Infobox PRC province
ChineseName = 湖北省
Pinyin = Húběi Shěng
EnglishName = Hubei Province
Name = Hubei
Abbreviation = 鄂
AbbrevPinyin = È
ISOAbbrev = 42
MapSize = 275px
OriginOfName = 湖 hú - lake
北 běi - north
AdministrationType = Province
Area_km2 = 185900
AreaRank = 14th
PopYear = 2004
Pop = 60,160,000
PopRank = 9th
PopDensity_km2 = 324
PopDensityRank = 12th
GDPYear = 2007
GDP = 915 billion
GDPRank = 12th
GDPperCapita = 14,733
GDPperCapitaRank = 17th
HDIYear = 2005
HDI = 0.755
HDIRank = 15th
HDICat = medium
Nationalities = Han - 95.6%
Miao - 0.4%
Prefectures = 13
Counties = 102
Townships = 1235
Website = http://www.hubei.gov.cn
Audio|zh-Hubei.ogg|Hubei (zh-cpw |c=湖北 |p=Húběi |w=Hu-pei; Postal map spelling: "Hupeh") is a central province of the
People's Republic of China. Its abbreviation is 鄂 ( pinyin: È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the Qin Dynasty. The name "Hubei" means "north of the lake", referring to Hubei's position north of Dongting Lake. [zh [http://www.people.com.cn/GB/shenghuo/1090/2435218.html Origin of the Names of China's Provinces] , People's Daily Online.] The capital of Hubei is Wuhan.
Henanto the north, Anhuito the east, Jiangxito the southeast, Hunanto the south, Chongqingto the west, and Shaanxito the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Damis located in Yichang, in western Hubei.
A popular unofficial name for Hubei is "Chu" (zh-cp |c=楚 |p=Chǔ), after the powerful
state of Chuthat existed here during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
Spring and Autumn Period(770 BC - 476 BC), Hubei was home to the powerful state of Chu. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the Zhou Dynasty, and it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north; but it was also culturally unique, and was a powerful state that held onto much of the middle and lower Yangtze River, with power extending northwards into the North China Plain.
Warring States Period(475 BC - 221 BC) Chu became the major adversary of the upstart state of Qinto the northwest (in what is now Shaanxiprovince), which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin, then (in 278 BC) its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as part of Qin's bid for the conquest of all China.
Qin founded the
Qin Dynastyin 221 BC, the first unified state in China. Qin was succeeded by the Han Dynastyin 206 BC, which established the province ("zhou") of Jingzhou in what is now Hubei and Hunan. Near the end of the Han Dynastyin the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China; but in the Battle of Red Cliffs, warlords Liu Beiand Sun Quandrove Cao Cao out of Jingzhou. Liu Bei then took control of Jingzhou; he went on to conquer Yizhou (the Sichuan Basin), but lost Jingzhou to Sun Quan; for the next few decades Jingzhou was controlled by the Wu Kingdom, ruled by Sun Quan and his successors.
The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into northern China at the beginning of the 4th century began nearly three centuries of the division of China into a nomad-ruled (but increasingly Sinicized) north and a
Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, which is in southern China, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the reunification of China by the Sui Dynastyin 589. In 617 the Tang Dynastyreplaced Sui, and later on the Tang Dynasty placed what is now Hubei under several circuits: Jiangnanxi Circuitin the south; Shannandong Circuitin the west, and Huainan Circuitin the east. After the Tang Dynastydisintegrated the 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnanin the center, Wu (later Southern Tang) to the east, and the Five Dynastiesto the north.
Song Dynastyreunified China in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered China fully in 1279, and under their rule the province of Huguangwas established, covering Hubei, Hunan, and parts of Guangdongand Guangxi. During the Mongol rule, in 1334, Hubei was devastated by the world's first recorded outbreak of the Black Death, which spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia. (Citation needed, as most authorities say Central Asia, some say India, and at least one says Africa).
Ming Dynastydrove out the Mongols in 1368, and their version of Huguang province was smaller, and corresponded almost entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. The Manchu Qing Dynastywhich had conquered China in 1644 split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan in 1664. The Qing Dynasty continued to maintain a viceroyof Huguang, however; one of the most famous was Zhang Zhidong, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei (especially Wuhan) into a prosperous center of commerce and industry. The Huangshi/ Dayearea, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of mining and metallurgy.
In 1911 the
Wuchang Uprisingtook place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing Dynastyand establishing the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei; this government was later merged into Chiang Kai-shek's government in Nanjing. During World War IIthe eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japanwhile the western parts remained under Chinese control.
Cultural Revolutionin the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival "Red Guard" factions.
