official_name = Kashgar
native_name = قەشقەر unicode|K̡ǝxk̡ǝr 喀什
image_caption = Kashgar is an oasis city in the
Xinjiang UygurAutonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Kashgar is the cultural center of Uyghur people. Minaret close to Id Kah mosque.
map_caption = Location of Kashgar
dot_x = |dot_y =
pushpin_map_caption =Location within China
People's Republic of China
area_total_km2 = 294.21
population_as_of = 2003
population_total = 351874
population_density_km2 = auto
timezone = +8
latd= 39|latm=28 |lats= |latNS=N
longd=76 |longm= 03|longs= |longEW=E
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 844000
area_code = 0998
website = http://www.xjks.gov.cn/
footnotes = Kashgar or Kashi (officially transliterated as Kaxgar in Uyghur; [Guójiā cèhuìjú dìmíng yánjiūsuǒ 国家测绘局地名研究所: "Zhōngguó dìmínglù" 中国地名录 ("Gazetteer of China"; Beijing, Zhōngguó dìtú chūbǎnshè 中国地图出版社 1997); ISBN 7-5031-1718-4, p. 117.] _ug. قەشقەر/unicode|K̡ǝxk̡ǝr; zh-cp|c=喀什|p=Kāshí, [Also spelled Cascar in older books, e.g. René Grousset, "The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia", ISBN 0-813-51304-9, p. 360.] ] is an
oasiscity in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regionof the People's Republic of China. It has an area of convert|294.21|km2|sqmi|spell=us and a population of 351,874 as of 2003. [cite web|url=http://www.xzqh.org/QUHUA/65xj/3101ks.htm |title=Profile of Kashgar|publisher=|date=|accessdate=2008-08-05] .
Kashgar is sited west of the
Taklamakan Desertat the feet of the Tian Shanmountain range. Its coordinates are coord|39|24|26|N|76|6|47|E. It is 1,290 m/4,232 ft above sea level.
Situated at the junction of routes from the valley of the
Oxus, from Khokandand Samarkand, Almati, Aksu, and Khotan, the last two leading from Chinaand Pakistan, Kashgar has been noted from very early times as a political and commercial centre.
The Kashgar oasis is where both the northern and southern routes from China around the
Taklamakan Desertconverge. It is also almost directly north of Tashkurganthrough which traffic passed from the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhara, in what is now Pakistan, and Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan.
About convert|200|km|mi|abbr=on west of the present city, just past the present border with
Kyrgyzstan, the main Silk Roadcrossed into the head of the AlaiValley from where relatively easy routes led southwest to Balkhor northwest to Ferghana. The present main road now travels northwest through the Torugartpass.
In spite of Kashgar's very west location, the transportation of Kashgar is comparitively convenient. The
Kashgar Airporthas routine flight connecting Urumqiand Pakistan's Islamabadinside Xinjiang [ [http://www.xjairportad.com.cn/jichang/kashi.htm Xinjiang Airport Authority] ] . The South Xinjiang branch of the Lanxin Railwayreached Kashgar in December 1999, [ [http://www.gbcc.org.uk/iss21_1.htm Issue 21 – Analysis – Fear and Loathing split Xinjiang’s would-be Las Vegas ] ] making it China's westernmost railway station. [ [http://johomaps.com/as/china/chinarail.html China Rail Map] ] The investigation work of a further extension of the railway line to Pakistanis already commenced. Proposals for a rail connection to Oshin Kyrgyzstanhave also been discussed at various levels since at least 1996. [ [http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/kyrgyzstan/hypermail/200111/0063.html Kyrgyzstan Daily Digest ] ] The Karakorum highway(KKH) links Islamabad, Pakistanwith Kashgar over the Khunjerab Pass. Bus routes exist for passenger travel south into Pakistan. Kyrgyzstanis also accessible from Kashgar, via the Torugart Passand Irkeshtam Pass; as of summer 2007, daily bus service connects Kashgar with Bishkek's Western Bus Terminal. [Bus schedule posted in Bishkek's Western Bust Terminal. Seen in September 2007.] Kashgar is also linked by China National Highwaysnumbered G314 and G315.
