Cumbria Geography Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county Origin 1974 (Local Government Act 1972) Region North West England Area
6,768 km2 (2,613 sq mi)
Admin HQ Carlisle ISO 3166-2 GB-CMA ONS code 16 NUTS NUTS 3 UKD11/12 Demography Population
- Total (2008)
- Admin. council
73.4 /km2 (190 /sq mi)
- 95.1% White British
- 2.2% White Other
- 1.1% South Asian
- 0.7% Mixed Race
- 0.4% Black
- 0.3% Other
- 0.2% Chinese
Cumbria County Council
Executive Members of Parliament
- Tony Cunningham (L)
- Tim Farron (LD)
- John Woodcock (LC)
- Rory Stewart (C)
- John Stevenson (C)
- Jamie Reed (L)
Cumbria ( /ˈkʌmbriə/, locally [ˈkʊmbɾiə]), is a non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local authority, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's largest settlement and county town is Carlisle. It consists of six districts, and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2 (190/sq mi). Despite this, the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness, in the south, has a population density over twelve times this at 921/km2 (2,385.3/sq mi).
Cumbria, the third largest ceremonial county in England by area, is bounded to the north by the Scottish council area of Dumfries and Galloway, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland.
A predominantly rural county, Cumbria contains the Lake District and Lake District National Park, considered one of England's most outstanding areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists, writers and musicians. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England over 900 metres (3,000 ft) above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 978 metres (3,209 ft) being the highest point of England. An upland, coastal and rural area, Cumbria's heritage is characterised by invasions, migration and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and Scottish. Historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, and Hadrian's Wall.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 4 Education
- 5 Transport
- 6 Demography
- 7 Settlements
- 8 Symbols and county emblems
- 9 Sport
- 10 Media
- 11 Places of interest
- 12 Notable people
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
HistoryMain article: History of Cumbria
At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c. 410 AD) the inhabitants of Cumbria were Old Welsh-speaking native "Romano-Britons" - probably descended from the Brigantes tribe which the Roman Empire had conquered in about 85AD. The Roman civitas of the Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) covered almost the same area as what is now Cumbria. Because Cumbria was on the very edge of the Roman province of Britannia the term "Romano-Briton" is probably not a very accurate term for the people of these parts because despite more than three hundred years of Roman military occupation it is unlikely very many of them understood Latin or were particularly enthusiastic about Roman customs. The names "Cumbria" and "Cumberland" are derived from the name these people gave to themselves, and still do in Wales; Cymru (pronounced cum-ri) which originally meant 'compatriots' in Old Welsh. The place names: Cymru, its Latinised version Cambria, Cumbria and Cumberland, all derive their names from this common root. The name could also be associated to that of the Sicambri who came with the Tungri as auxiliaries in the 2nd and 3rd century.
During the Early Middle Ages Cumbria formed the core of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged. By the end of the 7th century most of Cumbria had been incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, which later became part of England. Large parts of Cumbria were ruled by Scotland at the time of Norman Conquest of England in 1066 and were excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 Cumberland was invaded by William Rufus and reincorporated within England. Nevertheless, the region was dominated by the many wars and border skirmishes between England and Scotland of the Latter Middle Ages and Early Modern Period, and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two further sieges during the Jacobite Risings.
After the Jacobite Risings of the Eighteenth Century, Cumbria became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the industries of the Industrial Revolution saw a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington, Millom and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steelworks develop, with Barrow also developing a significant shipbuilding industry. Kendal, Keswick and Carlisle all became mill towns, with textiles, pencils and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The late nineteenth century also saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, resided in and took inspiration from the lakes and mountains of the region. Children's writer Beatrix Potter also wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county.
The county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire, usually referred to as "Lancashire North of the Sands", (including the county borough of Barrow-in-Furness) and, from the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Sedbergh Rural District. Its strategic authority is Cumbria County Council.
Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county . However other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as being in "Cumbria", as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.
Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England. The northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater, Northumberland and South Walney respectively, whilst Kirkby Stephen (close to Tan Hill, Yorkshire) and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county. At 978 metres (3,209 ft) Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England, whilst its largest lake, Windermere, is the largest natural lake in England.
