China Railway High-speed

China Railway High-speed
China Railway High-speed
Locale  People's Republic of China
Dates of operation 2007–present
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) Standard gauge
Headquarters Beijing, PR China

China Railway High-speed (abbrev. CRH); simplified Chinese: 中国铁路高速; traditional Chinese: 中國鐵路高速; pinyin: Zhōngguó tiělù gāosù) is the high-speed rail system operated by China Railways.

Hexie Hao (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào) (Literally: Harmony) is the designation for high-speed trains running on this rail system. At the middle of the run, all trains were marked "CRH" on the centre of the head vehicle and the side of the walls of each vehicle. Soon however, it was changed to the Chinese characters "和谐号" on all of the trains. CRH1/2A/2B/2E/5 are expected to have a maximum speed of 250 km/h (160 mph), and CRH2C/3 have a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph). CRH was a major part of the sixth national railway speedup which was implemented on April 18, 2007. However, not all high-speed trains in China are named CRH.

Each train is formed of eight coaches with a capacity of between 588 to 568 people for 8-car train or 1100–1200 people for 16-car train, depending on the formation of the train. CRH1 are built by a joint venture, Bombardier Sifang Power Transportation in Qingdao, Shandong Province. China Northern Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry (CNR), China, is supplying 60 CRH5 200 km/h eight-car trains based on Alstom technology. These trains are designed to meet UIC and EN international standards and each vehicle utilises a high-strength aluminium alloy bodyshell weighing just 8.5 tonnes.[1]


High-speed rail network

High-speed rail services were introduced in 2007 and are operated using CRH trains. These run on existing lines that have been upgraded to speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph) and on dedicated high speed track up to 350 km/h (220 mph).

CRH Rolling stock

China Railway High-speed runs different electric multiple unit (trainsets), the designs of which all are imported from other nations and given the designations CRH-1 through CRH-5. CRH trainsets are intended to provide fast and convenient travel between cities. Some of the trainsets are manufactured locally through technology transfer, a key requirement for China. The signalling, track and support structures, control software and station design are developed domestically with foreign elements as well, so the system as a whole could be called Chinese. China currently holds many new patents related to the internal components of these train sets since they have re-designed major components so the trains can run at a much higher speed than the original foreign train design.

  • CRH1 produced by Bombardier's joint venture Sifang Power (Qingdao) Transportation (BST), CRH1A & CRH1B, nickname "Metro" or "Bread", derived from Bombardier Regina, CRH1E, nickname "Lizard", is Bombardier's ZEFIRO 250 design.
    • CRH1A; sets consists of 8 cars; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
    • CRH1B; a modified 16-cars version; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
    • CRH1E; is a 16-car high-speed sleeper version; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
  • CRH2; nickname "Hairtail" derived from E2 Series 1000 Shinkansen.
    • CRH2A; In 2006, China has unveiled (CRH2), a modified version of the Japanese Shinkansen E2-1000 series. An order for 60 8-car sets had been placed in 2004, with the first few built in Japan, the rest produce by Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock in China.[2]
    • CRH2B; a modified 16-cars version of CRH2; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h.
    • CRH2C (Stage one); a modified version of CRH2 has maximum operating speed up to 300 km/h by replacing two intermediate trailer cars with motored cars.
    • CRH2C (Stage two); a modified version of CRH2C (Stage one version) has maximum operating speed up to 350 km/h by replacing motors with more powerful ones.
    • CRH2E; a modified 16-cars version of CRH2 with sleeping cars.
  • CRH3C; nickname "Rabbit", derived from Siemens ICE3 (class 403); 8 car sets; maximum operating speed of 350 km/h
  • CRH5A, derived from Alstom Pendolino ETR600; 8 car sets; maximum operating speed of 250 km/h[3]
  • CRH6; Designed by CSR Puzhen and CSR Sifang, will be manufactured by CSR Jiangmen, it is designed to have two versions, top operating speed of 220 km/h version and top operating speed of 160 km/h version, will be used at 200 km/h or 250 km/h Inter-city High Speed Rail lines, planned to enter service by 2011.
  • CRH380A; Maximum operating speed of 380 km/h; Manufacturer by Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock; entered service in 2010.
  • CRH380B; upgraded version of CRH3; maximum operating speed of 380 km/h, manufactured by Tangshan Railway Vehicle & Changchun Railway Vehicles; entered service in 2011.
  • CRH380CL; Designed and manufactured by Changchun Railway Vehicles maximum operating speed of 380 km/h, planned to enter service in 2012.
  • CRH380D; also named Zefiro 380; maximum operating speed of 380 km/h; manufactured by Bombardier Sifang (Qingdao) Transportation Ltd. (BST); planned to enter service in 2012.

