lecture Seaborg delivered August 26, 1996 on the Lab's 65th Anniversary. Many photos.
- ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. and Eric Seaborg, Adventures in the Atomic Age: From Watts to Washington. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 57-59. ISBN 0-374-29991-9
- ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. and Eric Seaborg, Adventures in the Atomic Age: From Watts to Washington. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 26. ISBN 0-374-29991-9
- ^ Heilbron, J. L.; Robert W. Seidel (c1989-.), Lawrence and His Laboratory: A History of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 355–6, http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft5s200764/
- ^ National Atomic Museum, website. Retrieved July 16, 2006.
- ^ Glenn T. Seaborg Timeline, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory website. Retrieved November 9, 2006.
- ^ Jackson, David J. and W. K. H. Panofsky, Biographical Memoirs: Edwin Mattison McMillan, National Academies Press, online at http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/emcmillan.html . Retrieved July 16, 2006.
- ^ Delphine Farmer, An Elementary Problem, Berkeley Science Review, Issue 1:Volume 1, 2001, online at http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/emcmillan.html , website accessed July 16, 2006.
- ^ Seaborg's Greatest Hits, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory website, accessed, November 9, 2006.
- ^ Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.) 320, 340-43, 348, 354, 369, 377, 395. ISBN 0-684-81378-5.
- ^ Theodore L. Hullar, Clark Kerr, Julius R. Krevans, Pedro Noguera, Glenn T. Seaborg, Neil J. Smelser, Martin Trow, and Charles E. Young. The University of California Office of the President and Its Constituencies, 1983-1995. Volume II: On the Campuses: Chancellors, Faculty, Student. Regional Oral History Office, University of California, Berkeley, 1997-1999.no Available from the Online Archive of California 
- ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. (1969), "Prospects for further considerable extension of the periodic table", Journal of Chemical Education 46 (10): 626, Bibcode 1969JChEd..46..626S, doi:10.1021/ed046p626.
- ^ Glenn Considine, ed., Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, 9th ed., (New York: Wiley Interscience, 2002, 738. ISBN 0-471-33230-5.
- ^ Aleklett, K.; Morrissey, D.; Loveland, W.; McGaughey, P.; Seaborg, G. (1981), "Energy dependence of 209Bi fragmentation in relativistic nuclear collisions", Physical Review C 23 (3): 1044, Bibcode 1981PhRvC..23.1044A, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.23.1044.
- ^ Darleane C. Hoffman, Albert Ghiorso, Glenn Theodore Seaborg, The Transuranium People: The Inside Story, ISBN 1860940870, preface pages lxvii-lxviii.
- ^ Glenn T. Seaborg with Ray Colvig (1994). Chancellor at Berkeley. Institute of Governmental Studies Press, University of California. ISBN 9780877723431. https://www.google.com/search?tbm=bks&tbo=1&q=%22herb+caen%22+%22go+bears%22.
- ^ Jeffrey Winters, "What’s in a Name?" DISCOVER, Vol. 19 No. 01, January 1998. http://www.discover.com/issues/January-98/features/theyearinscience1309/ , website. Retrieved October 17, 2006.
