name = Xining
native_name = 西宁
image_caption =Dongguan Mosque
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Satellite image of Xining
mapsize1 = 250px
map_caption1 = Location of Xining Prefecture within Qinghai
dot_x = |dot_y =
pushpin_map_caption =Location within China
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = China
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_type3 = County-level divisions
subdivision_type4 = Township divisions
leader_title =CPC Xining
area_total_km2 = 73737
population_total = 2100000
population_density_km2 = auto
China Standard Time
utc_offset = +8
latd=36 |latm=38 |latNS=N
longd=101 |longm=46 |longEW=E
postal_code_type =Postal code
blank_name =License plate prefixes
website = [http://www.xining.gov.cn/ www.xining.gov.cn] (Chinese)
Xining is located in the eastern part of
Qinghaiprovince and lies on the Huangshui River. It has a total area of 350 km².
Xining is located on the eastern edge of
Qinghai-Tibet Plateauand the upper reaches of Huangshui River. It is the political, economic, scientific and technological, cultural and traffic center of Qinghai Province with an average altitude of over 2200 meters (about 7217 feet). The activities of human beings in this region can be traced to 2,100 years ago. During the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties, owing to its developing agriculture, Xining was paid more attention due to its economic and martial significance. As well as being the important hinge between the central plains and the western part of China in ancient time, Xining was the most common passing channel of the famous Silk Road. Until now, it is still the only road by which to enter the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
At present, five districts, three counties and a national economic and technological development zone are under the administration of the local government. With a population of more than two million, Xining is the first city on the upper reaches of the
Yellow Riverto achieve a population into the millions. There are about 37 nationalities living here, including Han, Hui, Tuand Tibetan. The local traditions and customs are influenced by these distinctive nationalities, in particular the Hui(Muslim) and Tibetan group.
Xining is also called the Summer Resort Capital of China for its cool summer. The region also provides a number of attractions making a visit to the area well worth considering. The scenery of the
Qinghai Lake, situated within Xining, provides an escape from fervent cities and allows you to experience beautiful natural sceneries. The Birds Island, situated on the northwest of Qinghai Lake, is waiting to present you with an extensive array of birds. To the southwest of Xining, is the birthplace of the founder of the Gelugpa Sect; an important Tibetan Buddhist monastery, Kumbumwas built there. Climbing the temple will reward you with a view of the city from the mountaintop. A site not to be missed is the Dongguan Mosque, one of the biggest mosques in northern China.
In 2007, the
World Banklent US$1 billion to aid river treatmentin Xining, including Sanxian County's anti- floodingproject, with an added US$1 billion dollars to support infrastructure. Qinghai has invested large amounts in the treatment of Huangshui Main River and Nanchuan River, totalling 24.5 km. However, a treatment on a 40 kilometer river course and 10 flash flood relief channels remain pending due to lack of equipment. In Sanxian County, a 108.4 meter long river course and 80 flash flood relief channels need treatment.
Xining has a history of over 2100 years [ [http://www.xining.gov.cn/English/English_1.html Xining Municipal Peoples Government] ] and was a chief commercial hub on the
Hexi Corridorcaravan route to Tibet, handling especially timber, wool and salt in ancient times. The trade along the Hexi Corridor was part of a larger trade corridor along the Northern Silk Road, whose use was intensified in the first century BCafter efforts by the Han Dynastyto control this route. [ [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=18006 "Silk Road, North China", C.Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham] ]
Under the Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220) a county there called Linqiang controlled the local Qiang tribesmen. It was again a frontier county under the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) dynasties; during the 7th and early 8th centuries it was a center of constant warfare with the
Tuyuhunand (later) the Tibetan peoples. In 763 it was overrun by the Tibetans and while under Tibetan control was known to the Chinese as "Qingtangcheng". Recovered by the Song dynastyin 1104, it received the name Xining(meaning "peace in the west") and has been the seat of a prefecture or superior prefecture under that name since that time. With the rise of Tibetan Buddhism( Lamaism), which began in the 7th century AD, Xining became an important religious center; Qinghai's largest lamasery, a holy place to the Yellow Hat sectof Buddhists, was located at Kunbum, some 19 km to the southeast.
A major earthquake occurred
May 22, 1927and measured 8.6 on Richter scale. It was one of the deadliest earthquakes with a total count of 200,000 deaths. It also caused large land fractures.
Xining was the extraterritorial capital of the
Koko Norterritory and remained in Gansuuntil 1928, when it became the provincial capital of the newly established independent province of Qinghai. Xining was given municipal status in 1945.
