Marginal sea

Marginal sea
Marginal seas as defined by the IMO
The Arabian Sea as a marginal sea of the Indian Ocean

The term marginal sea has differing meanings. In one sense the term is equivalent to territorial waters.[1] In another sense the term indicates a partially enclosed sea adjacent to or widely open to the open ocean, but bounded by submarine ridges.[2] The definition of "marginal sea" is politically important as reflecting on the power of national claims over the resources of the sea.[3]

Marginal seas of the world

The Norwegian Sea

Sources differ over which seas are considered marginal seas as well as which ocean a given sea is considered a marginal part of. There is no single ultimate authority on the matter.

Marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean:

The Irish Sea

Marginal seas of the Atlantic Ocean:

Marginal seas of the Indian Ocean:

Agean, Adriatic, Ionian, and Tyrrhenian seas

Marginal seas of the Mediterranean Sea:

Marginal sea of the Black Sea:

Coral Sea

Marginal seas of the Pacific Ocean:

Marginal seas of the Southern Ocean:

The Caribbean Sea is sometimes defined as a marginal sea,[3] sometimes as a mediterranean sea.[2]


  1. ^ George M. Cole (21 March 1997). Water boundaries. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 137–139. ISBN 9780471179290. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (1994). Glossary of the mapping sciences. ASCE Publications. p. 469. ISBN 9780784400500. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q James C. F. Wang (1992). Handbook on ocean politics & law. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 14–. ISBN 9780313264344. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  4. ^ Kara Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. ^ Laptev Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ Longhurt, Alan R. (2007). Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press. p. 104. ISBN 9780124555211. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  7. ^ Andaman Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica

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