Kashgar, or Qäshqär, is said to mean "variegated houses". The modern Chinese name is Kāshí 喀什, a shortened form of the longer and less-frequently used 喀什噶爾 (Kāshígéěr). A former Chinese name was 疏勒, variously romanized as Su-leh, Sulei, Shule, Shu-le, She-le, Shu-lo or Sha-le, which perhaps represents either an original Solek or Sorak. Alternate romanizations include Cascar and, historically, Cashgar [http://books.google.com/books?id=8Z4BAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA231&lpg=PA231&dq=cashgar&source=web&ots=TmhGkbUbp2&sig=nFIg0mX8ZnRSTt5mAU0HWTUSMo8] .. However, since the name is of iranic origine (Soghdian) ("kash" for "nomad" and "gar" for "mountain"), the term can get translated into "Mountian of the Nomad".
The earliest mention of Kashgar is when the Chinese Han Dynasty envoy traveled the
Northern Silk Roadto explore lands to the west. [ [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=18006 "Silk Road, North China", C.Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham] ]
Another early mention of Kashgar is during the
Former Han(also known as the Western Han Dynasty), when the Chinese conquered the Xiongnu(Hsiung-nu), Yutien ( Khotan), Sulei (Kashgar), and a group of states in the Tarim basinalmost up to the foot of the Tian Shanmountains. This happened in 76 BC.
Kashgar does not appear to have been known in the West at this time, but
Ptolemyspeaks of Scythiabeyond the Imaus, which is in a "Kasia Regio", possibly exhibiting the name whence Kashgar and Kashgaria(often applied to the district) are formed.
The country's people practised Zoroastrianism and Buddhism before the coming of Islam.
Hanshu(Book of the Former Han), which covers the period between 125 BC and 23 AD, it is recorded that there were 1,510 households, 18,647 people and 2,000 persons able to bear arms. By the time covered by the Hou Hanshu(roughly 25 to 170), it had grown to 21,000 households and had 30,000 men able to bear arms.
Hou Hanshu(Book of the Later Han), provides a wealth of detail on developments in the region:
"During the time of Emperor Ai 6 BC-1 AD and Emperor Ping 1-5, the principalities of the Western Regions split up and formed fifty-five kingdoms.
Wang Mang, after he usurped the Throne in 9, demoted and changed their kings and marquesses. Following this, the Western Regions became resentful, and rebelled. They, therefore, broke off all relations with the Middle Kingdom and, all together, submitted to the Xiongnuagain.
Xiongnucollected oppressively heavy taxes. The kingdoms were not able to support their demands. In the middle of the Jianwu period 25-55, they each sent envoys to ask if they could submit to the Middle Kingdom, and to express their desire for a Protector General. Emperor Guangwu 25-57, decided that because the Empire was not yet settled [after a long period of civil war] , he had no time for outside affairs, and [therefore] finally refused his consent.
In the meantime, the
Xiongnubecame weaker. The king of Suoju (Yarkand), named Xian, wiped out several kingdoms. After Xian’s death, they began to attack and fight each other. Xiao Yuan, Jingjue ( Niya), Ronglu (south of Niya), and Qiemo ( Charchan) were annexed by Shanshan (the region of Lop Nor, with the capital near modern Ruoqiang or Kharghalik). Qule (south of Keriya) and Pishan (modern Pishan or Guma) were conquered by Yutian ( Khotan), which completely occupied them. Yuli, Danhuan, Guhu, and Wutanzili (along the route north of the "Tianshan" mountains) were wiped out by Jushi ( Turfan/ Jimasa). Later these kingdoms were re-established.
During the Yongping period 58-75, the Northern Scoundrels (= the Northern Xiongnu) forced several countries to help them plunder the commanderies and districts of Hexi. The gates of the towns stayed shut in broad daylight."
And, more particularly in reference to Kashgar itself, including the only historical reference to Kushan involvement in the oasis, is the following record:
"In the sixteenth Yongping year of Emperor Ming 73, Jian, the king of Qiuci (
Kucha), attacked and killed Cheng, the king of Shule (Kashgar). Then he appointed the Qiuci (Kucha) Marquis of the Left, Douti, King of Shule (Kashgar). In winter 73, the Han sent the Major Ban Chaowho captured and bound Douti. He appointed Zhong, the son of the elder brother of Cheng, to be king of Shule (Kashgar). Zhong later rebelled. (Ban) Chao attacked and beheaded him."
