Windsor, Ontario

Windsor, Ontario
—  City  —
City of Windsor
Skyline of Windsor viewed from Detroit


Coat of arms
Nickname(s): The City of Roses, The Automotive Capital of Canada
Motto: The river and the land sustain us.
Location in the County of Essex, in the Province of Ontario
Coordinates: 42°17′N 83°00′W / 42.283°N 83°W / 42.283; -83Coordinates: 42°17′N 83°00′W / 42.283°N 83°W / 42.283; -83
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
County Essex *
Settled 1749
Incorporated 1854
 - Type Council-Manager
 - Mayor Eddie Francis
 - Governing body Windsor City Council
 - CAO Helga Reidel
 - MPs Joe Comartin (NDP)
Brian Masse (NDP)
 - MPPs Dwight Duncan (LIB)
Teresa Piruzza (LIB)
 - Land 146.91 km2 (56.7 sq mi)
 - Metro 1,022.84 km2 (394.9 sq mi)
Elevation 190 m (623 ft)
Population (2006)[1][2]
 - City 216,473
 - Density 1,473.5/km2 (3,816.3/sq mi)
 Metro 323,342
 - Metro density 316.1/km2 (818.7/sq mi)
  (Ranked 20th most populous in Canada) Source: Stats Canada
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC−5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code span N8P to N8T, N8W to N9G
Area code(s) 519 and 226
Separated municipality of Essex County.

Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and is located in Southwestern Ontario at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. It is within Essex County, Ontario, although administratively separated from the county government. Separated by the Detroit River, Windsor is located south of Detroit, Michigan in the United States. Windsor is known as The City of Roses and residents are known as Windsorites.



Mackenzie Hall
Underground Railroad monument Windsor, Ontario

Prior to European exploration and settlement, the Windsor area was inhabited by the First Nations and Native American people. Windsor was settled by the French in 1749 as an agricultural settlement. It is the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in Canada west of Montreal. The area was first named Petite Côte ("Little Coast" - as opposed to the longer coastline on the Detroit side of the river). Later it was called La Côte de Misère ("Poverty Coast") because of the sandy soils near LaSalle.

Windsor's French Canadian heritage is reflected in many French street names, such as Ouellette, Pelissier, François, Pierre, Langlois, Marentette, and Lauzon. The current street system of Windsor (a grid with elongated blocks) reflects the Canadien method of agricultural land division, where the farms were long and narrow, fronting along the river. Today, the north-south street name often indicates the name of the family that at one time farmed the land. The street system of outlying areas is consistent with the British system for granting land concessions. There is a significant French-speaking minority in Windsor and the surrounding area, particularly in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh and LaSalle areas.

Duff-Baby House

In 1794, after the American Revolution, the settlement of "Sandwich" was founded. It was later renamed to Windsor, after the town in Berkshire, England. The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsor's west side is home to some of the oldest buildings in the city, including Mackenzie Hall, originally built as the Essex County Courthouse in 1855. Today, this building functions as a community centre. The oldest building in the city is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792. It is owned by Ontario Heritage Trust and houses government offices. The François Baby House in downtown Windsor was built in 1812 and houses Windsor's Community Museum, dedicated to local history.

The City of Windsor was the site of the Battle of Windsor during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837. It was also a part of the Patriot War, later that year.

Windsor was established as a village in 1854 (the same year the village was connected to the rest of Canada by the Grand Trunk Railway/Canadian National Railway), then became a town in 1858, and ultimately gained city status in 1892.

A fire consumed much of Windsor's downtown core on October 12, 1871, destroying over 100 buildings.[3]

On October 25, 1960, a massive gas explosion destroyed the building housing the Metropolitan Store on Ouellette Avenue. Ten people were killed and at least one hundred injured.[4] The 45th anniversary of the event was commemorated by the Windsor Star on October 25, 2005. It was featured on History Television's Disasters of the Century.

The Windsor Star Centennial Edition in 1992 covered the city's past, its success as a railway centre, and its contributions to World War I and World War II. It also recalled the naming controversy in 1892 when the town of Windsor aimed to become a city. The most popular names listed in the naming controversy were "South Detroit", "The Ferry" (from the ferries that linked Windsor to Detroit), Windsor, and Richmond (the runner-up in popularity). Windsor was chosen to promote the heritage of new English settlers in the city and to recognize Windsor Castle in Berkshire, England. However, Richmond was a popular name used until the Second World War, mainly by the local post office.

