- China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed
Locale People's Republic of China Dates of operation 2007–present Track gauge 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) Standard gauge Headquarters Beijing, PR China
Hexie Hao (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào) (Literally: Harmony) is the designation for high-speed trains running on this rail system. At the middle of the run, all trains were marked "CRH" on the centre of the head vehicle and the side of the walls of each vehicle. Soon however, it was changed to the Chinese characters "和谐号" on all of the trains. CRH1/2A/2B/2E/5 are expected to have a maximum speed of 250 km/h (160 mph), and CRH2C/3 have a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph). CRH was a major part of the sixth national railway speedup which was implemented on April 18, 2007. However, not all high-speed trains in China are named CRH.
Each train is formed of eight coaches with a capacity of between 588 to 568 people for 8-car train or 1100–1200 people for 16-car train, depending on the formation of the train. CRH1 are built by a joint venture, Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation in Qingdao, Shandong Province. China Northern Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry (CNR), China, is supplying 60 CRH5 200 km/h eight-car trains based on Alstom technology. These trains are designed to meet UIC and EN international standards and each vehicle utilises a high-strength aluminium alloy bodyshell weighing just 8.5 tonnes.
High-speed rail network
High-speed rail services were introduced in 2007 and are operated using CRH trains. These run on existing lines that have been upgraded to speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph) and on dedicated high speed track up to 350 km/h (220 mph).
CRH Rolling stock
China Railway High-speed runs different electric multiple unit (trainsets), the designs of which all are imported from other nations and given the designations CRH-1 through CRH-5. CRH trainsets are intended to provide fast and convenient travel between cities. Some of the trainsets are manufactured locally through technology transfer, a key requirement for China. The signalling, track and support structures, control software and station design are developed domestically with foreign elements as well, so the system as a whole could be called Chinese. China currently holds many new patents related to the internal components of these train sets since they have re-designed major components so the trains can run at a much higher speed than the original foreign train design.
- CRH1 produced by Bombardier's joint venture Sifang Power (Qingdao) Transportation (BST), CRH1A & CRH1B, nickname "Metro" or "Bread", derived from Bombardier Regina, CRH1E, nickname "Lizard", is Bombardier's ZEFIRO 250 design.
- CRH2; nickname "Hairtail" derived from E2 Series 1000 Shinkansen.
- CRH2A; In 2006, China has unveiled (CRH2), a modified version of the Japanese Shinkansen E2-1000 series. An order for 60 8-car sets had been placed in 2004, with the first few built in Japan, the rest produce by Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock in China.
- CRH2B; a modified 16-cars version of CRH2; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
- CRH2C (Stage one); a modified version of CRH2 has maximum operating speed up to 300 km/h by replacing two intermediate trailer cars with motored cars.
- CRH2C (Stage two); a modified version of CRH2C (Stage one version) has maximum operating speed up to 350 km/h by replacing motors with more powerful ones.
- CRH2E; a modified 16-cars version of CRH2 with sleeping cars.
- CRH3C; nickname "Rabbit", derived from Siemens ICE3 (class 403); 8 car sets; maximum operating speed of 350 km/h
- CRH5A, derived from Alstom Pendolino ETR600; 8 car sets; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h
- CRH6; Designed by CSR Puzhen and CSR Sifang, will be manufactured by CSR Jiangmen, it is designed to have two versions, top operating speed of 220 km/h version and top operating speed of 160 km/h version, will be used at 200 km/h or 250 km/h Inter-city High Speed Rail lines, planned to enter service by 2011.
- CRH380A; Maximum operating speed of 380 km/h; Manufacturer by Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock; entered service in 2010.
- CRH380B; upgraded version of CRH3; maximum operating speed of 380 km/h, manufactured by Tangshan Railway Vehicle & Changchun Railway Vehicles; entered service in 2011.
- CRH380CL; Designed and manufactured by Changchun Railway Vehicles maximum operating speed of 380 km/h, planned to enter service in 2012.
- CRH380D; also named Zefiro 380; maximum operating speed of 380 km/h; manufactured by Bombardier Sifang (Qingdao) Transportation Ltd. (BST); planned to enter service in 2012.