The "Hou Hanshu" gives the only historical record of
Yuezhior Kushaninvolvement in the oasis: "During the Yuanchu period (114-120) in the reign of Emperor An, Anguo, the king of Shule (Kashgar), exiled his maternal uncle Chenpan to the Yuezhi (Kushans) for some offence. The king of the Yuezhi became very fond of him. Later, Anguo died without leaving a son. His mother directed the government of the kingdom. She agreed with the people of the country to put Yifu (lit. 'Posthumous Child'), who was the son of a full younger brother of Chenpan on the throne as king of Shule (Kashgar). Chenpan heard of this and appealed to the Yuezhi( Kushan) king, saying:
“Anguo had no son. His relative (Yifu) is weak. If one wants to put on the throne a member of (Anguo's) mother’s family, I am Yifu's paternal uncle, it is I who should be king.”
The Yuezhi (Kushans) then sent soldiers to escort him back to Shule (Kashgar). The people had previously respected and been fond of Chenpan. Besides, they dreaded the Yuezhi (Kushans). They immediately took the seal and ribbon from Yifu and went to Chenpan, and made him king. Yifu was given the title of Marquis of the town of Pangao [90 li, or 37 km, from Shule] . Then Suoju (Yarkand) continued to resist Yutian (Khotan), and put themselves under Shule (Kashgar). Thus Shule (Kashgar), became powerful and a rival to Qiuci (Kucha) and Yutian (Khotan). In the second Yongjian year (127), during Emperor Shun’s reign, Chenpan sent an envoy to respectfully present offerings. The Emperor bestowed on Chenpan the title of Great Commandant-in-Chief for the Han. Chenxun, who was the son of his elder brother, was appointed Temporary Major of the Kingdom. In the fifth year (130), Chenpan sent his son to serve the Emperor and, along with envoys from Dayuan (Ferghana) and Suoju (Yarkand), brought tribute and offerings.
(From an earlier part of the text comes the following addition): "In the first Yangjia year (132), Xu You sent the king of Shule (Kashgar), Chenpan, who with 20,000 men, attacked and defeated Yutian (Khotan). He beheaded several hundred people, and released his soldiers to plunder freely. He replaced the king [of Jumi] by installing Chengguo from the family of [the previous king] Xing, and then he returned."
(Then the first passage continues):
"In the second Yangjia year (133), Chenpan again made offerings (including) a lion and zebu cattle. Then, during Emperor Ling's reign, in the first Jianning year  , the king of Shule (Kashgar) and Commandant-in-Chief for the Han (i.e. presumably Chenpan), was shot while hunting by the youngest of his paternal uncles, Hede. Hede named himself king. In the third year (170), Meng Tuo, the Inspector of Liangzhou, sent the Provincial Officer Ren She, commanding five hundred soldiers from Dunhuang, with the Wuji Major Cao Kuan, and Chief Clerk of the Western Regions, Zhang Yan, brought troops from Yanqi (
Karashahr), Qiuci (Kucha), and the Nearer and Further States of Jushi (Turfan and Jimasa), altogether numbering more than 30,000, to punish Shule (Kashgar). They attacked the town of Zhenzhong [Arach – near Maralbashi] but, having stayed for more than forty days without being able to subdue it, they withdrew. Following this, the kings of Shule (Kashgar) killed one another repeatedly while the Imperial Government was unable to prevent it. Northeast [from Shule] you pass through Weitou (Akqi), Wensu (Wushi or Uch Turfan), Gumo (Aksu), Qiuci (Kucha), and arrive at Yanqi (Karashahr)." [Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the "Hou Hanshu"." 2nd Draft Edition. [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/hou_han_shu.html] ]
Three Kingdoms to the Sui
These centuries are marked by the general silence on Kashgar and the Tarim Basin in general.
The "Weilue", composed in the second third of the 3rd century, mentions a number of states as dependencies of Kashgar: the kingdom of Zhenzhong (Arach?), the kingdom of Suoju (Yarkand), the kingdom of Jieshi, the kingdom of Qusha, the kingdom of Xiye (Khargalik), the kingdom of Yinai (Tashkurghan), the kingdom of Manli (modern Karasul), the kingdom of Yire (Mazar – also known as Tágh Nák and Tokanak), the kingdom of Yuling, the kingdom of Juandu (‘Tax Control’ – near modern Irkeshtam), the kingdom of Xiuxiu (‘Excellent Rest Stop’ – near Karakavak), and the kingdom of Qin.
However, much of the information on the Western Regions contained in the "Weilue" seems to have ended roughly about (170), near the end of Han power. So, we can't be sure that this is a reference to the state of affairs during the Cao Wei (220-265), or whether it refers to the situation before the civil war during the Later Han when China lost touch with most foreign countries and came to be divided into three separate kingdoms.
