- John Tukey
Infobox_Scientist

name = John Tukey

caption = John Wilder Tukey

birth_date = birth date|1915|6|16

birth_place =New Bedford, Massachusetts , USA

death_date = death date and age|2000|7|26|1915|6|16

death_place =New Brunswick, New Jersey

residence =United States

nationality =American

field =Mathematician

work_institution =Bell Labs Princeton University

alma_mater =Brown University Princeton University

doctoral_advisor =Solomon Lefschetz

doctoral_students =Frederick Mosteller

known_for = FFT algorithmBox plot

Coining the term 'bit'

prizes = [*http://www.amstat.org/awards/index.cfm?fuseaction=wilks Samuel S. Wilks Award*] (1965)National Medal of Science (1973)Shewhart Medal (1976)IEEE Medal of Honor (1982)

[*http://www.asq.org/about-asq/awards/deming.html Deming Medal*] (1982)

[*http://alumni.princeton.edu/main/volunteers/awards/alumni_day_awards/JamesMadisonMedalAward.pdf James Madison Medal*] (1984)Foreign Member of the Royal Society (1991)

footnotes =**John Wilder Tukey**(June 16 ,1915 –July 26 ,2000 ) was an Americanstatistician .**Biography**Tukey was born in

New Bedford, Massachusetts in 1915, and obtained aB.A. in 1936 andM.Sc. in 1937, in chemistry, fromBrown University , before moving toPrinceton University where he received aPh.D. inmathematics .During

World War II , Tukey worked at the Fire Control Research Office and collaborated with Samuel Wilks and William Cochran. After the war, he returned to Princeton, dividing his time between the university and AT&T Bell Laboratories.Among many contributions to

civil society , Tukey served on a committee of theAmerican Statistical Association that produced a report challenging the conclusions of the Kinsey Report, "Statistical Problems of the Kinsey Report on Sexual Behavior in the Human Male".He was awarded the

IEEE Medal of Honor in 1982 "For his contributions to the spectral analysis of random processes and thefast Fourier transform (FFT)algorithm ."Tukey retired in 1985. He died in

New Brunswick, New Jersey onJuly 26 ,2000 .**cientific contributions**His statistical interests were many and varied. He is particularly remembered for his development with

James Cooley of theCooley-Tukey FFT algorithm . In 1970, he contributed significantly to what is today known as the jackknife estimation—also termedQuenouille -Tukey jackknife. He introduced thebox plot in his 1977 book, "Exploratory Data Analysis".Tukey's test , theTukey lambda distribution , and theTukey-Kramer method all bear his name. He is also the creator of several little-known methods such as thetrimean andmedian-median line , an easier alternative tolinear regression .**Statistical terms**Tukey coined many statistical terms that have become part of common usage, but the two most famous coinages attributed to him were related to computer science.

While working with

John von Neumann on early computer designs, Tukey introduced the word "bit " as a contraction of binary digit [*[*] . The term bit was first used in an article by*http://www.linfo.org/bit.html The origin of the 'bit'*]Claude Shannon in 1948.Tukey used the term "software" in a computing context in a 1958 article for American Mathematical Monthly, the first published use of the term. [

*John Tukey, 85, Statistician; Coined the Word 'Software', New York Times, Obituaries, July 28, 2000*]Tukey's statistical techniques played an influential role in the development of

Dorian Shainin ’s simple confirmation “Six Pack Test.” Six Pack Tests were known for being much simpler than t-tests, being non-parametric and having a basic rule set. [*Bhote, Keki, World Class Quality: Using Design of Experiments to Make It Happen, 2nd edition, 2000, Amacom, New York, pp. 196–197 ISBN# 0814404278*]**Statistical practice**He also contributed to

statistical practice and articulated the important distinction betweenexploratory data analysis andconfirmatory data analysis , believing that much statistical methodology placed too great an emphasis on the latter.Though he believed in the utility of separating the two types of analysis, he pointed out that sometimes, especially in

natural science , this was problematic and termed such situationsuncomfortable science .**Quotes***

A D Gordon offered the following summary of Tukey's principles for statistical practice: :... the usefulness and limitation of mathematical statistics; the importance of having methods of statistical analysis that are robust to violations of the assumptions underlying their use; the need to amass experience of the behaviour of specific methods of analysis in order to provide guidance on their use; the importance of allowing the possibility of data's influencing the choice of method by which they are analysed; the need for statisticians to reject the role of 'guardian of proven truth', and to resist attempts to provide once-for-all solutions and tidy over-unifications of the subject; the iterative nature of data analysis; implications of the increasing power, availability and cheapness of computing facilities; the training of statisticians.

*"Far better an approximate answer to the "right" question, which is often vague, than an "exact" answer to the wrong question, which can always be made precise." J. W. Tukey (1962, page 13), "The future of data analysis". "Annals of Mathematical Statistics" 33(1), pp. 1–67.