Sandwich, Ford City and Walkerville were separate legal entities (towns) in their own right until 1935. They are now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor. Ford City was officially incorporated as a village in 1912; it became a town in 1915, and a city in 1929. Walkerville was incorporated as a town in 1890. Sandwich was established in 1817 as a town with no municipal status. It was incorporated as a town in 1858 (the same year as neighbouring Windsor).

These three towns were each annexed by Windsor in 1935. The nearby villages of Ojibway and Riverside were incorporated in 1913 and 1921 respectively. Both were annexed by Windsor in 1966.[5]


Windsor has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with four distinct seasons. The mean annual temperature is 9.5°C (49°F), among the warmest in Canada primarily due to its hot summers. Some locations in coastal and lower mainland British Columbia have a slightly higher mean annual temperature due to milder winter conditions. The coldest month is January and the warmest month is July. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Windsor was −29.1 °C (−20.4 °F) and the warmest was 40.2 °C (104.4 °F).[6]

Summers are hot and humid, and the annual average rain is 94 cm (37 inches). Winters are generally cold with occasional mild periods. Windsor is not located in the lake effect snowbelts and snow cover is intermittent throughout the winter lasting 52 days of snow on the ground compared to 88 days of snow in the ground in London Ontario.; nevertheless, there are typically two to five major snowfall events each winter. Summers are warm/hot and humid with humidex reaching 30 Celcius or above 69 times in a average summer, and thunderstorms are common every 5 days or so. Windsor has the highest number of days per year with lightning, haze, and daily maximum temperatures over 30 °C (86 °F) of cities in Canada. Windsor is also home to Canada's warmest fall, with highest average temperatures for the months of September, October and November. Precipitation is generally well-distributed throughout the year. There are on average 2,265 sunshine hours per year in Windsor.[7]


The strongest and deadliest tornado to touch down in Windsor was a category F4 in 1946. Windsor was the only Canadian city to experience a tornado during the Super Outbreak of 1974, an F3 which killed nine people at the Windsor Curling Club. The city was grazed in 1997 by the Southeast Michigan Tornado Outbreak with one tornado (an F1) forming east of the city. Tornadoes have been recorded crossing the Detroit River (in 1946 and 1997), and waterspouts are regularly seen over Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie especially in autumn.

On April 25, 2009, an F0 tornado briefly touched down in the city's east end causing minor damage to nearby buildings, most notably a CUPE union hall.[8]

Climate data for Windsor
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.8
Average high °C (°F) −0.9
Average low °C (°F) −8.1
Record low °C (°F) −29.1
Precipitation mm (inches) 57.6
Rainfall mm (inches) 28.7
Snowfall cm (inches) 35.0
Avg. precipitation days 15.1 12.3 13.9 13.3 11.8 11.0 10.2 10.0 10.9 10.5 12.8 14.9 146.7
Avg. rainy days 5.7 5.6 9.4 12.2 11.8 11.0 10.2 10.0 10.9 10.5 10.6 7.9 115.8
Avg. snowy days 12.5 9.1 6.7 2.3 .03 0 0 0 0 .33 3.8 10.2 44.96
Sunshine hours 105.4 127.6 167.4 198 260.4 270 294.5 257.3 210 170.5 123 80.6 2,265
Source: Environment Canada[9]

Air pollution

Windsor Air Quality Study 2010 to 2011

Respiratory illnesses that are associated with pollution are more prevalent here than elsewhere in Canada as Windsor is downwind from several strong polluters.[10]

The Weather Network has designated Windsor as "the smog capital of Canada."[11] Windsor's Citizens Environment Alliance holds a yearly art event entitled Smogfest to raise awareness of air quality issues.

A 2001 article in Environmental Health Perspectives stated that the rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution.[12]

In the summer of 2003, Transit Windsor provided free transit on smog advisory days. The pilot project was extremely successful and drew interest from across the country and Europe. Ridership increased nearly 50% on those days. There was extensive local media coverage, stories on the project were featured on The Weather Network, CBC NewsWorld, in newspapers and on radio stations across the nation.[13] Despite the success, the pilot project was discontinued, as the budget for the program was quickly expended.


Windsor's Riverside Drive and Riverfront Bike Trail from Dieppe Gardens.