CRH1A, B,E, CRH2A, B,E, and CRH5A are designed for a maximum operating speed (MOR) of 200 km/h and can reach up to 250 km/h. CRH3C and CRH2C designs have an MOR of 300 km/h, and can reach up to 350 km/h, with a top testing speed more than 380 km/h. However, in practical terms, issues such as cost of maintenance, comfort, cost and safety make the maximum design speed of more than 380 km/h impractical and remain limiting factors.
Equipment type Top speed in test Designed speed Seating capacity Formation Power
(under 25 kV)
Enter Service CRH1A 278 km/h (173 mph) 250 668 or 611 or 645 5M3T 5,300 kW 2007 CRH1B 292 km/h (181 mph) 250 1299 10M6T 11,000 kW 2009 CRH1E 250 618 or 642 10M6T 11,000 kW 2009 CRH2A 282 km/h (175 mph) 250 610 or 588 4M4T 4,800 kW 2007 CRH2B 275 km/h (171 mph) 250 1230 8M8T 9,600 kW 2008 CRH2C Stage 1 394.2 km/h (244.9 mph) 300 610 6M2T 7,200 kW 2008 CRH2C Stage 2 350 610 6M2T 8,760 kW 2010 CRH2E 250 630 8M8T 9,600 kW 2008 CRH3C 394.3 km/h (245.0 mph) 350 600 or 556 4M4T 8,800 kW 2008 CRH5A 250 622 or 586 or 570 5M3T 5,500 kW 2007 CRH380A 416.6 km/h (258.9 mph) 380 494 6M2T 9,600 kW 2010 CRH380AL 486.1 km/h (302.0 mph) 380 1027 14M2T 20,440 kW 2010 CRH380B 380 unknown 4M4T 9,200 kW 2011 (plan) CRH380BL 487.3 km/h (302.8 mph) 380 1004 8M8T 18,400 kW 2010 (plan) CRH380CL 380 8M8T 2012 (plan) CRH380D 380 495 5M3T 10,000 kW 2012 (plan) CRH380DL 380 1013 10M6T 20,000 kW 2012 (plan) CRH6 220 586 4M4T unknown 2011 (plan)
Chinese MOR CRH trainsets order timetable
Date Factory Speed Level Type Quantity
Amount Oct 10, 2004 Alstom 250 km/h CRH5A 3 24 620 million EUR CNR Changchun 57 456 Oct 12, 2004 BST (Bombardier & CSR) 250 km/h CRH1A 20 160 350 million USD Oct 20, 2004 Kawasaki 250 km/h CRH2A 3 24 9,300 million RMB CSR Sifang 57 456 May 30, 2005 BST 250 km/h CRH1A 20 160 350 million USD June 2005 CSR Sifang 300 km/h CRH2C Stage one 30 240 8,200 million RMB 350 km/h CRH2C Stage two 30 240 Nov 20, 2005 Siemens 350 km/h CRH3C 3 24 13,000 million RMB CNR Tangshan 57 456 Oct 31, 2007 BST 250 km/h CRH1B 20 320 1,000 million EUR CRH1E 20 320 Nov 2007 CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2B 10 160 1,200 million RMB Nov 2007 CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2E 6 96 900 million RMB Dec 6, 2008 CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2E 14 224 2,100 million RMB Sep 23, 2009 CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 30 240 4,800 million RMB Mar 16, 2009 CNR Tangshan 380 km/h CRH380BL 70 1,120 39,200 million RMB CNR Changchun 30 480 Sep 28, 2009 CSR Sifang 380 km/h CRH380A 40 320 45,000 million RMB CRH380AL 100 1,600 Sep 28, 2009 BST 380 km/h CRH380D 20 160 27,400 million RMB CRH380DL 60 960 Sep 28, 2009 CNR Changchun 380 km/h CRH380B 40 320 23,520 million RMB CRH380BL 15 240 CRH380CL 25 400 Sep 28, 2009 CNR Tangshan 350 km/h CRH3C 20 160 3,920 million RMB Dec 30, 2009 CSR Puzhen 220 km/h CRH6 24 192 2,346 million RMB July 16, 2010 BST 250 km/h CRH1A 40 320 5,200 million RMB Sep 14, 2010 CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2A 40 320 3,400 million RMB Oct 13, 2010 CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 20 160 2,700 million RMB Apr 26, 2011 CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 30 240 3,870 million RMB Total 954 10,352
Chinese CRH trainsets delivery timetable
Type 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total CRH1A 8 18 12 2 20 20 80 CRH2A 19 41 15 25 100 CRH5A 27 29 4 30 20 30 140 CRH1B 4 9 7 20 CRH1E 3 8 9 20 CRH2B 10 10 CRH2E 6 14 20 CRH2C 10 20 30 60 CRH3C 7 36 37 80 CRH380A 40 40 CRH380AL 6 94 100 CRH380B 20 201 40 CRH380BL 11 49 551 115 CRH380CL 251 25 CRH380D 202 20 CRH380DL 602 60 CRH6 24 24 Total 27 86 78 88 204 261 210 954 Cumulative 27 113 191 279 483 744 954 954
- ^1 All CRH380B and CRH380C units to be delivered before 2012.