- Patrick Coffey, Cathedrals of Science: The Personalities and Rivalries That Made Modern Chemistry, Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-532134-0
- Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy
- National Academy of Sciences biography
- Annotated bibliography for Glenn Seaborg from the Alsos Digital Library
- Works by or about Glenn T. Seaborg in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Nobel Institute Official Biography
- UC Berkeley Biography of Chancellor Glenn T. Seaborg
- Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Glenn T. Seaborg website
- American Association for the Advancement of Science, List of Presidents
- American Chemical Society, List of Presidents[dead link]
- Seaborg and Plutonium Chemistry, at Department of Energy official site[dead link]
- Glenn Seaborg Trail, at Department of Energy official site
- Glenn T. Seaborg Center at Northern Michigan University
- Glenn Seaborg Learning Consortium at the Lafayette Library and Learning Center
- Glenn T. Seaborg Medal and Symposium at the University of California, Los Angeles
Nobel Laureates in Chemistry (1951–1975)
- Edwin McMillan / Glenn T. Seaborg (1951)
- Archer Martin / Richard Synge (1952)
- Hermann Staudinger (1953)
- Linus Pauling (1954)
- Vincent du Vigneaud (1955)
- Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semyonov (1956)
- Alexander Todd (1957)
- Frederick Sanger (1958)
- Jaroslav Heyrovský (1959)
- Willard Libby (1960)
- Melvin Calvin (1961)
- Max Perutz / John Kendrew (1962)
- Karl Ziegler / Giulio Natta (1963)
- Dorothy Hodgkin (1964)
- Robert Woodward (1965)
- Robert S. Mulliken (1966)
- Manfred Eigen / Ronald Norrish / George Porter (1967)
- Lars Onsager (1968)
- Derek Barton / Odd Hassel (1969)
- Luis Federico Leloir (1970)
- Gerhard Herzberg (1971)
- Christian B. Anfinsen / Stanford Moore / William Stein (1972)
- E.O.Fischer / Geoffrey Wilkinson (1973)
- Paul Flory (1974)
- John Cornforth / Vladimir Prelog (1975)
- Complete list
David E. Lilienthal (1946) · Gordon Dean (1950) · Lewis Strauss (1953) · John A. McCone (1958) · Glenn T. Seaborg (1961) · James R. Schlesinger (1971) · Dixy Lee Ray (1973)
Clark Kerr (1952) · Glenn T. Seaborg (1958) · Edward W. Strong (1961) · Martin E. Meyerson (1965) · Roger W. Heyns (1965) · Albert H. Bowker (1971) · Ira Michael Heyman (1980) · Chang-Lin Tien (1990) · Robert M. Berdahl (1997) · Robert J. Birgeneau (2004)
John W. Draper (1876) · J. Lawrence Smith (1877) · Samuel W. Johnson (1878) · T. Sterry Hunt (1879) · Frederick A. Genth (1880) · Charles F. Chandler (1881) · John W. Mallet (1882) · James C. Booth (1883) · Albert B. Prescott (1886) · Charles Anthony Goessmann (1887) · T. Sterry Hunt (1888) · Charles F. Chandler (1889) · Henry B. Nason (1890) · George F. Barker (1891) · George C. Caldwell (1892) · Harvey W. Wiley (1893) · Edgar Fahs Smith (1895) · Charles B. Dudley (1896) · Charles E. Munroe (1898) · Edward W. Morley (1899) · William McMurtrie (1900)
Frank W. Clarke (1901) · Ira Remsen (1902) · John H. Long (1903) · Arthur Amos Noyes (1904) · Francis P. Venable (1905) · William F. Hillebrand (1906) · Marston T. Bogert (1907) · Willis R. Whitney (1909) · Wilder D. Bancroft (1910) · Alexander Smith (1911) · Arthur D. Little (1912) · Theodore W. Richards (1914) · Charles H. Herty (1915) · Julius Stieglitz (1917) · William H. Nichols (1918) · William A. Noyes (1920) · Edgar Fahs Smith (1921) · Edward C. Franklin (1923) · Leo H. Baekeland (1924) · James F. Norris (1925)