The "Sanguoshi", ch. 30 says that after the beginning of the Wei Dynasty (220) the states of the Western Regions did not arrive as before, except for the larger ones such as
Kucha, Khotan, Kangju, Wusun, Kashgar, Yuezhi, Shanshanand Turfan, who are said to have come to present tribute every year, as in Han times.
In 270, four states from the Western Regions were said to have presented tribute:
Karashahr, Turfan, Shanshan, and Kucha. Some wooden documents from Niyaseem to indicate that contacts were also maintained with Kashgar and Khotan also had contact about this time.
In 422, according to the "Songshu", ch. 98, the king of Shanshan, Bilong, came to the court and "the thirty-six states in the Western Regions" all swore their allegiance and presented tribute. It must be assumed that these 36 states included Kashgar.
The "Songji" of the
Zizhi Tongjianrecords that in the 5th month of 435, nine states: Kucha, Kashgar, Wusun, Yueban, Tashkurghan, Shanshan, Karashahr, Turfan and Sute all came to the Wei court.
In 439, according to the "Weishu", ch. 4A, Shanshan, Kashgar and Karashahr sent envoys to present tribute.
According to the "Weishu", ch. 102, Chapter on the Western Regions, the kingdoms of Kucha, Kashgar, Wusun, Yueban, Tashkurghan, Shanshan, Karashahr, Turfan and Sute all began sending envoys to present tribute in the Taiyuan reign period (435-440).
In 453 Kashgar sent envoys to present tribute ("Weishu", ch. 5), and again in 455.
An embassy sent during the reign of Wencheng Di (452-466) from the king of Kashgar presented a supposed sacred relic of the Buddha; a dress which was incombustible.
In 507 Kashgar, is said to have sent envoys in both the 9th and 10th months ("Weishu", ch. 8).
In 512, Kashgar sent envoys in the 1st and 5th months. ("Weishu", ch. 8).
Early in the 6th century Kashgar is included among the many territories controlled by the Yeda or
HephthaliteHuns, but their empire collapsed at the onslaught of the Western Turks between 563 and 567 who then probably gained control over Kashgar and most of the states in the Tarim Basin.
The Tang Dynasty
The opening of the
Tang Dynasty, in 618, saw the beginning of a prolonged struggle between China and the Western Turks for control of the Tarim Basin.
In 635 the
Tang Annalsreport an embassy from the king of Kashgar. In 639 there was a second embassy bringing products of Kashgar as a token of submission. Xuan Zangpassed through Kashgar (which he calls "Ka-sha") in 644 on his return journey from Indiato China. The Buddhist religion, then beginning to decay in India, was active in Kashgar. Xuan Zang records that they flattened their babies heads, were ill-favoured, tattooed their bodies and had green eyes. He said they had abundant crops, fruits and flowers, wove fine woollen stuffs and rugs, their writing had been copied from India but their language was different from that of other countries. The inhabitants were sincere believers in Buddhism and there were some hundreds of monasteries with more than 10,000 followers, all members of the SarvastivadinSchool.
NestorianChristians were establishing bishoprics at Herat, Mervand Samarkand, whence they subsequently proceeded to Kashgar, and finally to China itself.
In 646, when the Turkish Kagan asked for the hand of a Chinese princess, the Emperor claimed Kucha, Khotan, Kashgar, Karashahr and Sarikol as a marriage gift, but this was not to happen.
In a series of campaigns between 652 and 658, with the help of the Uyghurs, the Chinese finally defeated the Western Turk tribes and took control of all their domains, including the Tarim Basin kingdoms.
In 662 a rebellion broke out in the Western Regions and a Chinese army sent to control it was badly defeated by the
Tibetans south of Kashgar.
After another defeat of the Chinese forces in 670, the Tibetans gained control of the whole region and completely subjugated Kashgar in 676-8 and retained possession of it until 692, when China regained control of all their former territories, and retained it for the next fifty years.
In 722 Kashgar sent 4,000 troops to assist the Chinese to force the "Tibetans out of "Little Bolu" or Gilgit.
In 728, the king of Kashgar was awarded a brevet by the Chinese emperor.
In 739, the "Tangshu" relates that the governor of the Chinese garrison in Kashgar, with the help of Ferghana, was interfering in the affairs of the
Turgashtribes as far as Talas.
In 751 the Chinese suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the Arabs in Talas; a blow from which they never fully recovered. The Tibetans cut all communication between China and the West in 766.
Soon after the Chinese pilgrim monk Wukong passed through Kashgar in 753. He again reached Kashgar on his return trip from India in 786 and mentions a Chinese deputy governor as well as the local king.