Boundaries and divisions
Cumbria is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders.
The boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east. Cumbria's northern boundary stretches from the Solway Firth from the Solway Plain eastward along the border with Scotland to Northumberland.
It is made up of six districts: Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland. For many administrative purposes Cumbria is divided into three areas — East, West and South. East consists of the districts of Carlisle and Eden, West consists of Allerdale and Copeland, and South consists of Lakeland and Barrow.
In January 2007, Cumbria County Council voted in favour of an official bid to scrap the current two-tier system of county and district councils in favour of a new unitary Cumbria Council, to be submitted for consideration to the Department for Communities and Local Government. This was then rejected.
The county returns six Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, representing the constituencies of Carlisle, Penrith & The Border, Workington, Copeland, Westmorland and Lonsdale and Barrow & Furness.
Many large companies and organisations are based in Cumbria. The county council itself employs around 17,000 individuals, while the largest private employer in Cumbria, the Sellafield nuclear processing site, has a workforce of 10,000. Below is a list of some of the county's largest companies and employers (excluding services such as Cumbria Constabulary, Cumbria Fire and Rescue and the NHS in Cumbria), categorised by district:
- Associated British Ports Holdings own and operate the port of Silloth.
- Plastic Film Maker, Innovia Films, has its headquarters and only UK factory in Wigton, which employs almost 1,000 people and is Wigton's biggest employer.
- World Wide US Bed Maker, Sealy Beds UK (which is part of the Silentnight Group) owns a factory at Aspatria, which employs around 300 people.
- Flour Miller, Carr's Milling Industries PLC, which is based in Carlisle, owns a large factory at Silloth which makes the 'Carr's Breadmaker' range and Carr's farm feeds.
- Window Maker, WestPort Windows, owns a large factory at Maryport, which makes UPVC windows and doors. They employ 100 people and is Maryports Biggest Employer.
- World Rally Company, M-Sport has its headquarters at Dovenby Hall, near Cockermouth.
- Swedish Paper maker, Iggisund Paperboard, has its only UK factory at Siddick, near Workington
- US Chemical & Camera giant, Eastman, has a factory at Siddick, near Workington. It makes plastic bottle pellets (PBP) and products for the smoking industry. Locally, the plant is known as 'Ectona', as this was the first owns of the plant, which employs 100 people.
- Steel giant, Corus (Tata Steel, owns a cast products plant at Workington, (Formerly Distington Engineering Company Ltd, DEC) which employs 150 people.
- Carlisle Based Haulage Group, The Stobart Group, owns a large Haulage depot at Workington, which was once owned by Truck/Bus maker, Leyland. The site has 500,000sqft of warehousing, and when it was built in 1970, it was Europe's largest covered building.
- Packaging company, Amcor, owns the former Smith Bros & Alcan packaging plant at Salterbeck, Workington.
- James Walker Ltd, the international car seal maker, has a large factory at Cockermouth.
- Barrow's shipyard is one of the UK's largest. BAE Systems is the current owner and employs around 5,000.
- Associated British Ports Holdings own and operate the port of Barrow.
- The only Kimberly-Clark mill in the North of England is located in Barrow.
- James Fisher & Sons is a large provider of marine engineering services and based in Barrow.
- One of the largest single site furniture stores in the UK, Stollers, is located in Barrow.
- Close to 1,000 people work in one of only two Pirelli tyre plants in the UK.
- Carr's is a successful foodstuff and agricultural brand that was established in 1831 in Carlisle.
- The Stobart Group which is one of the UK's largest haulage companies is headquartered in Carlisle.
- Nestlé also operates a factory on the outskirts of Carlisle.
- Cavaghan & Gray is a food manufacturing business based in Carlisle and a significant employer in the city.
- Crown Bevcan PLC, part of the beverage giant, Crown, owns two factories in Carlisle, locally known as either 'Hudson Scott's' or 'Metal Box', two of its former owns.
- As stated above, Sellafield is the largest private employer in the county, many West Cumbrians have links to the site.
- Center Parcs owns a large resort in Whinfell Forest near Penrith.