Windsor's Department of Parks and Recreation[14] maintains 3,000 acres (12 km2) of green space, 180 parks, 40 miles (64 km) of trails, 22 miles (35 km) of sidewalk, 60 parking lots, vacant lands, natural areas and forest cover within the city of Windsor. The largest park is Mic Mac Park, which can accommodate many different activities including baseball, soccer, biking, and sledding. Windsor has numerous bike trails, the largest being the Ganatchio Trail on the far east side of the city. In recent years, city council has pushed for the addition of bicycle lanes on city streets to provide links throughout the existing trail network.

The Windsor trail network is linked to the LaSalle Trail in the west end, and will eventually be linked to the Chrysler Canada Greenway (part of the Trans Canada Trail). The current greenway is a 42 km former railway corridor that has been converted into a multi-use recreational trail, underground utility corridor and natural green space. The corridor begins south of Oldcastle and continues south through McGregor, Harrow, Kingsville, and Ruthven. The Greenway is a fine trail for hiking, biking, running, birding, cross country skiing and in some areas, horseback riding. It connects natural areas, rich agricultural lands, historically and architecturally significant structures, and award winning wineries. A separate 5 km landscaped traverses the riverfront between downtown and the Ambassador Bridge. Part of this trail winds through Odette Sculpture Park, displaying various modern and post-modern sculptures from artists in Essex County. Families of elephants (see picture), penguins, horses, and many other themed sculptures are found in the park.


Windsor's economy is primarily based on education, manufacturing, tourism, and government services.

Both the University of Windsor and St. Clair College are significant local employers and have enjoyed substantial growth and expansion in recent years. The recent addition of a full-program satellite medical school of the University of Western Ontario, which opened in 2008 at the University of Windsor is further enhancing the region's economy and the status of the university. The university is currently constructing a $112 million facility for their Engineering Faculty.

Windsor has a well-established tourism industry. Caesars Windsor (formerly Casino Windsor), one of the largest casinos in Canada, ranks as one of the largest local employers. It has been a major draw for U.S. visitors since opening in 1994. Further, the 1,150-kilometre (710 mi) Quebec City – Windsor Corridor contains 18 million people, with 51% of the Canadian population and three out of the four largest metropolitan areas, according to the 2001 Census.


The city also boasts an extensive riverfront parks system and fine restaurants, such as those on Erie Street in Windsor's Little Italy called "Via Italia", another popular tourist destination. The Lake Erie North Shore Wine Region in Essex County has enhanced tourism in the region.

Windsor is the headquarters of Hiram Walker & Sons Limited, now owned by Pernod Ricard. Its historic distillery was founded by Hiram Walker in 1858 in what was then Walkerville, Ontario.

Windsor is one of Canada's major automobile manufacturing centres. However, plant closures and significant job losses in recent years have impacted Windsor's automotive manufacturing industry. The city is home to the headquarters of Chrysler Canada. Automotive facilities include the Chrysler minivan assembly plant, two Ford Motor Company engine plants, and a number of tool and die and automotive parts manufacturers.

The city's diversifying economy is also represented by companies involved in pharmaceuticals, alternative energy, insurance, internet and software. Windsor is also home to the Windsor Salt Mine and the Great Lakes Regional office of the International Joint Commission.


Census Population
1841 300
1871 4,253
1881 6,561
1891 10,322
1901 12,153
1911 17,829
1921 38,591
1931 63,108
1941 104,415
1951 120,049
1961 114,367
1971 203,300
1981 192,083
1991 191,435
2001 208,402
2006 216,473
Ethnic Origin, 2001[15]
Ethnic Origin Percentage
Canadian 28.1%
French 21.2%
English 18.5%
Irish 13.1%
Scottish 12.1%
Italian 9.7%
German 7.1%
Polish 4.0%
Lebanese 2.9%
Ukrainian 2.9%
multiple responses included
Religion, 2001[16]
Religion Percentage
Catholic 48.3%
Protestant 23.9%
No religion 12.1%
Muslim 4.8%
Orthodox 4.3%

In 2006, the population of Windsor was 216,473 and that of the Windsor metropolitan area (consisting of Windsor, Tecumseh, Amherstburg, LaSalle and Lakeshore) was 323,342.[17] This represents a growth of 3.5% in the city population since 2001 and a growth of 5.0% in the metropolitan area population since 2001.[18] During the same period, Ontario grew by 6.1% and Canada by 5.4%.[19]

Because of its jobs, Windsor attracts many immigrants from around the world. Over 20% of the population is foreign-born; this is the fourth-highest proportion for a Canadian city. Visible minorities make up 21.0% of the population, making it the most diverse city in Ontario outside of the Greater Toronto Area.[20][21]

From the 2001 Canadian census, Windsor's population was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. Children under five accounted for 6.3% of the city population compared to 5.6% for Canada. Persons of retirement age (65 years and over) accounted for 14.1% of the population in Windsor compared to 13.0% for Canada. The median age in Windsor is 36.0 years compared to 37.6 years for Canada.[22]


Windsor City Hall.

