Foreign relations of Ukraine

Foreign relations of Ukraine

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Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. The European Union's Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Ukraine went into force on March 1, 1998. The European Union (EU) has encouraged Ukraine to implement the PCA fully before discussions begin on an association agreement. The EU Common Strategy toward Ukraine, issued at the EU Summit in December 1999 in Helsinki, recognizes Ukraine's long-term aspirations but does not discuss association. On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe--OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine also has a close relationship with NATO and has declared interest in eventual membership. It is the most active member of the Partnership for Peace (PfP). President Viktor Yushchenko has indicated that he supports Ukraine joining the EU in the future. (Ukraine and the European Union).

Relations with CIS states

Ukraine maintains peaceful and constructive relations with all its neighbors[citation needed]; it has especially close ties with Russia and Poland. Relations with the former are complicated by energy dependence and by payment arrears. However, relations have improved with the 1998 ratification of the bilateral Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. Also, the two sides have signed a series of agreements on the final division and disposition of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet that have helped to reduce tensions. Ukraine became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on December 8, 1991, but in January 1993 it refused to endorse a draft charter strengthening political, economic, and defense ties among CIS members. Ukraine was a founding member of GUAM (Georgia-Ukraine-Azerbaijan-Moldova).

Diplomatic missions of Ukraine

In 1999–2001, Ukraine served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Historically, Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics. Ukraine has consistently supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. It has participated in the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and promoted a peaceful resolution to conflict in the post-Soviet state of Georgia. Ukraine also has made a substantial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations since 1992.

Leonid Derkach (chairman of the SBU, which is Ukraine's security service, successor to the KGB) was fired due to Western pressure after he organized the sale of radar systems to Iraq while such sales were embargoed.[citation needed]

International disputes


The 1997 boundary treaty with Belarus remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security.


Delimitation of the land boundary with Russia is incomplete, but the parties have agreed to defer demarcation. The maritime boundary through the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine would join NATO his country can contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[1]


Moldova and Ukraine have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldova's break-away Transnistria Region which remains under OSCE supervision.


Ukraine and Romania have settled their dispute over the Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and the Black Sea maritime boundary at the ICJ. The 2010 CIA World Factbook states that "Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea".[citation needed]

Investment promotion

State enterprise InvestUkraine was created[2] under the State Agency for Investment and National Projects (National Projects)[3] to serve as a One Stop Shop for investors and to deliver investment consulting services.

Relations by country


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union 2009 See Eastern Partnership

The Eastern Partnership is meant to complement the Northern Dimension by providing an institutionalised forum for discussing visa agreements, free trade deals and strategic partnership agreements with the EU's eastern neighbours.

 Austria 1992 See Austria–Ukraine relations

Ukraine includes a great deal of territory (some later part of Poland or Czechoslovakia before 1939) that used to be part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, most of the Chernivtsi Oblast and the Zakarpattia Oblast. Austria has an embassy in Kiev and 3 honorary consulates (in Donetsk, Kharkiv and Lviv). Ukraine has an embassy in Vienna and 2 honorary consulates (in Klagenfurt and Salzburg).

 Belarus See Belarus–Ukraine relations

Today, the two countries share 891 km of border. Belarus has an embassy in Kiev and an honorary consulate in Lviv[4] Ukraine has an embassy in Minsk and a general consulate in Brest.[5] Both countries are full members of the Baku Initiative, Common Economic Space, Central European Initiative and Commonwealth of Independent States.

 Belgium 1992 See Belgium–Ukraine relations

Belgium has an embassy in Kiev; Ukraine has an embassy in Brussels and two honorary consulates (in Antwerp and Mons). Although politically the two nations are not closely connected, they have a long history of economic integration and trade, with Belgian investment playing a role in the contemporary Ukrainian economy. As of 2008, trade revenue generated between the two nations accounted for approximately USD1 billion.

 Bulgaria 1992 See Bulgaria–Ukraine relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992. Bulgaria has an embassy in Kiev and a Consulate-General in Odessa.[6] Ukraine has an embassy in Sofia and a Consulate-General in Varna.