CRH1A, B,E, CRH2A, B,E, and CRH5A are designed for a maximum operating speed (MOR) of 200 km/h and can reach up to 250 km/h. CRH3C and CRH2C designs have an MOR of 300 km/h, and can reach up to 350 km/h, with a top testing speed more than 380 km/h. However, in practical terms, issues such as cost of maintenance, comfort, cost and safety make the maximum design speed of more than 380 km/h impractical and remain limiting factors.

Equipment type Top speed in test Designed speed Seating capacity Formation Power
(under 25 kV)
Enter Service
CRH1A 278 km/h (173 mph) 250 668 or 611 or 645 5M3T 5,300 kW 2007
CRH1B 292 km/h (181 mph) 250 1299 10M6T 11,000 kW 2009
CRH1E 250 618 or 642 10M6T 11,000 kW 2009
CRH2A 282 km/h (175 mph) 250 610 or 588 4M4T 4,800 kW 2007
CRH2B 275 km/h (171 mph) 250 1230 8M8T 9,600 kW 2008
CRH2C Stage 1 394.2 km/h (244.9 mph) 300 610 6M2T 7,200 kW 2008
CRH2C Stage 2 350 610 6M2T 8,760 kW 2010
CRH2E 250 630 8M8T 9,600 kW 2008
CRH3C 394.3 km/h (245.0 mph) 350 600 or 556 4M4T 8,800 kW 2008
CRH5A 250 622 or 586 or 570 5M3T 5,500 kW 2007
CRH380A 416.6 km/h (258.9 mph) 380 494 6M2T 9,600 kW 2010
CRH380AL 486.1 km/h (302.0 mph) 380 1027 14M2T 20,440 kW 2010
CRH380B 380 unknown 4M4T 9,200 kW 2011 (plan)
CRH380BL 487.3 km/h (302.8 mph) 380 1004 8M8T 18,400 kW 2010 (plan)
CRH380CL 380 8M8T 2012 (plan)
CRH380D 380 495 5M3T 10,000 kW 2012 (plan)
CRH380DL 380 1013 10M6T 20,000 kW 2012 (plan)
CRH6 220 586 4M4T unknown 2011 (plan)

Chinese MOR CRH trainsets order timetable

Date Factory Speed Level Type Quantity


Oct 10, 2004[4] Alstom 250 km/h CRH5A 3 24 620 million EUR
CNR Changchun 57 456
Oct 12, 2004[5] BST (Bombardier & CSR) 250 km/h CRH1A 20 160 350 million USD
Oct 20, 2004[6] Kawasaki 250 km/h CRH2A 3 24 9,300 million RMB
CSR Sifang 57 456
May 30, 2005[7] BST 250 km/h CRH1A 20 160 350 million USD
June 2005[6] CSR Sifang 300 km/h CRH2C Stage one 30 240 8,200 million RMB
350 km/h CRH2C Stage two 30 240
Nov 20, 2005[8] Siemens 350 km/h CRH3C 3 24 13,000 million RMB
CNR Tangshan 57 456
Oct 31, 2007[9] BST 250 km/h CRH1B 20 320 1,000 million EUR
CRH1E 20 320
Nov 2007[10] CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2B 10 160 1,200 million RMB
Nov 2007[6] CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2E 6 96 900 million RMB
Dec 6, 2008[6] CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2E 14 224 2,100 million RMB
Sep 23, 2009[11] CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 30 240 4,800 million RMB
Mar 16, 2009[12] CNR Tangshan 380 km/h CRH380BL 70 1,120 39,200 million RMB
CNR Changchun 30 480
Sep 28, 2009[13] CSR Sifang 380 km/h CRH380A 40 320 45,000 million RMB
CRH380AL 100 1,600
Sep 28, 2009[13] BST 380 km/h CRH380D 20 160 27,400 million RMB
CRH380DL 60 960
Sep 28, 2009[14] CNR Changchun 380 km/h CRH380B 40 320 23,520 million RMB
CRH380BL 15 240
CRH380CL 25 400
Sep 28, 2009[15] CNR Tangshan 350 km/h CRH3C[16] 20 160 3,920 million RMB
Dec 30, 2009[17] CSR Puzhen 220 km/h CRH6 24 192 2,346 million RMB
July 16, 2010[18] BST 250 km/h CRH1A 40 320 5,200 million RMB
Sep 14, 2010[19] CSR Sifang 250 km/h CRH2A 40 320 3,400 million RMB
Oct 13, 2010[20] CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 20 160 2,700 million RMB
Apr 26, 2011 CNR Changchun 250 km/h CRH5A 30 240 3,870 million RMB
Total 954 10,352