- Carlisle based haulage giant, The Stobart Group, owns a large transport depot at Penrith
- National sawdust, animal bedding & bark suppliers, A W Jenkinson, is headquartered at Clifton, Penrith
- Famous Brookfield, Glasgow based haulage company, W H Malcolm, has two depots in the Penrith area.
- South Lakeland
- Pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline operates a large factory in Ulverston.
- International kitchen wear store Lakeland has its headquarters and flagship store in Windermere.
- Farley Health Products a subsidiary of the Heinz Company runs a factory in Kendal.
The largest and most widespread industry in Cumbria is tourism. The Lake District National Park alone receives some 15.8 million visitors every year. Despite this, less than 50,000 people are permanently resident within the Lake District – mostly in Ambleside, Bowness-on-Windermere, Coniston, Keswick, Grasmere and Windermere. Over 36,000 Cumbrians are employed in the tourism industry which adds £1.1 billion to the county's economy on a yearly basis. The Lake District and county as a whole attracts visitors from across the UK, Europe, North America and the Far East (particularly Japan). The tables below show the twenty most visited attractions in Cumbria in 2009 (please note that not all visitor attractions provided data to Cumbria Tourism who collated the list. Notable examples being Furness Abbey, the Lakes Aquarium and South Lakes Wild Animal Park, the latter of which would almost certainly rank within the top five).
Rank Attraction Location Visitors 1 Windermere Lake Cruises Bowness-on-Windermere 1,313,807 2 Rheged Penrith 439,568 3 Ullswater Steamers Glenridding 348,000 4 Whinlatter Forest Park and Visitor Centre Whinlatter 252,762 5 Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Carlisle 251,808 6 Grizedale Forest Park and Visitor Centre Grizedale 175,033 7 Carlisle Cathedral Carlisle 166,141 8 Lake District Visitor Centre Brockhole Windermere 135,539 9 Hill Top Hawkshead 103,682 10 Sizergh Castle Sizergh Castle 90,063 Rank Attraction Location Visitors 11 Cumberland Pencil Museum Keswick 80,100 12 Muncaster Castle Ravenglass 78,474 13 Dock Museum Barrow-in-Furness 73,239 14 The Beacon Whitehaven 71,602 15 Holker Hall Cartmel 58,060 16 Carlisle Castle Carlisle 56,957 17 Beatrix Potter Gallery Hawkshead 47,244 18 Trotters World of Animals Bassenthwaite 45,559 19 The Homes Of Football Ambleside 49,661 20 Cartmel Priory Cartmel 43,672
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of East Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Year Regional Gross Value Added Agriculture Industry Services 1995 2,679 148 902 1,629 2000 2,843 120 809 1,914 2003 3,388 129 924 2,335
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of West Cumbria at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Year Regional Gross Value Added Agriculture Industry Services 1995 2,246 63 1,294 888 2000 2,415 53 1,212 1,150 2003 2,870 60 1,420 1,390
EducationSee also: List of schools in Cumbria
Although Cumbria has a comprehensive system almost in toto, it has one state grammar school in Penrith. There are 42 state secondary schools and 10 independent schools. The more rural secondary schools tend to have sixth forms though in Barrow-in-Furness district no school except Chetwynde School (Independent) has a sixth form, and this is the same for three schools in Allerdale and South Lakeland, and one in the other districts.
Colleges of further education in Cumbria include Barrow-in-Furness Sixth Form College, Carlisle College, Cumbria Institute of the Arts, Dallam Sixth form Centre, Furness College, Kendal College, Lakes College West Cumbria, West Cumbria Catholic Sixth Form Centre and Workington Sixth Form College.
The University of Cumbria is one of the UK's newest universities having been established in 2007, it is at present the only university in Cumbria and has campuses across the county.
The M6 is the only motorway that runs through Cumbria. Kendal and Penrith are amongst its primary destinations before it terminates just north of Carlisle. Major A roads within Cumbria include:
- A6 (Luton, Bedfordshire to Carlisle via Kendal and Penrith)
- A66 (Workington to Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire via Keswick, Penrith and Brough)
- A590 (M6 Junction 36 to Barrow-in-Furness via Ulverston)
- A591 (Sizergh to Bothel via Kendal, Windermere, Ambleside, Grasmere and Kewsick)
- A592 (M6 Junction 40 to Staveley via Penrith, Windermere and Bowness-on-windermere)
- A595 (Carlisle to Dalton-in-Furness via Whitehaven and Workington)
- A596 (Carlisle to Workington)
Several bus companies (Stagecoach North West being the largest, its depots are located in Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Kendal and Workington) run services in Cumbria serving the main towns and villages in the county, with some services running to neighouring areas such as Lancaster. Stagecoach's flagship X35 route connects Barrow-in-Furness and Kendal in south Cumbria.