As the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of
Sino-Soviet border conflicts in the late 1969s, the Xianningprefecture of Hubei was chosen as the site of Project 131, an underground military command headquarters.
The province - and Wuhan in particular - suffered severely from the
1954 Yangtze River Floods. Large scale dam construction followed, with the Gezhouba Damon the Yangtze Rivernear Yichangstarted in 1970 and completed in 1988; the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, further upstream, began in 1993. In the following years, authorities resettled millions of people from western Hubei to make way for the construction of the dam. A number of smaller dams have been constructed on the Yangtze's tributaries as well.
Jianghan Plaintakes up most of central and eastern Hubei, while the west and the peripheries are more mountainous, with ranges such as the Wudang Mountains, the Jingshan Mountains, the Daba Mountains, and the Wushan Mountains(in rough north-to-south order). The Dabie Mountainslie to the northeast, on the border with Henanand Anhui; the Tongbai Mountainslie to the north on the border with Henan; to the southeast the Mufu Mountainsform the border with Jiangxi. The eastern half of the Three Gorges( Xiling Gorgeand part of Wu Gorge) lies in western Hubei; the other half is in neighbouring Chongqing. The highest peak in Hubei is Shennong Peak, found in the Daba Mountainsand in the forestryarea of Shennongjia; it has an altitude of 3105 m.
Yangtze Riverenters Hubei from the west via the Three Gorges; the Hanshui and Shen Nong Streamenter from the north. Shen Nong Streamis a tributary of the Yangtze River which has also been degraded by the Three Gorges Dam project. The Yangtze and Hanshui rivers meet at Wuhan, the provincial capital. Thousands of lakes dot the landscape, giving Hubei the name of: "Province of Lakes"; the largest of these lakes are Lake Liangziand Lake Honghu. The Danjiangkou Reservoirlies on the border between Hubei and Henan.
Hubei has a
subtropical climatewith distinct seasons. Hubei has average temperatures of 1 - 6 °C in winter and of 24 - 30 °C in summer; punishing temperatures of 40 °C or above are famously associated with Wuhan, the provincial capital.
Important cities are
Wuhan, Jingmen, Shiyanand Shashi.
Hubei is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions (of which there are twelve
prefecture-level citiesand one autonomous prefecture), as well as three directly administered county-level citiesand one directly administered county-level forestry area.
The sub-province-level city:
The prefecture-level cities:
Ezhou( _zh. 鄂州市 Èzhōu Shì)
* Huanggang ( _zh. 黄冈市 Huánggāng Shì)
Huangshi( _zh. 黄石市 Huángshí Shì)
Jingmen( _zh. 荆门市 Jīngmén Shì)
Jingzhou( _zh. 荆州市 Jīngzhōu Shì)
Shiyan( _zh. 十堰市 Shíyàn Shì)
Suizhou( _zh. 随州市 Suízhōu Shì)
Xiangfan( _zh. 襄樊市 Xiāngfán Shì)
Xianning( _zh. 咸宁市 Xiánníng Shì)
Xiaogan( _zh. 孝感市 Xiàogǎn Shì)
Yichang( _zh. 宜昌市 Yíchāng Shì)
The autonomous prefecture:
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture( _zh. 恩施土家族苗族自治州 Ēnshī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu)
The three directly administered county-level cities are more accurately described as
Tianmen( _zh. 天门市 Tiānmén Shì)
* Qianjiang ( _zh. 潜江市 Qiánjiāng Shì)
Xiantao( _zh. 仙桃市 Xiāntáo Shì)
The county-level forestry area:
Shennongjia( _zh. 神农架林区 Shénnóngjià Línqū)
The thirteen prefecture-level divisions and four directly administered county-level divisions of Hubei are subdivided into 102 county-level divisions (38 districts, 24
county-level cities, 37 counties, two autonomous counties, one forestry area; the directly administered county-level divisions are included here). Those are in turn divided into 1234 township-level divisions (737 towns, 215 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 273 subdistricts).
List of administrative divisions of Hubeifor a complete list of county-level divisions.