- ^2 All CRH380D units to be delivered before 2014.
Before the introduction of foreign technology, China has been conducting independent research and development Express Rail Link train, also made a lot of results (for example, China Star), but China AC drive[disambiguation needed] and other core technologies are not mature, high-speed EMU's nine core technologies, including assembly, body, bogie, traction, traction control, traction transformers, traction motors, the train network control and braking system, not the hands of the Chinese domestic enterprises, domestic high-speed EMU in technology and reliability were unable to train today, compared with foreign countries. On the other hand the research process also requires a lot of time. Republic of China Ministry of Railways spokesman Zhang Shuguang said that due to historical reasons, China's overall level of railway technology and equipment is equivalent to developed countries 1970 1980 level, high-speed EMU technology is still in development stage, if on their own, you may need a decade or longer to catch up, can not adapt to the current economic. In 2004, the Republic of China State Council and the Ministry of Railways have defined a modern railway technology and equipment, "the introduction of advanced technology, the joint design and production, to build China brand" policy. The realization of the railway "leapfrog development" is the key tasks of more than 200 kilometers per hour high speed train technology to introduce a whole, the "absorption and innovation", and in the law made independent intellectual property. In other words, the Ministry of Railways adopted a "market for technology" strategy.
April 9, 2004: State[clarification needed] held on the modern conference equipment, railway rolling stock, and issued a "study issues related to railway rolling stock and equipment the minutes", defined a railway technology and equipment modernization, "the introduction of advanced technology, the joint design and production, to build China brand," the general principle of clear modern China, the direction of railway technology and equipment, methods and objectives.
June 17, 2004: Ministry of Railways launched for use in China Railway Sixth Speed, 200 km per hour the first round of high-level EMU technology the introduction of bidding, "People Railway" and the Chinese Procurement and Bidding tender notice issued at the same time, "speed of 200 km of railways EMU project invitation to tender," the tender notice clearly the main domestic businesses, but it must obtain advanced technical support: "legally registered in the PRC, with rail EMU manufacturing capacity, and access to 200 kilometers per hour has a mature group of railway motor car design and manufacturing technology partner technical support of foreign enterprises in China (including joint ventures). " Tender documents which clearly sets out three principles: First, the transfer of key technologies must be comprehensive, the second is the price to be lowest in the world and the third is to use the Chinese brand. Master mature over the world, high-speed EMU design and manufacturing technology companies, including Siemens, Alstom, France, Japan, Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Bombardier, etc., initially had hoped to use the joint venture in China in EMU tender but was explicitly rejected the Chinese Ministry of Railways. China insists the direction of a comprehensive transfer of technology to Chinese enterprises, especially in systems integration, AC drive, and other core technologies, to allow domestic enterprises to master the core technology; and requests for domestic enterprises to foreign partners to provide technical services and training to improve the domestic enterprises to design, manufacture and technical level of quality control personnel, and ultimately to realize the localization. Railway equipment manufacturers in China are free to choose foreign partners, foreign firms must be pre-bid and China's domestic manufacturers improve the technology transfer agreement signed, so the Chinese rolling stock manufacturer to comprehensively and systematically learn advanced foreign technology, which accelerate the pace of modernization of China's railways.