Carlisle Lake District Airport and Barrow/Walney Island Airport are the only two airports in the county. Both airports formerly served scheduled passenger flights and both are proposing expansions and renovations to handle domestic and European flights in the near future. The nearest international airports to south Cumbria are Blackpool International Airport, Manchester Airport and Liverpool John Lennon Airport, whilst north Cumbria is in closer proximity to Newcastle Airport, Glasgow Prestwick Airport and Glasgow International Airport. Despite Barrow-in-Furness being one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres, the Port of Barrow is only minor and alongside every other port and harbour along the Cumbria coast has no ferry links in place.
The busiest railway stations in Cumbria are Carlisle station, Barrow-in-Furness station, Penrith station and Oxenholme Lake District station. The 399-mile (642 km) long West Coast Main Line runs through the Cumbria countryside adjacent to the M6 motorway, the Cumbrian Coast Line which connects Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle is a vital component in west Cumbrian transportation. Other railway lines solely in Cumbria include the Furness Line, the Settle-Carlisle Railway and the Windermere Branch Line.
DemographyMain article: Demography of Cumbria
Cumbria's largest settlement and only city, in the north of the county, is Carlisle, with the largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, being slightly smaller. The county's population is largely rural: it has the second lowest population density among English counties, and has only five towns with a population of over 20,000. Cumbria is also one of the country's least ethnically diverse counties, with 95.1% of the population categorised as White British (around 470,900 of the 495,000 Cumbrians). However, the larger towns have an ethnic makeup that is closer to the national average, and Cumbria's ethnic minority population is increasing twice as fast as England's average. The most followed religion in Cumbria by far is Christianity. Buddhism and Islam are minority faiths.
2010 ONS estimates placed the number of foreign-born (non-United Kingdom) people living in Cumbria at around 14,000 and foreign nationals at 6,000. The 2001 UK Census showed the following most common countries of birth for Cumbrians that year:
Population totals for Cumbria Year Population Year Population Year Population 1801 173,017 1871 365,556 1941 456,833 1811 193,139 1881 410,856 1951 471,897 1821 225,555 1891 434,867 1961 473,706 1831 242,320 1901 437,364 1971 475,669 1841 255,603 1911 440,485 1981 471,693 1851 274,957 1921 441,483 1991 489,191 1861 320,257 1931 442,693 2001 487,607 Pre-1974 statistics were gathered from local government areas that now comprise Cumbria
Source: Great Britain Historical GIS.
SettlementsMain article: List of places in Cumbria
The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.
Ceremonial county Administration borough/district Centre of administration Other towns, villages and settlements Cumbria Allerdale Workington Aspatria, Cockermouth, Harrington, Keswick, Maryport, Silloth, Wigton Barrow-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness Askam and Ireleth, Dalton-in-Furness Carlisle Carlisle Brampton, Dalston, Longtown Copeland Whitehaven Cleator Moor, Egremont, Millom, St Bees Eden Penrith Alston, Appleby-in-Westmorland, Kirkby Stephen South Lakeland Kendal Ambleside, Bowness-on-Windermere, Coniston, Grasmere, Hawkshead, Heversham, Kirkby Lonsdale, Milnthorpe, Sedbergh, Ulverston, Windermere
Town and city twinnings
Copeland is the only district in Cumbria not to contain a settlement with a twin town/sister city, whilst Barrow-in-Furness is the largest town in the county not to have such an arrangement.