Windsor's history as an industrial centre has given the New Democrats (a party partially founded, governed and supported by labour unions), a dedicated voting base. During federal and provincial elections, Windsorites have maintained its local representation in the respective legislatures. The Liberal Party of Canada also has a strong electoral history in the city. Canada's 21st Prime Minister Paul Martin was born in Windsor. His father Paul Martin (Sr.), a federal cabinet minister in several portfolios through the Liberal governments of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, was first elected to the House of Commons from a Windsor riding in the 1930s. Martin (Sr.) practiced law in the city and the federal building on Ouellette Avenue is named after him. Eugene Whelan was a Liberal cabinet minister and one-time Liberal party leadership candidate elected from Essex County from the 1960s to the early 1980s, as well as Mark MacGuigan of Windsor-Walkerville riding, who also served as External Affairs, and later Justice minister in the early 1980s. Deputy Prime Minister Herb Gray represented Windsor as an MP from 1962 through 2003, winning thirteen consecutive elections making him the longest serving MP in Canadian history.[23] A bust of Herb Gray is located at the foot of Ouellette Avenue near Dieppe Park in downtown Windsor.

Current representation

The current mayor of Windsor is Eddie Francis, a Lebanese Canadian. He was the city's youngest mayor when he was first elected at age 29 in 2003. Windsor is governed under the Council-Manager form of local government and includes the elected City Council, mayor, and an appointed Chief Administrative Officer. The city is divided into ten wards, with one councillor representing each ward. The mayor serves as the chief executive officer of the city and functions as its ceremonial head. Day-to-day operations of the government are carried out by the Chief Administrative Officer. In August 2009, Windsor City Council approved a 10-ward electoral system for the 2010 civic election. Under the new plan, voters will elect one Councillor in each of the ten new wards. The new election map will double the number of wards that have existed along unchanged boundaries for 30 years.[24]

At the provincial and federal levels, Windsor is divided into two ridings: Windsor West and Windsor—Tecumseh. The city is currently represented in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario by two Liberal MPPs: Teresa Piruzza (Windsor West), and Dwight Duncan (Windsor—Tecumseh).

Federally, Windsor West was a longtime Liberal stronghold under Herb Gray, while Windsor—Tecumseh has traditionally been a Liberal-NDP swing riding. Both ridings are currently represented in the federal Parliament by NDP MPs: Brian Masse (Windsor West) and Joe Comartin (Windsor—Tecumseh).

New city wards

Ward 1 : South(west) Windsor including Roseland, Ojibway Park and Windsor Raceway

Ward 2 : West Windsor including University District and Old Sandwich Towne

Ward 3 : Central Windsor including City Centre, Via Italia, and South Central

Ward 4 : Walkerville and South Walkerville

Ward 5 : East Windsor and Ford City including western Fountainbleau

Ward 6 : Old Riverside including Little River Acres (The Villages) and Pilette Village

Ward 7 : Forest Glade and East Riverside

Ward 8 : eastern Fountainbleau including Roseville Gardens; East Windsor

Ward 9 : South Windsor including Devonshire Heights, Windsor Airport and Old Sandwich South

Ward 10: South Cameron and Remington Park communities

Culture and tourism

Art Gallery of Windsor overlooking riverfront rock gardens

Windsor tourist attractions include Caesars Windsor, a lively downtown, Little Italy, the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Odette Sculpture Park, and Ojibway Park. As a border settlement, Windsor was a site of conflict during the War of 1812, a major entry point into Canada for refugees from slavery via the Underground Railroad and a major source of liquor during American Prohibition. Two sites in Windsor have been designated as National Historic Sites of Canada: the Sandwich First Baptist Church, a church established by Underground Railroad refugees, and François Bâby House, an important War of 1812 site now serving as Windsor's Community Museum.[25][26]

The Capitol Theatre in downtown Windsor had been a venue for feature films, plays and other attractions since 1929, until it declared bankruptcy in 2007. As of 2009 the Capitol Theatre was open, showcasing various features.

