—  Prefecture-level city  —
Nickname(s): Grand City (洪城)、Grand Capital (洪都)、Yuzhang (豫章)
Nanchang City (yellow) in Jiangxi
Nanchang is located in China
Location in China
Coordinates: 28°41′N 115°53′E / 28.683°N 115.883°E / 28.683; 115.883Coordinates: 28°41′N 115°53′E / 28.683°N 115.883°E / 28.683; 115.883
Country People's Republic of China
Province Jiangxi
 – Mayor Hu Xian
 – Prefecture-level city 7,372 km2 (2,846.3 sq mi)
 – Urban 617 km2 (238.2 sq mi)
Elevation 37 m (122 ft)
Population (2010)
 – Prefecture-level city 5,042,565
 – Density 684/km2 (1,771.6/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
City Flower Chinese Rose
City Tree Camphor Laurel
Chinese 南昌
Hanyu Pinyin Nánchāng
Literal meaning southern good

Nanchang (Chinese: 南昌; pinyin: Nánchāng; Mandarin pronunciation: [nǎntʂʰɑ́ŋ]) is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. It is located in the north-central portion of the province. As it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake, it is famous for its scenery, rich history and cultural sites. Owing to its central location relative to the Yangtze and Pearl River Delta regions, it is a major railroad hub in Southern China.



The city originally called (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Gàn) was founded and first walled in 201 BC (during the early Han dynasty), when the county town was given the name Nanchang. It was also the administrative seat of a commandery, Yuzhang. In 589 (during the Sui dynasty) this commandery was changed into a prefecture named Hongzhou (洪州), and after 763 it became the provincial center of Jiangxi, which was then beginning the rapid growth that by the 12th century made it the most populous province in China.

In 653 AD, the Tengwang Pavilion was constructed. In 675 AD, Wang Bo (王勃) wrote the classic "Tengwang Ge Xu". The building as well as the city became celebrated for Wang's introduction article and the author is known to all Chinese-speaking population by this masterpiece. The Pavilion has been destroyed and rebuilt several times throughout China's history. In its present form, Tengwang Pavilion was reconstructed in the 1980s after being destroyed in 1929 during the Chinese Civil War.

In 959, under the Southern Tang regime, it became Nanchang superior prefecture and also the southern capital. After the conquest by the Song regime in 981 it reverted to the name Hongzhou. In 1164 it was renamed Longxing superior prefecture, which name it retained until 1368. At the end of the Yuan (Mongol) period (1279–1368), it became a battleground between Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), and the rival local warlord, Chen Youliang. At the beginning of the 16th century it was the power base from which Zhu Chenhao, the prince of Ning, launched a rebellion against the Ming regime.

During the reign of the Wanli Emperor of the Ming dynasty, it housed relatives of the emperor who had been exiled because they were potential claimants of the imperial throne, members of the imperial family constituting about one quarter of the city's population; as a result of this, Matteo Ricci came here when trying to gain entry to Beijing.[1]

In the 1850s it suffered considerably as a result of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), and its importance as a commercial center declined as the overland routes to Canton were replaced by coastal steamship services in the latter half of the 19th century. Nanchang has, however, remained the undisputed regional metropolis of Jiangxi.

On August 1, 1927, Nanchang was the site of one of a series of insurrections organized by the Chinese Communist Party. The Nanchang Uprising, led by pro-communist Kuomintang officers under Russian direction, succeeded in holding the city for only a few days, and provided a core of troops and a method of organization from which the People's Liberation Army (PLA) later developed.

In 1939, the Battle of Nanchang, a ferocious battle between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Japanese Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War took place.

In 1949 Nanchang was still essentially an old-style administrative and commercial city, with little industry apart from food processing; it had a population of about 275,000. Nanchang first acquired a rail connection in 1915, when the line to Jiujiang, a port on the Yangtze River, was opened. Several other rail links have since been opened. After World War II a line was completed to Linchuan and Gongqi in the Ru River Valley to the south-southeast.

Since 1949 Nanchang has been extensively industrialized. It is now a large-scale producer of cotton textiles and cotton yarn. Papermaking is also a large industry, as is food processing (especially rice milling). Heavy industry began to be important in the mid-1950s. A large thermal-power plant was installed and uses coal brought by rail from Fengcheng, to the south. A machinery industry also grew up, at first mainly concentrating on the production of agricultural equipment and diesel engines. Nanchang then became a center of the automotive industry, producing trucks and tractors and also such equipment as tires. An iron-smelting plant helping to supply local industry was installed in the later 1950s. There is also a large chemical industry, producing agricultural chemicals and insecticides as well as pharmaceuticals.

Geography and climate

Nanchang is located 130 km south of the Yangtze River and is situated on the right bank of the Gan River just below its confluence with the Jin River[disambiguation needed ] and some 40 km southwest of its discharge into Poyang Lake.

Nanchang has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons. Winters are short and cool with occasional frosts; snow is not unheard of but heavy falls are otherwise rare. Summer is long and humid, with amongst the highest temperatures in China. Rain is greatest from March to June, and least in fall and early winter. Monthly averages in the city range from 5.3 °C (41.5 °F) in January to 29.2 °C (84.6 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 17.6 °C (63.7 °F).

Climate data for Nanchang (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.7
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
Precipitation mm (inches) 74.0
humidity 77 78 81 81 80 83 77 77 77 73 72 70 77.2
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13.0 13.2 18.0 17.7 16.6 15.5 10.8 10.3 7.7 8.8 7.9 7.8 147.3
Sunshine hours 91.9 83.7 85.2 114.4 151.1 160.2 248.7 243.2 185.8 167.0 147.5 141.7 1,820.4
Source: 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心


At the 2010 census, Nanchang has a population of 5,042,865 people and a built up area of about 3 million. 37 ethnic groups were counted amongst its prefecture divisions.