In this round of bidding, EMU 140 orders were divided into seven packages, each package 20. Through competition and representatives from the procurement, purchasing agent, and from scientific research institutions on behalf of economic, technological, legal experts, the evaluation committee based on evaluation methods of the comprehensive review. Ultimately by the Northern China Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Group-owned Changchun Railway Vehicles Co., Ltd. and France Alstom co South China Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Group belongs to Sifang Locomotive Co., Ltd. and Japan Kawasaki Heavy Industries cooperation, Canada Bombardier in Qingdao joint venture Qingdao Quartet Bombardier Railway Transportation Equipment Co., Ltd. (BSP) three companies won the bid, were given three packets (60), 3 packages (60) and 1 package (20) in order. Germany Siemens a result of an expensive technology transfer, cost of vehicle cost (prototype 350 million yuan each column, technology transfer fee 390 million euros) in the first round of bidding can not get any orders. EMU in the first tender in payment of technology transfer payments totaling 22.7 billion yuan, accounting for the amount in the tender up to 51%.
November 2005: The Chinese Ministry of Railways and the German Siemens in the "market for technology" principle agreement, Siemens and thus access to 60 300 kilometers per hour high speed train orders.
The introduction of foreign advanced technology, high-speed train, in order to implement the "Long-term Scientific and Technological Development (2006-2020)" the requirements of high-speed rail system in the core technology innovation to meet the needs of China's railway development, in the 2008 February 26, Republic of China Ministry of Science and Republic of China Ministry of Railways signed the "independent innovation of Chinese high-speed train cooperation agreement Joint Action Plan". Liang Buwei deployment led by the United CAS, Tsinghua University, Zhejiang University, Southwest Jiaotong University, Beijing Jiaotong University and so a large number of academicians and researchers from basic research, demonstration program, to scientific experiments, the combination of China's most outstanding scientific and industrial resources, and establish a production and research with a combination of innovation system, developing the world's highest level of high-speed trains.
Under the agreement, China's independent innovation and high-speed train joint action plan has four main aspects of the target:
- In the introduction of technology "absorption and innovation", based on the realization of independent innovation, develop key technologies, development speed of 350 km and over high-speed train;
- Establish and improve the speed with independent intellectual property rights and over 350 km high speed railway technology system, and made a strong international competitiveness;
- Ministry of Science and the Ministry of Railways to play two synergies to build high-speed train technology innovation chain and industry research alliances, enhance independent innovation capability;
- Promotion of innovative technologies into production, the establishment of China's high-speed train chain and industry groups to enhance the China-related material and equipment capacity.
Republic of China Ministry of Science and started the total investment for this nearly 10 billion yuan in science and technology plan, which is by far the Chinese Ministry of Science and the largest investment program supported by a project. Project has set up dozens of issues, brought together a total of 25 key universities in China, top 11 research institutes, national laboratories and 51 engineering research centers, including 68 academicians, professors more than 500 people, more than 200 researchers, project technical staff on the people. In addition, the Ministry of Science and also with the speed of 400 km of high-speed detection vehicles and deployment of 500 km per hour of high-speed trains were arranged based rehearsal "863 Project" and "973 Project", to form a series of key technologies from basic research to develop and then important equipment developed systems engineering.