The Arab invasions
In the 8th century came the
Arabinvasion from the west, and we find Kashgar and Turkestanlending assistance to the reigning queen of Bokhara, to enable her to repel the enemy. But although the Muslim religion from the very commencement sustained checks, it nevertheless made its weight felt upon the independent states of Turkestan to the north and east, and thus acquired a steadily growing influence. It was not, however, till the 10th century that Islam was established at Kashgar, under the Uyghur kingdom.
Modern Uyghurs are the descendants of ancient Turkic tribes including Uyghurs and ancient Caucasian inhabitants of
Tarimbasin. Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan, the most celebrated prince of this line, converted to Islam late in the 10th century and the Uyghur kingdom lasted until 1120 but was distracted by complicated dynastic struggles. The Uyghurs employed an alphabet based upon the Syriacand borrowed from the Nestorianmissionaries, but after converting to Islam widely used also an Arabic script. They spoke a dialect of Turkish preserved in the " Kudatku Bilik", a moral treatise composed in 1065.
The Uyghur kingdom was destroyed by an invasion of the
Kara-Khitai, another Turkish tribe pressing westwards from the Chinese frontier, who in their turn were swept away in 1219 by Genghis Khan. His invasion gave a decided check to the progress of the Muslim creed, but on his death, and during the rule of the JagataiKhans, who became converts to that faith, it began to reassert its ascendancy. Marco Polovisited the city, which he calls "Cascar", about 1273-4 and recorded the presence of numerous Nestorian Christians, who had their own churches.
Timurravaged Kashgar, Andijanand the intervening country. Kashgar endured a troubled time, and in 1514, on the invasion of the Khan Sultan Said, was destroyed by Mirza Ababakar, who with the aid of ten thousand men built a new fort with massive defences higher up on the banks of the Tuman river. The dynasty of the Jagatai Khans collapsed in 1572 with the division of the country among rival factions; soon after, two powerful Khoja factions, the White and Black Mountaineers ( Ak Taghliq or Afaqi, and Kara Taghliqor Ishaqi), arose whose differences and war-making gestures, with the intermittent episode of the Oiratsof Dzungaria, make up much of recorded history in Kashgar until 1759.
In 1759, a Chinese army from
Ili( Kulja) invaded Turkistanand consolidated their authority by settling Chinese emigrants in the vicinity of a Manchugarrison.
The Chinese had thoughts of pushing their conquests towards
Transoxianaand Samarkand, the chiefs of which sent to ask assistance of the Afghan king Ahmed Shah Abdali. This monarch dispatched an ambassador to Beijingto demand the restitutionof the Muslim states of Central Asia, but the representative was not well received, and Ahmed Shah was too closely aligned with the Sikhsto attempt to enforce his demands by arms. The Chinese continued to hold Kashgar with occasional interruptions from Muslim-centered groups. One of the most serious of these occurred in 1827, when the city was taken by Jahanghir Khoja; Chang-lung, however, the Chinese general of Ili, regained possession of Kashgar and the other rebellious cities in 1828. A revolt in 1829 under Mahommed Ali Khanand Yusuf, brother of Jahanghir resulted in the concession of several important trade privileges to the Muslims of the district of Alty Shahr(the "six cities"), as it was then called.
The area then enjoyed relative calm until 1846 under the rule of
Zahir-ud-din, the local Uyghur governor, but in that year a new Khoja revolt under Kath Toraled to his accession to rulership of the city as an authoritarian ruler. His reign, however, was brief, for at the end of seventy-five days, on the approach of the Chinese, he fled back to Khokand amid the jeers of the inhabitants. The last of the Khoja revolts (1857) was of about equal duration, and took place under Wali-Khan, who murdered the famous traveler Adolf Schlagintweit.
The 1862 revolt
The great Tungani (Dungani) revolt, or insurrection of the
Chinese Muslims, which broke out in 1862 in Gansu, spread rapidly to Dzungariaand through the line of towns in the Tarim Basin.
The Tungani troops in Yarkand rose, and in August 1864 massacred some seven thousand Chinese, while the inhabitants of Kashgar, rising in their turn against their masters, invoked the aid of
Sadik Beg, a Kyrgyzchief, who was reinforced by Buzurg Khan, the heir of Jahanghir, and his general Yakub Beg(surnamed the Atalik Ghazi), these being dispatched at Sadik's request by the ruler of Khokand to raise what troops they could to aid his Muslim friends in Kashgar.
