image_caption =City view of Lanzhou
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location of Lanzhou Prefecture within
dot_x = |dot_y =
pushpin_map_caption =Location within China
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = China
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_type3 = County-level divisions
subdivision_name3 = 8
leader_name1 =Zhang Jinliang (张津梁)
area_total_km2 = 13100
population_as_of = 2004
population_total = 3200000
population_density_km2 = auto
population_blank2_title =Major nationalities
China Standard Time
utc_offset = +8
latd=36 |latm=02 |latNS=N
longd=103 |longm=48 |longEW=E
postal_code_type =Postal code
blank_name =License plate prefixes
blank1_name =GDP (2007)
blank1_info =CNY 73.3 billion
blank2_name = - per capita
blank2_info =CNY 22,243
website = [http://www.lz.gansu.gov.cn www.lz.gansu.gov.cn] (Chinese)
flowers Rugosa Rose
Lanzhou (zh-stpw |t=蘭州 |s=兰州 |p=Lánzhōu |w=Lan-chou; Postal map spelling: Lanchow) is a
prefecture-level cityand capital of Gansuprovince in northwestern China.
Originally in the territory of the Western
Qiangpeoples, Lanzhou became part of the territory of Qin in the 6th century BC.
In 81 BC, under the
Han dynasty(206 BC–220 AD), it became the seat of Jinchengcounty ( Xian) and later of Jincheng commandery(jun), the county being renamed Yunwu. The city used to be called the Golden City, and since at least the first millennium BC it was a major link on the ancient Northern Silk Road, [ [http://www.springerlink.com/content/3262l7037l13vuq2/ Xian Xiaowei, Zhang Linyuan, Ai Nanshan and Wihelm Wohlke, "On the relation between the evolution of natural environment and human factors and the development of urban settlement—Take the Lanzhou Valley Basin as an examples", Springerlink vol.1,no.1 (1991)] ] [ [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=18006 C.Michael Hogan, "Silk Road, North China", the Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham] ] and also an important historic Yellow Rivercrossing site. To protect the city, the Great Wall of Chinawas extended as far as Yumen.
After the fall of the
Han Dynasty, Lanzhou became the capital of a succession of tribal states. Mixed with different cultural heritages, the area at present-day Gansuprovince, from the 5th to the 11th century, became a center for Buddhist study. In the 4th century it was briefly the capital of the independent state of Earlier Liang. The Northern Wei dynasty(386–534) reestablished Jincheng commandery, renaming the county Zicheng. Under the Sui Dynasty(581–618) the city became the seat of Lanzhou prefecture for the first time, retaining this name under the Tang Dynasty(618–907). In 763 the area was overrun by the Tibetans and was then recovered by the Tang in 843. Later it fell into the hands of the Western Xia Dynasty(which flourished in Qinghaifrom the 11th to 13th century) and was subsequently recovered by the Song Dynasty(960–1126) in 1041. The name Lanzhou was reestablished, and the county renamed Lanzhuan.
After 1127 it fell into the hands of the Jin Dynasty, and after 1235 it came into the possession of the
Ming Dynasty(1368–1644) the prefecture was demoted to a county and placed under the administration of Lintaosuperior prefecture, but in 1477 Lanzhou was reestablished as a political unit.
The city acquired its current name in 1656, during the
Qing Dynasty. When Gansu became a separate province in 1666, Lanzhou became its capital.
In 1739 the seat of
Lintaowas transferred to Lanzhou, which was later made a superior prefecture called Lanzhou.
Lanzhou was badly damaged during the rising of the
Gansu Muslims in 1864–1875. In the 1920s and 1930s it became a center of Soviet influence in northwestern China. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) Lanzhou, linked with Xi'anby highwayin 1935, became the terminusof the 3,200 km (2,000 mile) Chinese-Soviet highway, used as a route for Soviet supplies destined for the Xi'an area. This highway remained the primary traffic route of northwestern China until the completion of the railway from Lanzhou to Urumqi, Xinjiang. During the war Lanzhou was heavily bombed by the Japanese.
The city is the seat of a currently vacant
Roman Catholic diocese[ [http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/dlnch.html Archdiocese of Lanchow] at catholic-hierarchy.org] and was previously the center of a vicariate apostolic( Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Kan-Su). [ [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08602c.htm Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Kan-Su] at Catholic Encyclopedia]
Area: 14,620 km²
Elevation: 1,600 m above sea level
*China's northwest geographical center
*More than 20 km along urban
corridoralong the southern banks of the Yellow River.
mountains, located on the south and north sides of the city:
Qilian Ranges, Mt. Pingliangand Mt. Kongtong(the most famous in Taoism)
Yellow Riverflows through from west to east.
Lanzhou is situated on the upper course of the
Yellow River, where the river emerges from the mountains. It has been a center since early times, being at the southern end of the route leading via the Hexi Corridoracross Central Asia. It also commands the approaches to the ancient capital area of Chang'an(modern Xi'an) in Shaanxiprovince from both the west and the northwest, as well as from the area of Qinghai Lakevia the upper waters of the Yellow River and its tributaries.
Climate and environment
Lanzhou is situated in the
temperate zoneand enjoys a semi-dry climate.