*"The combination of some data and an aching desire for an answer does not ensure that a reasonable answer can be extracted from a given body of data." J. W. Tukey (1986), "Sunset salvo". "The American Statistician" 40(1). Online at http://www.jstor.org/pss/2683137**Publications***cite book |last=Andrews, David F; Peter J Bickel; Frank R Hampel; Peter J Huber; W H Rogers & John W Tukey |title=Robust estimates of location: survey and advances |year=1972 |publisher=Princeton University Press |isbn=0-691-08113-1 |oclc=369963

*cite book |last=Basford, Kaye E & John W Tukey |title=Graphical analysis of multiresponse data |year=1998 |publisher=Chapman & Hall/CRC |isbn=0-8493-0384-2 |oclc=154674707

*cite book |last=Blackman, R B & John W Tukey |title=The measurement of power spectra from the point of view of communications engineering |year=1959 |publisher=Dover Publications |isbn=0-486-60507-8

*cite book |last=Cochran, William G; Frederick Mosteller & John W Tukey |title=Statistical problems of the Kinsey report on sexual behavior in the human male |year=1954 |publisher=American Statistical Association

*cite book |last=Hoaglin, David C; Frederick Mosteller & John W Tukey (eds) |title=Understanding Robust and Exploratory Data Analysis |year=1983 |publisher=Wiley |isbn=0-471-09777-2 |oclc=8495063

*cite book |last=Hoaglin, David C; Frederick Mosteller & John W Tukey (eds) |title=Exploring Data Tables, Trends and Shapes |year=1985 |publisher=Wiley |isbn=0-471-09776-4 |oclc=11550398

*cite book |last=Hoaglin, David C; Frederick Mosteller & John W Tukey (eds) |title=Fundamentals of exploratory analysis of variance |year=1991 |publisher=Wiley |isbn=0-471-52735-1 |oclc=23180322

*cite book |last=Morganthaler, Stephan & John W Tukey (eds) |title= Configural polysampling: a route to practical robustness |year=1991 |publisher=Wiley |isbn= 0-471-52372-0 |oclc=22381036

*cite book |last=Mosteller, Frederick & John W Tukey |title=Data analysis and regression : a second course in statistics |year=1977 |publisher=Addison-Wesley |isbn= 0-201-04854-X |oclc=3235470

*cite book |last=Tukey |first=John W |title=Convergence and Uniformity in Topology |year=1940 |publisher=Princeton University Press |isbn= 0-691-09568-X |oclc=227948615

*cite book |last=Tukey |first=John W |title=Exploratory Data Analysis |year=1977 |publisher=Addison-Wesley |isbn= 0-201-07616-0 |oclc=3058187

*cite book |last=Tukey, John W; Ian C Ross; Verna Bertrand; et al. |title=Index to statistics and probability |year=1973– |publisher=R & D Press |isbn= 0-88274-001-6 |oclc=745715; "The collected works of John W Tukey", edited by William S Cleveland

*cite book |last=Brillinger |first=David R (ed) |title=Volume I: Time series, 1949–1964 |year=1984 |publisher=Wadsworth |isbn=0-534-03303-2 |oclc=10998116

*cite book |last=Brillinger |first=David R (ed) |title=Volume II: Time series, 1965–1984 |year=1985 |publisher=Wadsworth |isbn=0-534-03304-0 |oclc=159731367

*cite book |last=Jones |first=Lyle V (ed) |title=Volume III: Philosophy and principles of data analysis, 1949–1964 |year=1985 |publisher=Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole |isbn=0-534-03305-9 |oclc=159731367

*cite book |last=Jones |first=Lyle V (ed) |title=Volume IV: Philosophy and principles of data analysis, 1965–1986 |year=1986 |publisher=Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole |isbn=0-534-05101-4 |oclc=165832503

*cite book |last=Cleveland |first=William S (ed) |title=Volume V: Graphics, 1965–1985 |year=1988 |publisher=Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole |isbn=0-534-05102-2 |oclc=230023465

*cite book |last=Mallows |first=Colin L (ed) |title=Volume VI: More mathematical, 1938–1984 |year=1990 |publisher=Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole |isbn=0-534-05103-0 |oclc=232966724

*cite book |last=Cox |first=David R (ed) |title=Volume VII: Factorial and ANOVA, 1949–1962 |year=1992 |publisher=Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole |isbn=0-534-05104-9 |oclc=165366083

*cite book |last=Braun |first=Henry I (ed) |title=Volume VIII: Multiple comparisons, 1949–1983 |year=1994 |publisher=Chapman & Hall/CRC |isbn=0-412-05121-4 |oclc=165099761;About John Tukey

*

* [*http://www.princeton.edu/~mudd/finding_aids/mathoral/pmc41.htm Interview of John Tukey about his experience at Princeton*]**References****External links*** [

*http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~brill/Papers/life.pdf John W. Tukey: His Life and Professional Contributions*] published in "The Annals of Statistics"

* [*http://www.ams.org/notices/200202/fea-tukey.pdf John Wilder Tukey (1915–2000)*] in "Notices of the American Mathematical Society "

* [*http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/departments/sia/tukey/index.html Memories of John Tukey*]

* [*http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/departments/sia/tukey/bio.html Short biography*] by Mary Bittrich

* [*http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/departments/sia/tukey/nytimes.html Obituary*] from "The New York Times "

* [*http://projecteuclid.org/Dienst/UI/1.0/Summarize/euclid.ss/1076102421 "Remembering John W. Tukey"*] , special issue of "Statistical Science "

*Persondata

NAME= Tukey, John

ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Tukey, John Wilder

SHORT DESCRIPTION= AmericanMathematician

DATE OF BIRTH= June 16, 1915

PLACE OF BIRTH=New Bedford, Massachusetts , USA

DATE OF DEATH= 2000-7-26

PLACE OF DEATH=New Brunswick , NJ, USA

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