George D. Rosengarten (1927) · Samuel W. Parr (1928) · Irving Langmuir (1929) · William McPherson (1930) · Moses Gomberg (1931) · L.V. Redman (1932) · Arthur B. Lamb (1933) · Charles L. Reese (1934) · Roger Adams (1935) · Edward Bartow (1936) · Edward R. Weidlein (1937) · Frank C. Whitmore (1938) · Charles A. Kraus (1939) · Samuel C. Lind (1940) · William Lloyd Evans (1941) · Harry N. Holmes (1942) · Per K. Frolich (1943) · Thomas Midgley, Jr. (1944) · Carl S. Marvel (1945) · Bradley Dewey (1946) · W. Albert Noyes, Jr. (1947) · Charles A. Thomas (1948) · Linus Pauling (1949) · Ernest H. Volwiler (1950)
N. Howell Funnan (1951) · Edgar C. Britton (1952) · Farrington Daniels (1953) · Harry L. Fisher (1954) · Joel H. Hildebrand (1955) · John C. Warner (1956) · Roger J. Williams (1957) · Clifford F. Rassweiler (1958) · John C. Bailar, Jr. (1959) · Albert L. Elder (1960) · Arthur C. Cope (1961) · Karl Folkers (1962) · Henry Eyring (1963) · Maurice H. Arveson (1964) · Charles C. Price (1965) · William J. Sparks (1966) · Charles G. Overberger (1967) · Robert W. Cairns (1968) · Wallace R. Brode (1969) · Byron Riegel (1970) · Melvin Calvin (1971) · Max Tishler (1972) · Alan C. Nixon (1973) · Bernard S. Friedman (1974) · William J. Bailey (1975)
Glenn T. Seaborg (1976) · Henry A. Hill (1977) · Anna J. Harrison (1978) · Gardner W. Stacy (1979) · James D. D'Ianni (1980) · Albert C. Zettlemoyer (1981) · Robert W. Parry (1982) · Fred Basolo (1983) · Warren D. Niederhauser (1984) · Ellis K. Fields (1985) · George C. Pimentel (1986) · Mary L. Good (1987) · Gordon L. Nelson (1988) · Clayton F. Callis (1989) · Paul G. Gassman (1990) · S. Allen Heininger (1991) · Ernest L. Eliel (1992) · Helen M. Free (1993) · Ned D. Heindel (1994) · Brian M. Rushton (1995) · Ronald Breslow (1996) · Paul S. Anderson (1997) · Paul H.L. Walter (1998) · Edel Wasserman (1999) · Daryle H. Busch (2000)
Attila E. Pavlath (2001) · Eli M. Pearce (2002) · Elsa Reichmanis (2003) · Charles P. Casey (2004) · William F. Carroll, Jr. (2005) · Elizabeth Ann Nalley (2006) · Catherine T. Hunt (2007) · Bruce E. Bursten (2008) · Thomas H. Lane (2009) · Joseph Francisco (2010) · Nancy B. Jackson (2011)
United States National Medal of Science laureates Behavioral and social science1960s1980s
1986: Herbert A. Simon · 1987: Anne Anastasi · George J. Stigler · 1988: Milton Friedman1990s
1990: Leonid Hurwicz · Patrick Suppes · 1991: Robert W. Kates · George A. Miller · 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson · 1994: Robert K. Merton · 1995: Roger N. Shepard · 1996: Paul Samuelson · 1997: William K. Estes · 1998: William Julius Wilson · 1999: Robert M. Solow2000s
2000: Gary Becker · 2001: George Bass · 2003: R. Duncan Luce · 2004: Kenneth Arrow · 2005: Gordon H. Bower · 2008: Michael I. Posner · 2009: Mortimer Mishkin
1982: F. Albert Cotton · Gilbert Stork · 1983: Roald Hoffmann · George C. Pimentel · Richard N. Zare · 1986: Harry B. Gray · Yuan Tseh Lee · Carl S. Marvel · Frank H. Westheimer · 1987: William S. Johnson · Walter H. Stockmayer · Max Tishler · 1988: William O. Baker · Konrad E. Bloch · Elias J. Corey · 1989: Richard B. Bernstein · Melvin Calvin · Rudoph A. Marcus · Harden M. McConnell1990s
1990: Elkan Blout · Karl Folkers · John D. Roberts · 1991: Ronald Breslow · Gertrude B. Elion · Dudley R. Herschbach · Glenn T. Seaborg · 1992: Howard E. Simmons, Jr. · 1993: Donald J. Cram · Norman Hackerman · 1994: George S. Hammond · 1995: Thomas Cech · Isabella L. Karle · 1996: Norman Davidson · 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman · Harold S. Johnston · 1998: John W. Cahn · George M. Whitesides · 1999: Stuart A. Rice · John Ross · Susan Solomon2000s