Windsor's nickname is the "Rose City" or the "City of Roses" and Windsor has designated a rose known as Liebeszauber (Love's Magic) as the City of Windsor Rose.[27] Windsor is noted for the several large parks and gardens found on its waterfront. The Queen Elizabeth II Sunken Garden is located at Jackson Park in the central part of the city. A World War II era Avro Lancaster was displayed on a stand in the middle of Jackson Park for over four decades but has since been removed for restoration. This park is now home to a mounted Spitfire replica and a Hurricane replica.

Chrysler's Canada HQ in downtown Windsor, as seen from Dieppe Gardens along the riverfront.

Of the parks lining Windsor's waterfront, the largest is the 5 km (three mile) stretch overlooking the Detroit skyline. It extends from the Ambassador Bridge to the Hiram Walker Distillery. The western portion of the park contains the Odette Sculpture Park which features over 30 large-scale contemporary sculptures for public viewing, along with the Canadian Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The central portion contains Dieppe Gardens, Civic Terrace and Festival Plaza, and the eastern portion is home to the Bert Weeks Memorial Gardens. Further east along the waterfront is Coventry Gardens, across from Detroit's Belle Isle. The focal point of this park is the Charles Brooks Memorial Peace Fountain which floats in the Detroit River and has a coloured light display at night. The fountain is the largest of its kind in North America and symbolizes the peaceful relationship between Canada and the United States.

Each summer, Windsor co-hosts the two-week-long Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festival, which culminates in a gigantic fireworks display that celebrates Canada Day and US Independence Day. The fireworks display is among the world's largest and is held on the final Wednesday in June over the Detroit River between the two downtowns. Each year, the event attracts over a million spectators to both sides of the riverfront.

Following the 2008 Red Bull Air Race World Championship in Detroit, Michigan, Windsor successfully put in a bid to become the first Canadian city to host the event. Red Bull touted the 2009 race in Windsor as one of the most exciting in the seven-year history of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship,[28] and on January 22, 2010, it was announced that Windsor will be a host city for the 2010 and 2011 circuits,[29] along with a select group of major international cities that includes Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Perth, Australia and New York, New York. The event attracted 200,000 fans to the Detroit River waterfront in 2009. The Red Bull air races were cancelled worldwide for 2011.[30]

Windsor has often been the place where many metro Detroiters find what is forbidden in the United States. With a minimum legal drinking age of 21 in Michigan and 19 in Ontario, a number of 19 and 20-year-old Americans frequent Windsor's bars. The city also became a gaming attraction with Caesars Windsor's opening in 1994, five years before casinos opened in Detroit. In addition, one can purchase Cuban cigars, Cuban Rum, less-costly prescription drugs, Absinthe, certain imported foods, and other items not available in the United States. In addition, many same-sex couples from the United States have chosen to marry in Windsor, which is illegal in Michigan and most parts of the United States, but is legal in Canada.


Windsor Star offices on Ferry Street

Windsor is considered part of the Detroit television and radio market for purposes of territorial rights. Due to this fact, and its proximity to Toledo and Cleveland, radio and television broadcasters in Windsor are accorded a special status by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, exempting them from many of the Canadian content ("CanCon") requirements most broadcasters in Canada are required to follow. The CanCon requirements are sometimes blamed in part for the decline in popularity of Windsor radio station CKLW, a 50,000 watt AM radio station that in the late 1960s (prior to the advent of CanCon) had been the top-rated radio station not only in Detroit and Windsor, but also in Toledo and Cleveland.

Windsor has also been exempt from concentration of media ownership rules. Except for Blackburn Radio-owned stations CJWF-FM and a rebroadcaster of Chatham's CKUE-FM in Windsor, all other current commercial media outlets are owned by a single company, CTVglobemedia.

The city is also home to one campus radio station, CJAM-FM, situated on the University of Windsor campus.[31]


Dillon Hall, University of Windsor
St. Clair College campus on Riverside Drive.

Windsor is home to the University of Windsor, which is Canada's southernmost university. It is a research oriented, comprehensive university with a student population of 16,000 full-time graduate and undergraduate students. Now entering its most ambitious capital expansion since its founding in 1963, the University of Windsor opened its Medical Education Building, which houses the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry. As well, with the help of $40 million in Ontario government funding, the University will construct a new 300,000-square-foot (28,000 m2), $112-million Centre for Engineering Innovation, a structure that will establish revolutionary design standards across Canada and beyond.

