Greater London

Greater London

infobox England region
name = Greater London
London region
short_name = London
imagename =

status = Region*
Administrative area
Ceremonial county
area_km2 = 1,579
area_mi2 = 609
area_rank = 9th
density = 4,758/km² (mid-2006)
nuts = UKI
population = 7,512,400cite web |title=T 08: Selected age groups for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population; Mid-2006 Population Estimates |publisher=Office for National Statistics |date=August 22, 2007 |url= |accessdate22 August|accessyear=2007] (mid-2006)
population_rank = 2nd
gdp_rank = 1st
gdp = 27,633
authority = Greater London Authority
hq = City Hall, Southwark
mayor = Boris Johnson
assembly = London Assembly
development_agency = LDA
election = directly elected
euro = London
notes = * called London
† excluding the City of London
url =|

Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England.Travers, T., "The Politics of London", (2004)] The administrative area was officially created in 1965 and covers the City of London (including Middle Temple and Inner Temple) and all 32 London boroughs. Its area also forms the London region of England and the London European Parliament constituency. The region has by far the highest GDP per capita in the United Kingdom. It covers 1579 km² (609 square miles) and had a 2006 mid-year estimated population of 7,512,400. It is bounded by the "Home Counties" of Essex and Hertfordshire in the East of England region and Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Surrey and Kent in South East England. The highest point in Greater London is Westerham Heights, in the North Downs and on the boundary with Kent, at 245 metres (804 ft). The term "Greater London" was in use before 1965 to refer to a variously defined area, larger than the County of London and often similar to the Metropolitan Police District. [Glass, R., "London: aspects of change", (1964)]


Greater London is not a "city" in the proper sense that the word applies in the United Kingdom, being a status granted by the Crown. In addition, one of the London boroughs, Westminster, is already a city, [Westminster City Council - [ One City - An Introduction] ] as well as the City of London itself which would make such a status anomalous. Despite this, Greater London is commonly regarded as a city in the general sense of a municipality. A Lord Lieutenant of Greater London is appointed for its area, less the City of London, an area identical to the Metropolitan Police District, and for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997, this area is defined as a county. [HMSO, " [ Lieutenancies Act 1997] ", (1997)]

The term "London" is normally used in reference to Greater London or to the overall conurbation, but not often to the ancient, tiny City of London.Mills, A., "Dictionary of London Place Names", (2001), Oxford] Instead, this small area is often referred to simply as "the City" or "the Square Mile" and it forms the main financial district. Archaically the urbanised area of London was known as the Metropolis. In common usage, the terms 'London' and 'Greater London' are usually used interchangeably. It is officially divided for some purposes, with varying definitions, into Inner London and Outer London. For strategic planning purposes the region is divided into five sub regions.


Regional government

London is the only English region with directly elected local governance.Jones, B. et al, "Politics UK", (2004)] The Greater London Authority (GLA) comprises a regional assembly called the London Assembly and an executive head known as the Mayor of London.Arden Chambers Barristers, "A Guide to the Greater London Authority Act", (2000)] The current Mayor of London (not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of the City of London) is Boris Johnson. He is scrutinised by an elected London Assembly, which may amend his annual budget (by two-thirds majority) but otherwise lacks the power to block his directives. The headquarters of the GLA is at City Hall in Southwark. The Mayor is responsible for Greater London's strategic planning and is required to produce a London Plan document.

Local government

Greater London is divided into 32 London boroughs, each governed by a London borough council; and the City of London, which has a unique government dating back to the 12th century. These various authorities are all often considered as equivalent to unitary authorities, but not legally defined as such. All London borough councils belong to the London Councils association. Two London boroughs, Kensington and Chelsea, and Kingston, carry the purely honorific title of Royal borough. Within the City of London boundary are the liberties of Middle Temple and Inner Temple.


The Greater London Authority has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities. [The Mayor of London's City Partnerships [ webpage] ]


This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of Inner London at current basic prices [ published] (pp.240-253) by "Office for National Statistics" with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Outer London at current basic prices [ published] (pp.240-253) by "Office for National Statistics" with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.


The area of Greater London has not changed significantly since its creation. There have been a considerable number of small boundary changes. The most significant of these were the 1969 transfers of Knockholt to Kent and Farleigh to Surrey [The Greater London, Kent and Surrey Order, 1962] and a series of minor adjustments during the 1990s which realigned the boundary to the M25 motorway in some places.


The majority of Greater London forms the London low emission zone from 4 February 2008.


The education system has been split into the thirty three separate LEAs, which correspond to the City of London and the 32 London boroughs, since the 1990 enactment of the Education Reform Act 1988.Tomlinson, S., "Education in a post-welfare society", (2001)] From 1965 to 1990, twelve Inner London boroughs and the City of London had been served by an Inner London Education Authority. The introduction of comprehensive schools, directed by Circular 10/65 in 1965, was mostly followed in Greater London, however 19 grammar schools have been retained in some Outer London boroughs, [BBC News - [ What future for grammar schools?] . 15 February 2003.] with Sutton having the most with five, followed by Bexley with four and others in five other boroughs. In these boroughs the state schools outperform the (relatively few) independent schools. In inner London, private schools always get the best results and are larger in number. At GCSE and A level, Outer London boroughs have broadly better results than Inner London boroughs. [OFSTED, " [ Improvements in London schools 2000–06] ", (2006)]

Top twenty state schools in Greater London (2007 A level results)

These schools are from the boroughs of Sutton, Barnet, Kingston upon Thames, Bromley, Bexley, Enfield, Havering, Harrow, Waltham Forest and Redbridge. The three comprehensives in the list are from Waltham Forest and Havering.
* 1. Wilson's School, Wallington (1126)
* 2. Wallington County Grammar School
* 3. Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School for Boys, Barnet
* 4. St. Michael's Catholic Grammar School, North Finchley
* 5. Nonsuch High School for Girls, Cheam
* 6. The Tiffin Girls' School, Kingston upon Thames
* 7. Sutton Grammar School for Boys
* 8. St. Olave's and St. Saviour's Grammar School, Orpington
* 9. Townley Grammar School for Girls, Bexleyheath
* 10. Newstead Wood School for Girls, Orpington
* 11. Tiffin School, Kingston upon Thames
* 12. The Latymer School. Edmonton
* 13. Coopers' Company and Coborn School, Upminster
* 14. Sacred Heart of Mary Girls' School, Upminster
* 15. Beths Grammar School, Bexley
* 16. The Henrietta Barnett School, Hampstead Garden Suburb
* 17. St Dominic's Sixth Form College, Harrow on the Hill
* 18. Chingford Foundation School
* 19. Bullers Wood School, Chislehurst
* 20. Ilford County High School, Barkingside (885)

Wider population

Greater London is not exactly coterminous with London's built up area and a somewhat wider Greater London Urban Area has been defined and is used for mainly statistical purposes. London's wider metropolitan area is known as the London commuter belt and is delimited by a variety of definitions.

See also

* Greater London Urban Area


External links

* [ Greater London Authority]
* [ Greater London Online - London Community News, Information and Business Directory]

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