Chinese CRH trainsets delivery timetable

Based on data published by Sinolink Securities,[21][22] some small changes were made according to the most recent news.

Type 2006 2007 2008 2009



CRH1A 8 18 12 2 20 20 80
CRH2A 19 41 15 25 100
CRH5A 27 29 4 30 20 30 140
CRH1B 4 9 7 20
CRH1E 3 8 9 20
CRH2B 10 10
CRH2E 6 14 20
CRH2C 10 20 30 60
CRH3C 7 36 37 80
CRH380A 40 40
CRH380AL 6 94 100
CRH380B 20 201 40
CRH380BL 11 49 551 115
CRH380CL 251 25
CRH380D 202 20
CRH380DL 602 60
CRH6 24 24
Total 27 86 78 88 204 261 210 954
Cumulative 27 113 191 279 483 744 954 954
  • ^1 All CRH380B and CRH380C units to be delivered before 2012.
  • ^2 All CRH380D units to be delivered before 2014.

Technology Development

Before the introduction of foreign technology, China has been conducting independent research and development Express Rail Link train, also made a lot of results (for example, China Star), but China AC drive[disambiguation needed] and other core technologies are not mature, high-speed EMU's nine core technologies, including assembly, body, bogie, traction, traction control, traction transformers, traction motors, the train network control and braking system, not the hands of the Chinese domestic enterprises, domestic high-speed EMU in technology and reliability were unable to train today, compared with foreign countries. On the other hand the research process also requires a lot of time. Republic of China Ministry of Railways spokesman Zhang Shuguang said that due to historical reasons, China's overall level of railway technology and equipment is equivalent to developed countries 1970 1980 level, high-speed EMU technology is still in development stage, if on their own, you may need a decade or longer to catch up, can not adapt to the current economic.[23] In 2004, the Republic of China State Council and the Ministry of Railways have defined a modern railway technology and equipment, "the introduction of advanced technology, the joint design and production, to build China brand" policy. The realization of the railway "leapfrog development" is the key tasks of more than 200 kilometers per hour high speed train technology to introduce a whole, the "absorption and innovation", and in the law made independent intellectual property. In other words, the Ministry of Railways adopted a "market for technology" strategy.

Technology introduction

April 9, 2004: State[clarification needed] held on the modern conference equipment, railway rolling stock, and issued a "study issues related to railway rolling stock and equipment the minutes", defined a railway technology and equipment modernization, "the introduction of advanced technology, the joint design and production, to build China brand," the general principle of clear modern China, the direction of railway technology and equipment, methods and objectives.

