- Demyelinating disease
Demyelinating disease Classification and external resources
Photomicrograph of a demyelinating MS-Lesion. Immunohistochemical staining for CD68 highlights numerous macrophages (brown). Original magnification 10×.
ICD-10 G35-G37, G61.0 ICD-9 340-341, 357.0 MeSH D003711
A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. This impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves, causing impairment in sensation, movement, cognition, or other functions depending on which nerves are involved.
The term describes the effect of the disease, rather than its cause; some demyelinating diseases are caused by genetics, some by infectious agents, some by autoimmune reactions, and some by unknown factors. Organophosphates, a class of chemicals which are the active ingredients in commercial insecticides such as sheep dip, weed-killers, and flea treatment preparations for pets, etc., will also demyelinate nerves.
Neuroleptics can cause demyelination.
Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system include:
- multiple sclerosis (together with the similar diseases called idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases)
- Vitamin B12 deficiency
- Central pontine myelinolysis
- Tabes Dorsalis
- transverse myelitis
- Devic's disease
- progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
- Optic neuritis
Demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system include:
- Guillain-Barré syndrome and its chronic counterpart, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
- anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy
- Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
- Copper deficiency
- Multiple sclerosis borderline
- The Lesion Project (multiple sclerosis)
- The Myelin Project
- Myelin Repair Foundation
- ^ "demyelinating disease" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- ^ Konopaske GT, Dorph-Petersen KA, Sweet RA, et al. (April 2008). "Effect of chronic antipsychotic exposure on astrocyte and oligodendrocyte numbers in macaque monkeys". Biol. Psychiatry 63 (8): 759–65. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.08.018. PMC 2386415. PMID 17945195. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006-3223(07)00847-5.
Pathology of the nervous system, primarily CNS (G04–G47, 323–349) InflammationBoth/either Brain/
encephalopathyBasal ganglia disease: Parkinsonism (PD, Postencephalitic, NMS) · PKAN · Tauopathy (PSP) · Striatonigral degeneration · Hemiballismus · HD · OADyskinesia: Dystonia (Status dystonicus, Spasmodic torticollis, Meige's, Blepharospasm) · Chorea (Choreoathetosis) · Myoclonus (Myoclonic epilepsy) · AkathesiaDemyelinatingEpisodic/
Both/either Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases of CNS (G35–G37, 340–341) Signs and symptoms Diagnosis and evolution following Investigation Treatment Borderline forms Other Nervous system pathology, PNS, somatic (G50–G64, 350–357) Nerve, nerve root, plexusLower limbGeneral Polyneuropathies/PolyradiculoneuropathyAutoimmune/demyelinatingOther
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