Subdivisions of Nanchang


Nanchang is a regional hub for agricultural production in Jiangxi Province. The yield of grain was 16.146 million tons in 2000. Products such as rice and oranges are economic staples. The Ford Motor Company has a plant in Nanchang, assembling the Ford Transit van as part of the Jiangling Motor joint venture.[2] Many of its industry revolves around aircraft manufacturing, automobile manufacturing, metallurgy, electro-mechanics, textile, chemical engineering, traditional Chinese medicine, pharmaceuticals and others.[3]

The GDP of Nanchang in 2008 was 166 billion Yuan (24.3 billion USD). The GDP per capita was 36,105 Yuan (5,285 USD). The total value of imports and exports was 3.4 billion US dollars. The total financial revenue was 23 billion Yuan.[4]

Industrial zones

National level development zones[5]

  • Nanchang Export Processing Zone

Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone is located in Nanchang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, it was approved by the State Council on May 8, 2006, and passed the national acceptance inspection on Sep 7th, 2007. It has a planning area of 1 sqkm and now has built 0.31 sqkm. It enjoys simple and convenient customs clearances,and special preferential policies both for Nanchang National Export Expressing Zone and NCHDZ.[6]

  • Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Nanchang National High-tech Industrial Development Zone (NCHDZ for short hereafter) is the only national grade high-tech zoned in Jiangxi, it was established in Mar. 1991. The zone covers an area of 231 square kilometers, in which 32 square kilometers have been completed. NCHDZ possesses unique nature condition and sound industry foundation of accepting electronics industry. NCHDZ has brought 25% industrial added value and 50% industrial benefit and tax to Nanchang city by using only 0.4% land area.[7]

  • Nanchang Economic and Technological Development Zone[8]

Provincial level development zones[5]

  • Jiangxi Sanghai Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Nanchang Yingxiong Economic and Technological Development Zone

Special economic district[5]

  • Honggutan New District


Nanchang International Airport
Nanchang Railway Station
A CRH1 train near Liantang Station in Nanchang.


Nanchang has extensive railway infrastructure which connects to many important cities in other provinces. The Beijing-Jiulong Railway and Shanghai-Kunming Railway (formerly Zhe-Gan Railway, literally Zhejiang-Jiangxi Railway) both meet at Nanchang making Nanchang one of the most important transport hubs in Southern China. In addition, it is the only provincial capital located on the Jingjiu Railway. It is also the home to the Nanchang Bureau of Railways, which operates the majority of the railway network in the provinces of Jiangxi and Fujian.

From 2007, Nanchang is also connected with neighboring cities Hangzhou, Changsha and Shanghai with CRH (China Railway High-speed).


Nanchang Changbei International Airport (KHN) built in 1996 is the main international airport. It is situated in Lehua Town, 26 kilometres north of the CDB area. Changbei International Airport is the only one in Jiangxi Province which has an international air route. The airport is connected to major mainland cities such as Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Haikou, Shanghai and Beijing.[9]


The road transport infrastructure in Nanchang is extensive. A number of national highways cross through the city. They are the National roads No.105 from Beijing to Zhuhai, No.320 from Shanghai to Kunming, and No.316 from Fuzhou to Lanzhou. The major transport companies that operate in Nanchang are the Chang'an Transport Company Limited, the Nanchang Long-distance Bus Station, and the Xufang Bus Station.

The Nanchang Long-distance Bus Station serves long distance routes to Nanjing, Shenzhen, Hefei and other cites outside Jiangxi Province. The Xufang Bus Station operates routes to cities, towns and counties within Jiangxi Province.[9]


Nanchang is situated on the Gan River, the Fu River, Elephant Lake, Qingshan Lake, and Aixi Lake. Hence the water routes for Nanchang critically important for the economy, trade and shipping. Nanchang Port is the biggest port on the Gan River. Passengers can take Nanchang Port and travel by boat to the Jinggang Shan and Tengwang Pavilion. There are passenger ships that also visit Poyang Lake, Stone Bell Hill, Poyang Lake Bird Protection Area, Dagu Hill and other attractions.


The Pavilion of Prince Teng is a building in the north west of the city of Nanchang, in Jiangxi province, China
The Star of Nanchang Ferris Wheel

Nanchang is known for: The Tengwang Pavilion, a towering pavilion dating to 653,on the east bank of the Gan River and is one of "the Four Great Towers of China"

Poyang Lake, the largest fresh water lake in China, it is also called "the Migrator Birds Paradise".

It is also home to the Star of Nanchang, which was the world's tallest Ferris wheel from 2006-2008.[10]

The Jiangxi Provincial Museum and Bada Shanren Exhibition Hall.

Colleges and universities

  • Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics (江西财经大学) (founded 1923)
  • Nanchang University (南昌大学)
  • Jiangxi Normal University (江西师范大学)
  • Jiangxi Agricultural University (江西农业大学)
  • East China Jiaotong University (华东交通大学)
  • Nanchang Aeronautical University (南昌航空工业学院)
  • Jiangxi Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine (江西中医学院)
  • Nanchang Institute of Technology (南昌工程学院)
  • Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University (江西科技师范学院)
  • jiangxi Manufacturing and Vocational College (江西制造职业技术学院)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Nanchang is twinned with[11]:


External links

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