June 17, 2004: Ministry of Railways launched for use in China Railway Sixth Speed, 200 km per hour the first round of high-level EMU technology the introduction of bidding, "People Railway" and the Chinese Procurement and Bidding tender notice issued at the same time, "speed of 200 km of railways EMU project invitation to tender," the tender notice clearly the main domestic businesses, but it must obtain advanced technical support: "legally registered in the PRC, with rail EMU manufacturing capacity, and access to 200 kilometers per hour has a mature group of railway motor car design and manufacturing technology partner technical support of foreign enterprises in China (including joint ventures). " Tender documents which clearly sets out three principles: First, the transfer of key technologies must be comprehensive, the second is the price to be lowest in the world and the third is to use the Chinese brand. Master mature over the world, high-speed EMU design and manufacturing technology companies, including Siemens, Alstom, France, Japan, Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Bombardier, etc., initially had hoped to use the joint venture in China in EMU tender but was explicitly rejected the Chinese Ministry of Railways. China insists the direction of a comprehensive transfer of technology to Chinese enterprises, especially in systems integration, AC drive, and other core technologies, to allow domestic enterprises to master the core technology; and requests for domestic enterprises to foreign partners to provide technical services and training to improve the domestic enterprises to design, manufacture and technical level of quality control personnel, and ultimately to realize the localization.[24] Railway equipment manufacturers in China are free to choose foreign partners, foreign firms must be pre-bid and China's domestic manufacturers improve the technology transfer agreement signed, so the Chinese rolling stock manufacturer to comprehensively and systematically learn advanced foreign technology, which accelerate the pace of modernization of China's railways.[25]

In this round of bidding, EMU 140 orders were divided into seven packages, each package 20. Through competition and representatives from the procurement, purchasing agent, and from scientific research institutions on behalf of economic, technological, legal experts, the evaluation committee based on evaluation methods of the comprehensive review. Ultimately by the Northern China Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Group-owned Changchun Railway Vehicles Co., Ltd. and France Alstom co South China Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Group belongs to Sifang Locomotive Co., Ltd. and Japan Kawasaki Heavy Industries cooperation, Canada Bombardier in Qingdao joint venture Qingdao Quartet Bombardier Railway Transportation Equipment Co., Ltd. (BSP) three companies won the bid, were given three packets (60), 3 packages (60) and 1 package (20) in order.[25] Germany Siemens a result of an expensive technology transfer, cost of vehicle cost (prototype 350 million yuan each column, technology transfer fee 390 million euros) in the first round of bidding can not get any orders.[26][27] EMU in the first tender in payment of technology transfer payments totaling 22.7 billion yuan, accounting for the amount in the tender up to 51%.

November 2005: The Chinese Ministry of Railways and the German Siemens in the "market for technology" principle agreement, Siemens and thus access to 60 300 kilometers per hour high speed train orders.


The introduction of foreign advanced technology, high-speed train, in order to implement the "Long-term Scientific and Technological Development (2006-2020)" the requirements of high-speed rail system in the core technology innovation to meet the needs of China's railway development, in the 2008 February 26, Republic of China Ministry of Science and Republic of China Ministry of Railways signed the "independent innovation of Chinese high-speed train cooperation agreement Joint Action Plan".[28] Liang Buwei deployment led by the United CAS, Tsinghua University, Zhejiang University, Southwest Jiaotong University, Beijing Jiaotong University and so a large number of academicians and researchers from basic research, demonstration program, to scientific experiments, the combination of China's most outstanding scientific and industrial resources, and establish a production and research with a combination of innovation system, developing the world's highest level of high-speed trains.

Under the agreement, China's independent innovation and high-speed train joint action plan has four main aspects of the target:[29]

  1. In the introduction of technology "absorption and innovation", based on the realization of independent innovation, develop key technologies, development speed of 350 km and over high-speed train;
  2. Establish and improve the speed with independent intellectual property rights and over 350 km high speed railway technology system, and made a strong international competitiveness;
  3. Ministry of Science and the Ministry of Railways to play two synergies to build high-speed train technology innovation chain and industry research alliances, enhance independent innovation capability;
  4. Promotion of innovative technologies into production, the establishment of China's high-speed train chain and industry groups to enhance the China-related material and equipment capacity.