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High-speed rail in the People's Republic of China MaglevShanghai Maglev Train · Shanghai–Hangzhou Maglev Line Conventional High
Speed RailwaysBeijing–Harbin PDLBeijing–Shenyang Passenger Railway · Harbin–Dalian Passenger Railway · Panjin–Yingkou Passenger RailwayBeijing–Shanghai PDL(Branch line: Hefei–Bengbu Passenger Railway)Links between Beijing–Harbin
PDL and Beijing–Shanghai PDLTianjin–Qinhuangdao Passenger Railway · Qinhuangdao–Shenyang Passenger RailwayBeijing–Hong Kong PDLBeijing–Shijiazhuang Passenger Railway · Shijiazhuang–Wuhan Passenger Railway · Wuhan–Guangzhou Passenger Railway · Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong XRL (HK Section)*Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen PDLHangzhou–Ningbo Passenger Railway · Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway · Wenzhou–Fuzhou Railway · Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway · Xiamen–Shenzhen RailwayQingdao–Taiyuan PDLJiaozhou–Jinan Passenger Railway · Shijiazhuang–Jinan Passenger Railway · Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan Passenger RailwayXuzhou–Lanzhou PDLZhengzhou–Xuzhou Passenger Railway · Zhengzhou–Xi'an Passenger Railway · Xi'an–Baoji Passenger Railway · Baoji–Lanzhou Passenger RailwayShanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu PDLShanghai–Nanjing Intercity High-Speed Railway · Jinghu High-Speed Railway (Shanghai–Nanjing) · Hefei–Nanjing Passenger Railway · Hefei–Wuhan Passenger Railway · Wuhan–Yichang Railway · Yichang–Wanzhou Railway (Yichang-Lichuan) · Chongqing–Lichuan Railway · Suining–Chongqing Railway · Dazhou–Chengdu Railway (Suining-Chengdu)Shanghai–Kunming PDLShanghai–Hangzhou Passenger Railway · Hangzhou–Changsha Passenger Railway · Changsha–Kunming Passenger RailwayOtherGuizhou–Guangzhou Passenger Railway · Lanzhou–Xinjiang Passenger Railway · Hefei–Fuzhou Passenger RailwayIntercity
(200-250km/h)Chengdu-Dujiangyan Intercity Railway · Nanchang-Jiujiang Intercity Railway · Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Mass Rapid Transit · Hainan East Ring Intercity Rail · Changchun-Jilin Intercity Rail · Guangzhou–Zhaoqing Intercity Railway · Nanjing-Anqing Intercity Railway · Dongguan–Huizhou Intercity Railway · Chengdu-Leshan Intercity Railway · Zhengzhou–Kaifeng Intercity RailwayIntercity
(300-350km/h)Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway · Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity High-Speed Railway · Jinbin Intercity Railway · Nanjing-Hangzhou Intercity Railway · Harbin-Qiqihar Intercity Railway · Chengdu-Chongqing Intercity Railway · Shenyang-Dandong Intercity RailwayUpgraded linesGuangzhou–Shenzhen Railway · Jiaozhou–Jinan Railway · Beijing–Shanghai Railway · Beijing–Harbin Railway · Beijing–Guangzhou Railway · Longhai Railway · Shanghai–Kunming Railway · Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway · Xiangfan–Chongqing Railway · Xiaoshan–Ningbo RailwayRolling Stock
Note: italics - under construction or currently not operational * in/related to the special administrative regions High-speed rail Rail transport High-speed trains300 km/h/186.4 mph or more
AGV · AVE Class 100, 102, 103 · CRH 2C, 3C, 380A, 380B, 380C, 380D, · ETR 500 · Eurostar · ICE 3 · KTX-I · KTX-II · Oaris · Shinkansen Series 500, N700, E5, E6, L0 · AVRIL · TGV Sud-Est (refurbished), Atlantique, Réseau, Duplex, POS · Thalys PBA, PBKA · THSR 700T · Transrapid · Shanghai Maglev Train · Velaro · Bombardier Zefiro250–299 km/h (155.3–185.8 mph)200–249 km/h (124.3–154.7 mph)
Acela Express · Adelante · Alfa Pendular · APT · China Railways CRH6 · ER200 · GMB Class 71 (Flytoget) · IC4 · InterCity 125, 225 · ICE T, TD · ICx · ICN · Javelin · NSB Class 73 · Pendolino · Railjet · Regina · RENFE Class 490 · RENFE Class 449 · Shinkansen series 0, 100, 400, E1, E4 · SJ X40 · SNCF Class Z 21500 · Sokol · Talgo XXI · Voyager/Meridian · VR Class Sm3, Sm6 · X 2000 · X3
planned lines in italicsOther
Technologies See also: Experimental and prototype high-speed trains (category) , High-speed railway lines (category)
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