Settlement District Twinned settlement Carlisle Carlisle Flensburg, Germany and Słupsk, Poland Cockermouth Allerdale Marvejols, France Dalton-in-Furness Barrow-in-Furness Dalton, Pennsylvania, United States Kendal South Lakeland Killarney, Ireland and Rinteln, Germany Penrith Eden Penrith, New South Wales, Australia Sedbergh South Lakeland Zreče, Slovenia Ulverston South Lakeland Albert, France Windermere South Lakeland Diessen am Ammersee, Germany Workington Allerdale Selm, Germany and Val-de-Reuil, France
Symbols and county emblems
The arms of Cumbria County Council were granted by the College of Arms on 10 October 1974. The arms represent the areas from which the new county council's area was put together; the shield's green border has Parnassus flowers representing Cumberland interspersed with roses; red for Lancashire (the Furness district) on white for Yorkshire (Sedbergh is from the West Riding). The crest is a ram's head crest, found in the arms both of Westmorland County Council and Barrow County Borough, with Cumberland's Parnassus flowers again. The supporters are the legendary Dacre Bull (Cumberland) and a red dragon (Appleby in Westmorland), with a hint of the ancient Kingdom of Rheged. They stand on a base compartment representing Hadrian's Wall (in Cumberland), crossed with two red bars (from the Westmorland arms).
The county council motto: "Ad Montes Oculos Levavi" is Latin, from Psalm 121; ("I shall lift up mine eyes unto the hills").
The county flag of Cumbria is a banner of arms of Cumbria County Council.
Carlisle United are the only professional football team in Cumbria and currently play in League One (3rd Tier in the English football pyramid). They attract support from across Cumbria and beyond, with many Cumbrian "ex-pats" travelling to see their games, both home and away. Whilst home attendances are usually 7,000 to 10,000, the away support is often 1,000 to 2,000. This is one of the highest proportions of away-home support in England.
Barrow and Workington Reds are well supported non-league teams, having both been relegated from the Football League in the 1970s, with Barrow being one of the best supported non-league football teams in the British. Recently Workington Reds have made a rapid rise up the non league ladder and in 2007/08 competed with Barrow in the Conference North (Tier 6). Barrow were then promoted to the Blue Square Premier (Tier 5) in 2007/08.
Rugby league is a very popular sport in South and West Cumbria. Barrow Raiders, Whitehaven and Workington Town and all compete in the National Leagues. Carlisle RLFC/Carlisle Border Raiders played in the national competitions between 1981 and 1997, Carlisle today has Carlisle Centurions in the Rugby League Conference. There are amateur British Amateur Rugby League Association teams playing in the National Conference, notably Wath Brow Hornets and Millom as well as a Cumberland League and Barrow & District League.
Rugby union is very popular in the east of the county with teams such as Carlisle RUFC, Kendal RUFC, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Keswick RUFC, Upper Eden RUFC and Penrith RUFC (who have recently been promoted to the National Leagues) competing in many local and national competitions.
Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of the cricket clubs that constitute the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure. The club, based in Carlisle, competes in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy. The club also play some home matches in Workington, as well as other locations.
Cumbrian club cricket teams play in the North Lancashire and Cumbria League.
Uppies and DowniesMain article: Uppies and Downies
Workington is home to the ball game known as Uppies and Downies, a traditional version of football, with its origins in Medieval football or an even earlier form. Players from outside Workington do take part, especially fellow West Cumbrians from Whitehaven and Maryport.
WrestlingMain article: Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling
Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling is an ancient and well-practised tradition in the county with a strong resemblance to Scottish Backhold.
In the 21st century Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling along with other aspects of Lakeland culture are practised at the Grasmere Sports and Show, an annual meeting held every year since 1852 on the August Bank Holiday.
The origin of this form of wrestling is a matter of debate, with some describing it as having evolved from Norse wrestling brought over by Viking invaders, while other historians associate it with the Cornish and Gouren styles indicating that it may have developed out of a longer-standing Celtic tradition.
Cumbria is also home to the Carlisle Border Reivers an amateur American Football team, despite a relatively low level of interest in the sport throughout the County.
Cumbria Kart Racing Club is based at the Lakeland Circuit, Rowrah, between Cockermouth and Egremont . The track is currently a venue for rounds of both major UK national karting championships . Formula One world champions Lewis Hamilton and Jenson Button both raced karts at Rowrah many times in the formative stages of their motor sport careers , while other F1 drivers, past and present, to have competed there include Johnny Herbert, Anthony Davidson, Allan McNish, Ralph Firman, Paul di Resta and David Coulthard, who hailed from just over the nearby Anglo-Scottish border and regarded Rowrah as his home circuit, becoming Cumbria Kart Racing Club Champion in 1985 in succession to McNish (di Resta also taking the CKRC title subsequently) .