Since the late 1950s, when the Liujia Gorge Dam and
hydroelectricproject came into operation in neighboring Gansu province, Xining has been linked by a high-tension electrical grid to both Liujia and Lanzhou. It also uses local coalfrom mines at Datongxianto the north. A modern woolen mill was installed at Xining before 1957. The city also has a leather industry and is a market for salt from the Qaidamregion. During the late 1950s medium-sized iron and steelworks were built there, supplying metal to Lanzhou.
Construction of a highway to the mineral-rich
Qaidambasin and completion in 1959 of a link to the Chinese rail network via Lanzhouin Gansu province has spurred industrial development. This effort was part of a plan of the central government to rapidly exploit oil and pasturage in the Xining area beginning in the 1950s. [ [http://mcx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/29/4/455 Greg Rohlf, "Dreams of Oil and Fertile Fields", Modern China, Vol. 29, No. 4, 455-489 (2003)] ]
The GDP per capita was ¥16,029 (ca. US$2,100) in 2007, ranked no. 382 among 659 Chinese cities. Its main industries are wool spinning and textiles, fur, meat, milk, salt, and light processing industries. Another popular activity is Tibetan dancing in Xining Square.
2006, the total population of Xining is approximately 2,095,000, with an urban population of 1,029,400.
Colleges and universities
*Qinghai Normal University (青海师范大学)
*Qinghai Medical College (青海医学院)
*Qinghai University for Nationalities (青海民族学院)
Xining is situated in a fertile mountain basin in the valley of the Huangshui (river), a tributary of the Yellow River, that acts as a river port. The city lies about 200 km west of
Lanzhouin GansuProvince, on what was traditionally the main trade route from northern Chinainto Tibetand the Qaidam Basin. These routes are now followed by modern highways. Since 1959 Xining has been connected by railto the main Chinese system at Lanzhou; this railway extends into the Qaidam area via Haiyannear Qinghai Laketo Golmud.
Located in the southwest part of Xining City, the Ta'er Monastery is one of six famous monasteries in the
Gelug(also called Yellow Hat Sect) of Tibetan Buddhism. Having a history of over 600 years, the Dongguan Mosque, located in the Xining City Zone, is one of the most famous mosques in the northwest region of China. It has splendid and diversiform towers, walls and halls in the mosque. Another unique religious structure is the Beishan Si(North Mountain Temple), a Taoistfacility.
The Xining region is also replete with natural scenic attractions. One is the Sun and Moon Mountain which divides Qinghai Province into two parts - the stock-raising area and the farming area. Another not-to-be-missed destination is the
Qinghai Lakeand Bird Island. This alluring body of water is home to hundreds of thousands of birds. About 35 kilometers west of Xining City in Datong County, you can experience the magical power of Laoye Mountain. Every year on the 6th day of the 6th lunar month, the traditional singing festival attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors.
As the capital of Qinghai Province, Xining almost boasts all varieties of local flavors. Xining's cuisine is distinct from other varieties of Chinese cities using mainly food products native to the area. Food here is substantial, but quite inexpensive.
A unique feature of snacks in Xining is that they are given names after the surname of their initiator. Some of the famous ones will be introduced in next context. Liangfen (bean jelly) is made from pea powder and cut into short strips. Liangfen is served with vinegar, chili and mashed garlic, mustard and salt to enhance the taste the dish. Niangpi is a popular snack made of flour and baking soda. It can be found anywhere in Xining for four-yuan. The most famous version of this snack is called Mazhong Niangpi and can be found in the Mojia Jie. Zasui Tang is a soup cooked with lamb and oxen entrails. Locals often eat this snack for breakfast. The hot soup helps warm people during the winter. Muslim Yoghurt is a must while in Xining – this breakfast is a kind of yoghurt made by local Muslim families and is served in small bowls for one-yuan. Terrine is a popular and inexpensive snack in Xining. It is a small hot pot which contains beef, mutton, been curd and vermicelli. Mutton Eaten with Fingers is the most famous snack in Qinghai Province. It is made of fresh mutton and served with a little salt. This snack is the favorite food of the herdsmen of Qinghai Province.
In Xining, some restaurants serve varieties of 'plateau flavor', such as Feng'er Liji (a round lamb tenderloin), Danbai Chongcao Ji (a medicine cuisine made of chicken, Chinese caterpillar fungus and eggs), Jinyu Facai (pork wrapped in flabelliform nostoc and shaped as a goldfish) among others. These dishes are often cooked by the locals at home.
* [http://www.xining.gov.cn/ Xining Government Website]
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