Republic of China Ministry of Science and started the total investment for this nearly 10 billion yuan in science and technology plan, which is by far the Chinese Ministry of Science and the largest investment program supported by a project. Project has set up dozens of issues, brought together a total of 25 key universities in China, top 11 research institutes, national laboratories and 51 engineering research centers, including 68 academicians, professors more than 500 people, more than 200 researchers, project technical staff on the people. In addition, the Ministry of Science and also with the speed of 400 km of high-speed detection vehicles and deployment of 500 km per hour of high-speed trains were arranged based rehearsal "863 Project" and "973 Project", to form a series of key technologies from basic research to develop and then important equipment developed systems engineering.[30]

See also


  1. ^ International Railway Journal - Rail And Rapid Transit Industry News Worldwide
  2. ^ "High speed trainsets take shape". Railway Gazette International. 2005-08-01. 
  3. ^ "China's high speed fleet expands steadily". Railway Gazette International. 2007-08-01. 
  4. ^ "法中企业握手互利共赢" (in chinese). 25 October 2004. 
  5. ^ "2004年10月12日,BSP与铁道部及广州铁路(集团)签订了20列(160辆)EMU动车组" (in chinese). 12 January 2006. 
  6. ^ a b c d "CRH2型动车组详细资料及分类" (in chinese). 14 December 2009. 
  7. ^ "庞巴迪:又获铁道部动车组大订单" (in chinese). 10 June 2005. 
  8. ^ "西门子专家进驻唐山机车车辆厂" (in chinese). 15 August 2006. 
  9. ^ "BSP公司在北京签订40列EMU动车组订单" (in chinese). 2 November 2007. 
  10. ^ "招商证券-中国南车-601766-动车交付高峰来临,业绩逐季增.." (in chinese). 
  11. ^ "公司与北京铁路局签订了30列CRH5型动车组采购合同" (in chinese). 
  12. ^ "唐车公司拿到京沪高铁动车组大订单 总金额392亿" (in chinese). 17 March 2009. 
  13. ^ a b "中国南车:中标巨额合同 增厚公司业绩" (in chinese). 30 September 2009. 
  14. ^ "长客签下235亿订单" (in chinese). 28 September 2009. 
  15. ^ "招商证券-中国北车-601299-动车组第三批高毛利率订单将陆续交付" (in chinese). 
  16. ^ "关于CRH3和380B的提问" (in chinese). 
  17. ^ "中国南车获国内首个城际列车项目订单 总值23.46亿人民币" (in chinese).,1358,7046392,00.shtml. 
  18. ^ "Bombardier Sifang Awarded Fourth Contract for 40 Additional CRH1 High-Speed Trains in China". 16 July 2010. 
  19. ^ "中国南车:再中标动车组订单、未来高增长确定::全景证券频道" (in chinese). 30 September 2010. 
  20. ^ "" (in chinese). 13 October 2010. 
  21. ^ "中国南车研究报告:国金证券-中国南车-601766-通往春天的铁路设备龙头" (in chinese). 
  22. ^ "国金证券-中国北车-601299-动车交付单价已触底,毛利率回升可期" (in chinese). 
  23. ^ "Zhang Shuguang: railway technical equipment of modern achievement has been to benefit the masses". Chinese Government Network. 2007-04-29. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  24. ^ "China's "insist" Core Technology High Speed Rail: 6 years ago, finally got the reward persistence". Oriental Morning Post. 2010-03-18. Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  25. ^ a b "sixth speed railway will be 200 kilometers per hour of the introduction of locomotives". Xinhua. 2004-09-04. Retrieved 2010-09-20. 
  26. ^ Zhang Chunli (2008-09-02). "China's road to the introduction of High Speed Rail: 1.5 billion foreigners cut off overnight - Deputy Ministry of Railways engineer Zhang Shuguang Group of Chinese High Speed road of independent innovation". People's. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  27. ^ "China's high-speed railway construction generous: print media, technology absorption of the four countries envy". Xinhua. 2008-02 -04. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  28. ^ "Science and Technology, Ministry of Railways jointly signed the "China's high-speed train innovation partnership joint action plan "". Science and Technology Portal. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  29. ^ "Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Science and the United deepened over 350 km per hour high speed train innovation". China Railway. 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  30. ^ "High Speed Rail promote high-tech industries in China great development". "Science and Technology Daily". 2010-09-06. Retrieved 2010-09-28. 

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