Two evening newspapers are published daily in Cumbria, the News and Star focuses largely on Carlisle and the surrounding areas of north and west Cumbria while the North-West Evening Mail is based in Barrow-in-Furness and covers news from across Furness and the South Lakes. The Cumberland and Westmorland Herald and The Westmorland Gazette are weekly newspapers based in Penrith and Kendal respectively.
Due to the geographic extent of Cumbria the county spans two television zones; BBC North East and Cumbria and ITV Tyne Tees & Border in the north and BBC North West and Granada Television in the south. The Bay, CFM Radio and Lakeland Radio are the most popular local radio stations throughout the county, with BBC Radio Cumbria being the only station that is aimed at Cumbria as a whole.
Places of interest
Key Abbey/Priory/Cathedral Accessible open space Amusement/Theme Park Castle Country Park English Heritage Forestry Commission Heritage railway Historic House
Museum (free/not free) National Trust Zoo
See also: List of people from Carlisle, List of people from Barrow-in-Furness, List of people from Kendal
- Outline of Cumbria
- Outline of England
- Anglo-Scottish border
- Cumbria shootings
- Cumbrian dialect
- Etymology of Cumbrian Place Names
- List of High Sheriffs of Cumbria
- List of Lord Lieutenants of Cumbria
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- ^ a b Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
- ^ a b includes hunting and forestry
- ^ a b includes energy and construction
- ^ a b includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
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- ^ a b Cumbria County Council (Civic Heraldry) accessed 24 January 2010
- ^ http://www.communities.gov.uk/news/corporate/1768083
- ^ "Uppies and Downies website". http://www.uppiesanddownies.info/Field_text=Uppies+and+Downies&x=165&y=55/. Retrieved 25 June 2009. [dead link]
- ^ Origins of Mass ball Games. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=91xjXRYPyKYC&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=mass+ball+game&source=bl&ots=Sw7ynAMw8j&sig=Lq6XpojKfzD8WwPUTNtoNhiaqBk&hl=en&ei=B4JESub2DsKgjAe1u-Ri&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- ^ "Times and Star". http://timesandstar.co.uk/home/search_results_page_2_1681?Field_text=Uppies+and+Downies&x=165&y=55/. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". http://ejmas.com/kronos/NewHist1700-1859.htm. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
- ^ "Amateur Wrestling". http://sportsvl.com/rest/wrestling/wrestling.htm#Celtic. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
- ^ "Kronos; A Chronology of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". http://ejmas.com/kronos/NewHist0500-1349.htm. Retrieved 24 February 2007.
- Loyal To Cumbria (Local Loyalty Scheme).
- Carlisle Rugby Football Club.
- The Cumbria online forum.
- Official Tourist Board Website
- Cumbria Tourist and Historical Website
- The Cumbria Site – Local information
- BBC Cumbria Digital Lives Project
- Carlisle Diocese (Church of England)
- The Kirkby Lonsdale Show
- The Museum of Lakeland Life Website
- thedialectdictionary.com – Compilation of dialects including Cumbrian
- Go Lakes
- Cumbria Directory
- Cumbria at the Open Directory Project
Ceremonial county of Cumbria Boroughs or districts Major settlements
- Cleator Moor
- Kirkby Lonsdale
- Kirkby Stephen
See also: List of civil parishes in Cumbria
Topics Districts of North West England Cheshire Cumbria
Allerdale • Barrow-in-Furness • Carlisle • Copeland • Eden • South Lakeland
Greater Manchester Lancashire
Blackburn with Darwen • Blackpool • Burnley • Chorley • Fylde • Hyndburn • Lancaster • Pendle • Preston • Ribble Valley • Rossendale • South Ribble • West Lancashire • Wyre
- Celtic loanwords
- Celtic toponyms
- Non-metropolitan counties
- North West England
- NUTS 2 statistical regions of the United Kingdom
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