The university is just east of the Ambassador Bridge, south of the Detroit River. Windsor is also home to St. Clair College with a student population of 6500 full-time students. Its main campus is in Windsor, and it also has campuses in Chatham and Wallaceburg. In 2007, St. Clair College opened a satellite campus in downtown Windsor in the former Cleary International Centre. In April 2010, St. Clair College added to its downtown Windsor presence with the addition of its MediaPlex school. Together, they bring over one thousand students into the downtown core every day. More recently Collège Boréal opened an access centre and small campus to their Ouellette avenue location. This small campus offers access to many Collège Boréal programmes as well as immigration and integration assistance for francophones in the area. Collège Boréal is Windsor's only francophone post-secondary institution, providing service for a small, but notable, population of Franco-Ontarien within the Windsor-Tecumseh-Belle River area.

In Spring 2011, it was announced that the University of Windsor would move its music and visual art programs downtown to be housed in the historic Armouries building at Freedom Way and University Ave E. The move should bring an additional 500 students into the downtown core daily. The University is also studying the feasibility of moving the School of Social Work to the Windsor Star buildings at the corner of Pitt and Ferry streets.

Windsor is home to two International Baccalaureate recognized schools: Assumption College School (a Catholic high school) and Académie Ste. Cécile International School (a private school). Vincent Massey Secondary School is renowned in Southern Ontario for its notable accomplishments nationally in mathematics and computer science.

Windsor youth attend schools in the Greater Essex County District School Board, the Windsor-Essex Catholic District School Board, Conseil scolaire de district des écoles catholiques du Sud-Ouest and Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest more recently known as Conseil scolaire Viamonde. Independent faith-based schools include Maranatha Christian Academy (JK-12), First Lutheran Christian Academy (preschool-8), and Académie Ste. Cécile International School (JK-12, including International Baccalaureate), and Windsor Adventist Elementary School. The non-denominational Lakeview Montessori School is a private school as well.

The Windsor Public Library offers education, entertainment and community history materials, programs and services. The main branch coordinates a literacy program for adults needing functional literacy upgrading.

The Canada South Science City[32] serves the Elementary School Curriculum’s Science and Technology component.


Health systems

There are two hospitals in Windsor: Hôtel-Dieu Grace Hospital and Windsor Regional Hospital. Hôtel-Dieu Grace Hospital is the result of an amalgamation of Grace Hospital and Hôtel-Dieu in 1994. The merger occurred due to the Government of Ontario's province-wide policy to consolidate resources into Local Health Integrated Networks, or LHINs. This was to eliminate duplicate services and allocate resources more efficiently across the region. The policy resulted in the closure of many community-based and historically important hospitals across the province. Two of Windsor's independent hospitals: Metropolitan General Hospital on Lens Ave and Windsor Western Hospital on Prince Road, were joined to form Windsor Regional Hospital. The original hospital sites remain but the operations are administratively centralized through the new collective structure.

Windsor hospitals have formal and informal agreements with Detroit-area hospitals. For instance, pediatric neurosurgery is no longer performed in Windsor. The Windsor Star reported in July 2007 that Hôtel-Dieu Grace has formally instituted an agreement with Detroit's Harper Hospital to provide this specialty and surgery for the dozen patients requiring care annually. Leamington District Memorial Hospital in Leamington, Ontario serves much of Essex County and, along with the Windsor institutions, share resources with the Chatham-Kent Health Alliance.

Over five thousand Windsor residents are employed in the health care industry alone in Metro Detroit. With more work hours and a generally higher rate of pay, there is frustration among Windsor hospital administration to attract and retain skilled nurses and doctors to work in Ontario.

The Essex County Medical Society lists family doctors accepting patients.[33] Many people who do not seek a family doctor use the region's many walk-in clinics for regular medical conditions.


See also: Roads in Windsor, Ontario, and Bike trails in Windsor, Ontario.
Highway 401 in Windsor near its western terminus with Dougall Parkway.
New bus terminal opened in 2007.

Windsor is the western terminus of both Highway 401, Canada's busiest highway, and Via Rail's Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. Windsor's Via station is the nation's sixth-busiest in terms of passenger volumes. The city is served by Windsor Airport with regular, scheduled commuter air service by Air Canada Jazz and heavy general aviation traffic. The Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport is located approximately 40 km across the border in Romulus, Michigan and is the airport of choice for many Windsor residents as it has regular flights to a larger variety of destinations than Windsor Airport.[34] Windsor is also located on the St. Lawrence Seaway, and is accessible to ocean-going vessels.