Sadik Beg soon repented of having asked for a Khoja, and eventually marched against Kashgar, which by this time had succumbed to Buzurg Khan and Yakub Beg, but was defeated and driven back to Khokand. Buzurg Khan delivered himself up to indolence and debauchery, but Yakub Beg, with singular energy and perseverance, made himself master of Yangi Shahr, Yangi-Hissar, Yarkand and other towns, and eventually became sole master of the country, Buzurg Khan proving himself totally unfit for the post of ruler.
With the overthrow of Chinese rule in 1865 by Yakub Beg (1820-1877), the manufacturing industries of Kashgar are supposed to have declined.
Kashgar and the other cities of the Tarim Basin remained under Yakub Beg's rule until May 1877, when he died at
Korlaand Kashgaria was reconquered by the Qing dynasty.
* The huge
Id Kah Mosque, the largest mosquein China, is located in the heart of the city.
* An 18 metre (59 ft) high
statueof former Chinese leader Mao Zedong. It is one of the few large-scale statues of Mao Zedong remaining in China.
* The tomb of
Abakh Khoja, considered the holiest Muslimsite in Xinjiang. Built in the 17th century, the tiled mausoleum convert|5|km|mi|abbr=on northeast of the city centre also contains the tombs of five generations of his family. Abakh was a powerful ruler, controlling Khotan, Yarkand, Korla, Kuchaand Aksu as well as Kashgar. Among some Uyghur Muslims, he was considered a prophet, second only to Mohammed in importance.
Kashgar is home to an important
Muslimcommunity ( Uyghurs). The area does not have the same high level of Han Chineseimmigration as does Ürümqi, Xinjiang's largest city, which is strongly industrial.
Economics & society
The city has a very important Sunday
market. Thousands of farmers pour in from the surrounding fertile lands with a wide variety of fruit and vegetables. Kashgar's livestock market is also very lively.
Silk and carpets made in Hotan are sold at bazaars, as well as local crafts, such as copper teapots and wooden jewelry boxes.
Mahmud al-Kashgari(Turkish: Kaşgarlı Mahmut) (Mahmut from Kashgar) have written the first Turkish - Arabic Exemplary Dictionary called Divan-ı Lugat-it Türk
The movie "The Kite Runner" was filmed in Kashgar.
*Boulger, Demetrius Charles "The Life of Yakoob Beg, Athalik Ghazi and Badaulet, Ameer of Kashgar" (London: W.H. Allen & Co.) 1878
*Gordon, T. E. 1876. "The Roof of the World: Being the Narrative of a Journey over the high plateau of Tibet to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus sources on Pamir." Edinburgh. Edmonston and Douglas. Reprint: Ch’eng Wen Publishing Company. Taipei. 1971.
* Hill, John E. 2004. "The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe" 魏略 "by Yu Huan" 魚豢": A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE." Draft annotated English translation. [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html]
*Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. "China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty". E. J. Brill, Leiden.
*Kim, Hodong "Holy war in China. The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877" (Stanford University Press) 2004
*Puri, B. N. "Buddhism in Central Asia", Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, 1987. (2000 reprint).
*Shaw, Robert. 1871. Visits to High Tartary, Yarkand and Kashgar. Reprint with introduction by Peter Hopkirk, Oxford University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-19-583830-0.
*Stein, Aurel M. 1907. "Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan", 2 vols. Clarendon Press. Oxford. [http://dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/]
*Stein, Aurel M. 1921. "Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China", 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. [http://dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/]
*Yu, Taishan. 2004. "A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions". Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.
*D'Arcy Brown, Liam (2003). "Green Dragon, Sombre Warrior: travels to China's extremes". London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-6038-1
*Thubron, Colin (2007). "Shadow of the Silk Road". New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-123172-8
* [http://www.xjks.gov.cn/ Kashgar City government website]
* [http://www.kashi.gov.cn/ Kashgar Prefecture government website]
* [http://www.muztagh.com/china-pictures/kashgar.htm Kashgar Travel Pictures]
* [http://dheera.net/photos/thumb.php?q=china/kashi Photos of Kashi]
* [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/ Silk Road Seattle] (Many resources including a number of full-text historical works including the "Travels" of Benedict Göez)
* [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/texts.html Texts at Silk Road Seattle] (A number of on-line historical texts)
* [http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2002/0509/tr17-1.html] (Contains an interesting short article, "Nests of the Great Game spies", with photos of the former British and Russian consulates. T. Digby,
Shanghai Star. 2002-05-09)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.