2000: John D. Baldeschwieler · Ralph F. Hirschmann · 2001: Ernest R. Davidson · Gabor A. Somorjai · 2002: John I. Brauman · 2004: Stephen J. Lippard · 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers · Peter B. Dervan · 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed · 2008: Joanna S. Fowler · JoAnne Stubbe · 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic · Marye Anne Fox
1962: Theodore von Kármán · 1963: Vannevar Bush · John Robinson Pierce · 1964: Charles S. Draper · 1965: Hugh L. Dryden · Clarence L. Johnson · Warren K. Lewis · 1966: Claude E. Shannon · 1967: Edwin H. Land · Igor I. Sikorsky · 1968: J. Presper Eckert · Nathan M. Newmark · 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby1970s
1970: George E. Mueller · 1973: Harold E. Edgerton · Richard T. Whitcomb · 1974: Rudolf Kompfner · Ralph Brazelton Peck · Abel Wolman · 1975: Manson Benedict · William Hayward Pickering · Frederick E. Terman · Wernher von Braun · 1976: Morris Cohen · Peter C. Goldmark · Erwin Wilhelm Müller · 1979: Emmett N. Leith · Raymond D. Mindlin · Robert N. Noyce · Earl R. Parker · Simon Ramo1980s
1982: Edward H. Heinemann · Donald L. Katz · 1983: William R. Hewlett · George M. Low · John G. Trump · 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann · T. Y. Lin · Bernard M. Oliver · 1987: R. Byron Bird · H. Bolton Seed · Ernst Weber · 1988: Daniel C. Drucker · Willis M. Hawkins · George W. Housner · 1989: Harry George Drickamer · Herbert E. Grier1990s
1990: Mildred S. Dresselhaus · Nick Holonyak Jr. · 1991: George Heilmeier · Luna B. Leopold · H. Guyford Stever · 1992: Calvin F. Quate · John Roy Whinnery · 1993: Alfred Y. Cho · 1994: Ray W. Clough · 1995: Hermann A. Haus · 1996: James L. Flanagan · C. Kumar N. Patel · 1998: Eli Ruckenstein · 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens2000s
2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung · 2001: Andreas Acrivos · 2002: Leo Beranek · 2003: John M. Prausnitz · 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot · 2005: Jan D. Achenbach · Tobin J. Marks · 2006: Robert S. Langer · 2007: David J. Wineland · 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán · 2009: Amnon Yariv
Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences1960s
1963: Norbert Wiener · 1964: Solomon Lefschetz · H. Marston Morse · 1965: Oscar Zariski · 1966: John Milnor · 1967: Paul Cohen · 1968: Jerzy Neyman · 1969: William Feller1970s
1970: Richard Brauer · 1973: John Tukey · 1974: Kurt Gödel · 1975: John W. Backus · Shiing-Shen Chern · George Dantzig · 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs · Hassler Whitney · 1979: Joseph Leo Doob · Donald E. Knuth1980s
1982: Marshall Harvey Stone · 1983: Herman Goldstine · Isadore Singer · 1986: Peter Lax · Antoni Zygmund · 1987: Raoul Bott · Michael Freedman · 1988: Ralph E. Gomory · Joseph B. Keller · 1989: Samuel Karlin · Saunders MacLane · Donald C. Spencer1990s
1990: George F. Carrier · Stephen Cole Kleene · John McCarthy · 1991: Alberto Calderón · 1992: Allen Newell · 1993: Martin David Kruskal · 1994: John Cocke · 1995: Louis Nirenberg · 1996: Richard Karp · Stephen Smale · 1997: Shing-Tung Yau · 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz · 1999: Felix Browder · Ronald R. Coifman2000s
2000: John Griggs Thompson · Karen K. Uhlenbeck · 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao · Elias M. Stein · 2002: James G. Glimm · 2003: Carl R. de Boor · 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan · 2005: Bradley Efron · 2006: Hyman Bass · 2007: Leonard Kleinrock · Andrew J. Viterbi · 2009: David B. Mumford