Secretaries of the CPC Hubei Committee:
Li Xiannian(李先念): 1949-1954
Wang Renzhong(王任重): 1954-1966
Zhang Tixue(张体学): 1966-1967
Zeng Siyu(曾思玉): 1970-1973
Zhao Xinchu(赵辛初): 1973-1978
Chen Pixian(陈丕显): 1978-1982
Guan Guangfu(关广富): 1983-1994
Jia Zhijie(贾志杰): 1994-2001
Jiang Zhusheng(蒋祝平): 2001
Yu Zhengsheng(俞正声): 2001-2007
Luo Qingquan(罗清泉): 2007
Governors of Hubei:
Li Xiannian(李先念): 1949-1954
Liu Zihou(刘子厚): 1954-1956
Zhang Tixue(张体学): 1956-1967
Zeng Siyu(曾思玉): 1968-1973
Zhao Xinchu(赵辛初): 1973-1978
Chen Pixian(陈丕显): 1978-1980
Han Ningfu(韩宁夫): 1980-1982
Huang Zhizhen(黄知真): 1982-1986
Guo Zhenqian(郭振乾): 1986-1990
Guo Shuyan(郭树言): 1990-1993
Jia Zhijie(贾志杰): 1993-1995
Jia Zhuping(蒋祝平): 1995-2001
Zhang Guoguang(张国光): 2001-2002
Luo Qingquan(罗清泉): 2002-2007
Li Hongzhong(李鸿忠): 2007-incumbent (acting)
Hubei is often called the "Land of Fish and Rice" ( _zh. 鱼米之乡). Important agricultural products in Hubei include
cotton, rice, wheat, and tea, while industries include automobiles, metallurgy, machinery, power generation, textiles, foodstuffs and high-tech commodities. Mineralresources that can be found in Hubei in significant quantities include borax, hongshiite, wollastonite, garnet, marlstone, iron, phosphorus, copper, gypsum, rutile, rock salt, goldamalgam, manganeseand vanadium. The province's recoverable reserves of coalstand at 548 million tons, which is modest compared to other Chinese provinces. Hubei is also well known for its mines of fine turquoise and green faustite.
Once completed, the
Three Gorges Damin western Hubei will provide plentiful hydroelectricity, with an estimated annual power production of 84,700 Gwh. Existing hydroelectric stations include Gezhouba, Danjiangkou, Geheyan, Hanjiang, Duhe, Huanglongtan, Bailianhe, Lushuiand Fushui.
Hubei's economy ranks 12th in the country and its nominal GDP for 2007 was 915 billion yuan (120 billion USD) and a per capita of 14,733 RMB (1,938 USD).
Han Chineseform the dominant ethnic group in Hubei. A considerable Miao and Tujiapopulation live in the southwestern part of the province, especially in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture.
People in Hubei speak Mandarin dialects; most of these dialects are classified as
Southwestern Mandarindialects, a group that also encompasses the Mandarin dialects of most of southwestern China.
Perhaps the most celebrated element of
Hubei cuisineis the Wuchang fish, a freshwater breamthat is commonly steamed.
Types of traditional
Chinese operapopular in Hubei include Hanjuand Chuju.
Shennongjiaarea is the alleged home of the " Yeren", a wild undiscovered hominid that lives in the forested hills.
The people of Hubei are given the uncomplimentary nickname "Nine Headed Birds" by other Chinese, from a mythological creature said to be very aggressive and hard to kill. "In the sky live nine-headed birds. On the earth live wise Hubei people."
Wuhanis one of the major culture centers in China.
Wuhan University(founded in 1893) and many other institutions in Wuhan makes it a hub of higher education and research in China.
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Wuhan Technical University of Surveying & Mapping
Central China Normal University
Tongji Medical University
Wuhan University of Hydraulic and Electric Engineering
Wuhan Technical University of Survey & Mapping
Zhongnan University of Finance and Economics
Hubei College of Education
Wuhan Institute of Medical Sciences
China University of Geosciences
University of Hydraulic Electric Engineering(yichang)
Wuhan Institute of Chemical Technology
Jingzhou Teacher's College
Hubei plays an important role in China's transportation industry. Situated on the Yangtze and
HanshuiRivers, which are important waterways, Hubei also enjoys the convenience of railways linking Beijingto Guangzhou, Beijing to Kowloon, Shanghaito Wuhan, Wuhan to Chengdu, and Zhichengto Liuzhou, and of the airports in Wuhan, Yichang, Sanxia, Xiangfan and Shashi. National and provincial highways also contribute to Hubei's economic development.
Hubei is home to the ancient
state of Chu, a local state during the Eastern Zhou Dynastythat developed its own unique culture. Chu culture mixed with other influences, ancient and modern, endows Hubei richly with tourist resources. Famous attractions include:
Yellow Crane Towerin Wuhan
Hubei Provincial Museumin Wuhan, with extensive archeological and cultural exhibits and performance presentations of ancient music and dance.
In 1994, the ancient building complex of the Wudang Mountains was listed by
UNESCOas a World Heritage Site.
Professional sports teams in Hubei include:
Chinese Football Association Super League
In 2005, Hubei province signed a twinning agreement with
Telemarkcounty of Norway. A "Norway-Hubei Week" was held in 2007. [www.norway-hubei.net]
1954 Yangtze River Floods
* [http://www.hubei.gov.cn/ Hubei Government website]
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