Local transportation is provided by Transit Windsor, the city-owned bus company, which shares its newly constructed $8-million downtown depot with Greyhound Lines. The new depot opened in 2007.

Windsor has a municipal highway, E.C. Row Expressway, running east-west through the city. Consisting of 15.7 km (9.8 mi) of highway and nine interchanges, the expressway is the fastest way for commuters to travel across the city. E.C. Row Expressway is actually in the Guinness Book of Records as the shortest freeway that took the longest time to build as it took more than 15 years to complete[citation needed]. The expressway stretches from Windsor's far west end at Ojibway Parkway east to Banwell Road on the city's border with Tecumseh.

Via rail train at Windsor train station

The majority of development in Windsor stretches along the water instead of in-land. Due to this, there is a lack of east-west arteries compared to north-south arteries. Only Riverside Drive, Wyandotte Street, Tecumseh Road and the E.C. Row Expressway serve the almost 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the west end of Windsor eastward. All of these roads are burdened with east-west commuter traffic from the development in the city's east end and suburbs further east. There are eight north-south roads interchanging with the expressway: Huron Church Road, Dominion Boulevard, Dougall Avenue, Howard Avenue, Walker Road, Central Avenue, Jefferson Boulevard, and Lauzon Parkway. Traffic backups on some of these north-south roads at the E.C. Row Expressway are common, mainly at Dominion, Dougall, Howard, and Walker as the land south of the expressway and east of Walker is occupied by Windsor airport and there is little development.

Windsor's many rail crossings intersect with these north-south thoroughfares. In October 2008, the Province of Ontario completed a grade separation at Walker Road and the CP Rail line. Another grade separation was completed in November 2010 at Howard Avenue and the CP Rail line. In both cases, the road travels under the rail line and both have below grade intersections with an east-west street. These were planned as parts of the "Let's Get Windsor-Essex Moving" project funded by the Province of Ontario to improve local transportation infrastructure.

Windsor is connected to Essex and Leamington via Highway 3, and is well connected to the other municipalities and communities throughout Essex County via the county road network. Nearly 20,000 vehicles travel on Highway 3 in Essex County on a daily basis. It is the main route to work for many residents of Leamington, Kingsville and Essex.

Windsor is linked to the United States by the Ambassador Bridge, the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel, a Canadian Pacific Railway tunnel, and the Detroit-Windsor Truck Ferry. The Ambassador Bridge is North America's #1 international border crossing in terms of goods volume: 27% of all trade between Canada and the United States crosses at the Ambassador Bridge.

Windsor has a bike trail network including the (Riverfront Bike Trail, Ganatchio Bike Trail, and Little River Extension). They have become a blend of parkland and transportation, as people use the trails to commute to work or across downtown on their bicycles.

The Port of Windsor is located on the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway System, on the Detroit River. The port is the third largest Canadian Great Lakes port in terms of shipments.[35]

Ambassador Bridge and potential third crossing

The Ambassador Bridge at sunset.

A major and controversial issue is the amount of traffic to and from the Ambassador Bridge. The number of vehicles crossing the bridge has doubled since 1990. However, the total volume of traffic has been declining since the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Access to the Ambassador Bridge is via two municipal roads: Huron Church Road and Wyandotte Street. A large portion of the traffic consists of tractor-trailers. There have been at times a wall of trucks up to 8 km (5.0 mi) long on Huron Church Road. This road cuts through the west end of the city and the trucks are the source of many complaints about noise, pollution and pedestrian hazards. In 2003, a single mother of three, Jacqueline Bouchard, was struck and killed by a truck at the corner of Huron Church and Girardot Avenue in front of Assumption College Catholic High School, a tragedy argued to be due to a lack of practical safety precautions.[36]

Windsor City Council hired famous traffic consultant Sam Schwartz to produce a proposal for a solution to this traffic problem. City councillors overwhelmingly endorsed the proposal and it was presented to the federal government as a "Made in Windsor" solution. Not all of the surrounding residents supported the plan. One problem with the plan is that the proposed road would cut through protected green spaces such as the Ojibway Prairie Reserve.

In 2005, the Detroit River International Crossing (DRIC - a joint Canadian-American committee studying the options for expanding the border crossing) announced that its preferred option was to extend Highway 401 directly westward to a new bridge spanning the Detroit River and interchange with Interstate 75 somewhere between the existing Ambassador Bridge span and Wyandotte.