1963: Luis W. Alvarez · 1964: Julian Schwinger · Harold Clayton Urey · Robert Burns Woodward · 1965: John Bardeen · Peter Debye · Leon M. Lederman · William Rubey · 1966: Jacob Bjerknes · Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar · Henry Eyring · John H. Van Vleck · Vladimir K. Zworykin · 1967: Jesse Beams · Francis Birch · Gregory Breit · Louis Hammett · George Kistiakowsky · 1968: Paul Bartlett · Herbert Friedman · Lars Onsager · Eugene Wigner · 1969: Herbert C. Brown · Wolfgang Panofsky1970s
1970: Robert H. Dicke · Allan R. Sandage · John C. Slater · John A. Wheeler · Saul Winstein · 1973: Carl Djerassi · Maurice Ewing · Arie Jan Haagen-Smit · Vladimir Haensel · Frederick Seitz · Robert Rathbun Wilson · 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen · Paul Flory · William Alfred Fowler · Linus Carl Pauling · Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer · 1975: Hans A. Bethe · Joseph Hirschfelder · Lewis Sarett · E. Bright Wilson · Chien-Shiung Wu · 1976: Samuel Goudsmit · Herbert S. Gutowsky · Frederick Rossini · Verner Suomi · Henry Taube · George Uhlenbeck · 1979: Richard P. Feynman · Herman Mark · Edward M. Purcell · John Sinfelt · Lyman Spitzer · Victor F. Weisskopf1980s
1982: Philip W. Anderson · Yoichiro Nambu · Edward Teller · Charles H. Townes · 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge · Maurice Goldhaber · Helmut Landsberg · Walter Munk · Frederick Reines · Bruno B. Rossi · J. Robert Schrieffer · 1986: Solomon Buchsbaum · Horace Crane · Herman Feshbach · Robert Hofstadter · Chen Ning Yang · 1987: Philip Abelson · Walter Elsasser · Paul C. Lauterbur · George Pake · James A. Van Allen · 1988: D. Allan Bromley · Paul Ching-Wu Chu · Walter Kohn · Norman F. Ramsey · Jack Steinberger · 1989: Arnold O. Beckman · Eugene Parker · Robert Sharp · Henry Stommel1990s
1990: Allan M. Cormack · Edwin M. McMillan · Robert Pound · Roger Revelle · 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow · Ed Stone · Steven Weinberg · 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker · 1993: Val Fitch · Vera Rubin · 1994: Albert Overhauser · Frank Press · 1995: Hans Dehmelt · Peter Goldreich · 1996: Wallace S. Broecker · 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth · Martin Schwarzschild · George Wetherill · 1998: Don L. Anderson · John N. Bahcall · 1999: James Cronin · Leo Kadanoff2000s
2000: Willis E. Lamb · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Gilbert F. White · 2001: Marvin L. Cohen · Raymond Davis Jr. · Charles Keeling · 2002: Richard Garwin · W. Jason Morgan · Edward Witten · 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple · Riccardo Giacconi · 2004: Robert N. Clayton · 2005: Ralph A. Alpher · Lonnie Thompson · 2006: Daniel Kleppner · 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove · Charles P. Slichter · 2008: Berni Alder · James E. Gunn · 2009: Yakir Aharonov · Esther M. Conwell · Warren M. WashingtonCategories:
- Glenn T. Seaborg
- 1912 births
- 1999 deaths
- People from Ishpeming, Michigan
- American chemists
- American Nobel laureates
- Chairmen of the United States Atomic Energy Commission
- Chancellors of the University of California, Berkeley
- Discoverers of chemical elements
- Enrico Fermi Award recipients
- Manhattan Project people
- National Medal of Science laureates
- Nobel laureates in Chemistry
- Perkin Medal
- Priestley Medal
- South Gate, California
- American people of Swedish descent
- Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
- Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
- National Inventors Hall of Fame inductees
- University of California, Berkeley alumni
- University of California, Berkeley faculty
- University of California, Los Angeles alumni
- Vannevar Bush Award recipients
- Foreign Members of the Royal Society
- American skeptics
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