Rûm, also "Roum" or "Rhum" (in Arabic الرُّومُ "ar-Rūm", Persian/Turkish "Rum"), is a very indefinite term used at different times in the
Muslim worldfor Europeans generally and for the Byzantine Empirein particular, for the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûmin Asia Minor, and for Greeksinhabiting Ottoman or modern Turkish territory as well as for Greek Cypriots. The name is loaned from the Byzantine Greek self-designation Ρωμιοί"Romans". The city of Romeitself, by contrast, is known in Arabic as _ar. روما "Rūmā".
Qur'anincludes Surat Ar-Rum(i.e., the Sura dealing with "The Romans" or "The Byzantines"). The Byzantine Greeks, as the continuation of the Roman Empire, called themselves Ρωμιοί or Ρωμαίοι "Rhomaioi", Romans, and the Arabs, therefore, called them "the Rûm", their territory "the land of the Rûm", and the Mediterranean "the Sea of the Rûm." They called ancient Greece by the name "Yūnān" ( Ionia) and ancient Greeks "Yūnānī" (similar with Hebrew"Yavan" [יוון] for the country and "Yevanim" [יוונים] for the people). The ancient Romans were called either "Rūm" or sometimes "Latin'yun" (Latins). Later, because Muslim contact with the Byzantine Greeks most often took place in Asia Minor, the term Rûm became fixed there geographically and remained even after the conquest by the Seljuk Turks, so that their territory was called the land of the Seljuks of Rûm, or the Sultanate of Rûm. But as the Mediterranean was "the Sea of the Rûm", so all peoples on its north coast were called sweepingly "the Rûm".
Al-Andalusany Christianslave girl who had embraced Islamwas named "Roumiya". Also the legendary lover of King Rodericand daughter of Count Julian is named "La Cava Rumía" [ Miguel de Cervantes, " Don Quixote", Part I, Chapter 41 ( [http://cvc.cervantes.es/obref/quijote/edicion/parte1/parte04/cap41/default_02.htm Spanish text] , [http://www.online-literature.com/cervantes/don_quixote/45/ English text] ).] — her affair being the putative cause of the Moorish invasion of Hispaniain AD 711. The crusadesintroduced the Franks("Ifranja"), and later Arabic writers recognize them and their civilization on the north shore of the Mediterranean west from Rome; so Ibn Khaldunwrote in the latter part of the 14th century.
Al-Rūmī is a nisbah designating people originating in the Byzantine empire. Historical people so designated include:
Suhayb ar-Rumi, a companion of Muhammad
*Mawlānā Jalāl-ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (
Rumi), the 13th century Persian poet
Qāḍī Zāda al-Rūmī, 14th century mathematician
Rûm Province, Ottoman Empire
*Edirne Ciğeri, a Turkish meat dish also referred to as "Rumeli Ciğeri".
Rumi calendar, a calendar based on the Julian Calendar, used by the Ottoman Empire after Tanzimat.
Mevlana, who is sometimes referred to as "Rumi".
*Rumiye-i Suğra, the name of the region in Ottoman Empire which included
Tokat, Amasya, and Sivas.
*Rumçi, another term used to refer to the Greeks during the Ottoman times.
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