On April 9, 2010, the City of Windsor, along with local cabinet ministers Dwight Duncan and Sandra Pupatello of the Province of Ontario, announced that a final decision had been made in the plans to construct the Windsor-Essex Parkway, the new Highway 401 extension leading to a future crossing. The announcement indicated that the project will be the most expensive road ever built in Canada per kilometre, and included commitments to enhance green space design through the use of berming, landscaping, and other aesthetic treatments. As part of negotiations with the City of Windsor (who threatened legal action in pursuit of more tunneling and green space of the route), the province agreed to additional funding to infrastructure projects in Windsor-Essex; this includes money for the improvement to the plaza of the Canadian side of the Windsor-Detroit tunnel, the widening and other improvements of Walker Rd between Division Rd and E.C. Row Expressway, and the environmental assessment and preliminary design of a future extension of Lauzon Parkway to Highway 401.


City of Windsor as Seen From Detroit

Sister cities

Windsor has several sister cities in the world - dates are in parentheses:


The WFCU Centre is the current home of the Windsor Spitfires.

Windsor's sports fans tend to support the major professional sports league teams in either Detroit or Toronto, but the city itself is home to the following youth, minor league, post-secondary and professional teams. Many Windsor sports teams at the amateur level are sponsored by the AKO Fraternity.

Former teams

Red Bull Air Races

Windsor has hosted a round of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship in each of 2009 and 2010 (Detroit hosted the race in 2008). The races take place on a course of pylons set up on the Detroit River, right over the border between Canada and the USA.

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ a b "Windsor (city) community profile". 2006 Census data. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  2. ^ a b "Windsor (census metropolitan area) community profile". 2006 Census data. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  3. ^ "The Timeline: Fire of 1871". Settling Canada's South: How Windsor Was Made. Windsor Public Library. 2002. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  4. ^ History
  5. ^ "City of Windsor: Heritage". City of Windsor. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  6. ^ Environment Canada. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
  7. ^
  8. ^ Enivronment Canada. Retrieved April 28, 2009.
  9. ^ Environment CanadaCanadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  10. ^ Windsor 'the most polluted city in North America': RFK Jr
  11. ^ The Weather Network - Air Quality - Air Quality - A Provincial Prospective
  12. ^ Gilbertson M, Brophy J (December 2001). "Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern". Environ. Health Perspect.. 109 (Brogan &#38) Suppl 6: 827–43. doi:10.2307/3454645. JSTOR 3454645. PMC 1240618. PMID 11744501. 
  13. ^ Transit on Smog Days
  14. ^ "Parks and Facility Operations". City of Windsor. Retrieved January 21, 2007. 
  15. ^ Selected Ethnic Origin for Windsor, 2001. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 17 April 2009.
  16. ^ Religion for Windsor, 2001. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 17 April 2009.
  17. ^ City of Windsor. Demographics. Available online at:
  18. ^ National Post. "2001 census analysis: Highlights" Available online at:
  19. ^
  20. ^ Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada - Data table
  21. ^ Visible Minorities and Ethnicity in Ontario
  22. ^ Age & Sex
  23. ^ Parliament of Canada (website) “History of Federal Ridings since 1867”. . Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  24. ^ By-law to redivide the wards in the City of Windsor
  25. ^ Sandwich First Baptist Church. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  26. ^ François Bâby House. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  27. ^ 'City of Windsor' Rose
  28. ^ Red Bull Air Race
  29. ^ Windsor locks in Red Bull air races for two years
  30. ^ Red Bull Air Race 2011
  31. ^ CJAM 91.5 Windsor / Detroit Campus Community Radio
  32. ^ Canada South Science City
  33. ^ "Doctor's Taking Patients", Essex County Medical Society. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
  34. ^
  35. ^ PORT WINDSOR - About the Port[dead link]
  36. ^ Suit settled in death that led to overpass
  37. ^ Changchun City, China website. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  38. ^ a b Coventry Twin Cities (Windsor. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  39. ^ L'Association socioculturelle Granby et ses villes jumelées. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  40. ^ Gunsan City Worldwide Sisterhood Cities. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  41. ^ Lublin's Partner and Friend Cities. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  42. ^ Mannheims Partnerstädte - von Bydgoszcz bis Zhenjiang. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  43. ^ City of Windsor, Our Twin Cities (Las Vueltas). Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  44. ^ Città gemellate (Windsor)[dead link]. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  45. ^ Welcome To Windsor Rugby (Windsor Rogues Rugby)

External links

  • Woodford, Arthur M. (2001). This is Detroit 1701–2001. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2914-4. 

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