In regard to
air pollutionLanzhou has some of the worst air qualityof all cities in China. [ [http://www.gansudaily.com.cn/20050107/110/2005107A0003G001.htm Gansu Daily, [reports lowest standing of 84 Chinese cities surveyed] ] According to the Blacksmith Institute, Lanzhou is one of the 30 most polluted cities in the world. The air qualityis so poor that at times one can not see Lanshan, the mountain rising straight up along the south side of the city. The city is located in a narrow river valleywith an unfortunate curve causing it to be hemmed in with no free air flow. Lanzhou is also the home of many factories, including some involved in petroleumprocessing, and suffers from large dust storms kicked up from the Gobi Desert, especially in the winter and spring.
The reach of the
Yellow Riverat Lanzhou carries a high load of silt, giving the river its characteristic muddy appearance; however water quality in this reach is better than the "fetid outflow that barely passes for water two hours downstream". [ [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16951806 "Yellow River Pollution Is Price of Economic Growth", Rob Gifford. NPR, Jan. 6, 2008] ]
Since 1949 Lanzhou has been transformed from the capital of a
poverty-stricken province into the center of a major industrial area. The GDP per capitaof Lanzhou was 22,243 yuan (RMB) ("ca." US$2,920) in 2007, ranked no. 134 among 659 Chinese cities.
Minerals: coal, gold, silver, zinc, nickel, manganese, clay, and dolomite
There is a
thermal generating plantsupplied with coalfrom fields in Qinghai. In addition, there is a hydroelectric stationat Zhulama Gorge in Gansu, and a large multipurpose damhas been built in the Liujia Gorge on the Yellow Riverabove Lanzhou. [ [http://www.asia-planet.net/china/yellow-river-tour.htm#liujiaxia Liujiaxia Gorge and Bingling Temple] ]
Main industries include
textilemills, rubber, fertilizerplants, oil refinery, petrochemical, machinery, and metallurgical industry.
Gansu has one of the largest
oil refineriesin the country and Lanzhou itself is the center of the province's petrochemical industry. Lanzhou has a large refinerylinked to the fields at Yumenby pipeline. It also manufactures equipment for the oil industry.
Lanzhou has a large
textile industry, particularly noted for the production of woolensand leathergoods. In addition, Lanzhou produces locomotivesand rolling stockfor the northwestern railways, as well as machinetools and miningequipment. Aluminumproducts, industrial chemicals, and fertilizersare produced on a large scale, and there is a large rubberindustry. Copperis mined in nearby Gaolan.
Lanzhou has been one of the centers of China's national
atomic energyindustry since the 1960s.
* Lanzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
* Lanzhou High-tech Industrial Development Zone
Lanzhou is the collecting center and market for
agricultural produceand livestockfrom a wide area.
Spring wheat, vegetables, beans, oil-boiling, melon, peaches, and tobacco
Airlines: Lanzhou Airportserves as the main airport and is located 70 km north of Lanzhou. Flights from more than 20 cities depart and arrive at the airport.
Railroad: linked to Beijing, Shanghai, Ürümqiand Baotou
Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway: linked to Xinjiangdestinations only
Highways: linked to neighboring provinces
Busservices: serves local and provincial areas
Lanzhou is a regional rail, highway, and air hub in NW China and the
junction pointto Xinjiang. The Longhai Railway( Lianyungang-Lanzhou) line was extended westward to Lanzhou from Tianshuiby 1953. Later Lanzhou was linked with Beijingvia Baotouin Inner Mongolia, and lines have also been constructed northwest to Urumqiand westward via Haiyanon Qinghai Laketo Golmud(in Qinghai).
Places of interest
Bingling Temple, Yongjing
Gansu Provincial Museum
Lutusi ancient government
Lanzhou Radioserves the Lhasaand Lanzhou province regions with news and music.
The city is the cultural centre of
Chinese opera: Qinqiang Drama
*Cuisine: Lanzhou beef
Colleges and universities
The city is the seat of
Lanzhou University, founded in 1909. The National Minorities Institute at Lanzhou and a number of scientific institutes are also located there.In particular, Northwest Normal University has been the key university at the provincial level, which has prepared over 100,000 teachers in schools across the province Gansu.
"Note: Institutions without full-time
bachelor's degreeprograms are not listed."
Lanzhou University(兰州大学), founded 1909
Other public institutions
Northwest Nationalities University
Eastern Gansu University
Gansu Institute of Administration
Northwest Normal University(西北师范大学), founded 1902
Lanzhou University of Technology(兰州理工大学), founded 1919 (formerly Gansu University of Technology)
Lanzhou Jiaotong University(兰州交通大学), founded 1958
Gansu Agricultural University(甘肃农业大学), founded 1958
Lanzhou Medical College(兰州医学院) ( Lanzhou Medical Institute)
Gansu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine(甘肃中医学院)
Lanzhou Commercial College(兰州商学院) ( Lanzhou Business Institute)
Gansu Political Science and Law Institute(甘肃政法学院)
Sister cities of Lanzhou are:
Albuquerque, United States
Akita, Akita, Japan
Christchurch, New Zealand
White Pagoda Hill
* [http://www.lz.gansu.gov.cn/ Lanzhou government website]
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