 Croatia See Croatia–Ukraine relations
 Czech Republic See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
 Denmark See Denmark-Ukraine relations
 Estonia See Foreign relations of Estonia
 Finland See Foreign relations of Finland
 France See Foreign relations of France
 Germany See Germany–Ukraine relations
 Greece See Foreign relations of Greece
 Holy See See Foreign relations of the Holy See
 Hungary See Foreign relations of Hungary
 Iceland See Foreign relations of Iceland
 Ireland See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland
 Italy See Foreign relations of Italy
 Latvia 1992-02-12 See Latvia–Ukraine relations
 Lithuania See Lithuania–Ukraine relations
 Malta See Malta–Ukraine relations

The Maltese embassy in Moscow (Russia) is also accredited as a non resident embassy to Ukraine. Ukraine is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy).

 Moldova See Moldova–Ukraine relations

Ukraine opened an Embassy in Chişinău in[citation needed] and a Consulate in Balti in 2005. The Ukrainian ambassador in Chişinău is Serhiy Pirozhkov. The border between Moldova and Ukraine is 985 kilometers. Ukrainians are the second largest ethnicity group in Moldova after ethnic Moldavians. There are 442,346 of Ukrainians in Moldova, which represents 11.2% of the population. Moldavians are the fourth ethnic minority in Ukraine[citation needed]. As of 2001 Ukrainian Census, there were 258,600 Moldavians in Ukraine[citation needed] – which represents 0,5% of the Ukrainian population. For 70.0% of Moldavian speaking Ukrainians[citation needed], Russian 17.6% and Ukrainian 10.7% are the native languages.

 Montenegro See Montenegro–Ukraine relations

Ukraine recognized the Republic of Montenegro on June 15, 2006.[15] Both countries established diplomatic relations on August 22, 2006. The Ukrainian embassy in Belgrade (Serbia) is accredited as a non resident embassy to Montenegro. In 2008, both countries indicated an intent to open resident embassies.[16]

 Netherlands 1992 See Netherlands–Ukraine relations
 Norway 1992 See Norway–Ukraine relations
 Poland See Poland–Ukraine relations

Poland was the first country in the World to recognize Ukrainian independence. The relations have been improving since, with Poland and Ukraine forming a strong strategic partnership.[21] Various controversies from their shared history occasionally resurface in Polish-Ukrainian relations, but they are not having a major influence on the bilateral relations of Poland and Ukraine.[22]

Both countries share a border of about 529 km.[23] Poland's acceptance of the Schengen Agreement created problems with the Ukrainian border traffic. On July 1, 2009 an agreement on local border traffic between the two country's came into effect. This agreement enables Ukrainian citizens living in border regions to cross the Polish frontier according to a liberalized procedure.[24]

 Portugal 1992 See Portugal–Ukraine relations
  • Portugal recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1991.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Kiev.
  • Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Lisbon and a consulate in Porto.[25]
  • There are between 40,000 and 150,000 Ukrainians living in Portugal.[citation needed]
 Romania 1992 See Romania–Ukraine relations
 Russia 1991 See Russia–Ukraine relations

Russia has an embassy in Kiev and consulates in Kharkiv, Lviv, Odessa and Simferopol. Ukraine has an embassy in Moscow and consulates in Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Tyumen and Vladivostok. Relations between the two country's governments have been unfriendly since the presidency of Leonid Kuchma expired. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine would join NATO his country can contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[1] Some analysts believe that the current Russian leadership is determined prevent a Russian equivalent of the Ukrainian Orange Revolution in Russia. This mindset is supposed too explain not only Russian domestic policy but its sensitivity over events abroad as well.[26] Many in Ukraine and beyond believe that Russia has periodically used its vast energy resources to bully its smaller, dependent neighbour, but the Russian Government argues instead that it is internal squabbling amongst Ukraine's political elite that is to blame for the deadlock.[27] Later Putin stated that the government of the Russian Federation respects the sovereignty of Ukraine, while several Russian parliamentaries as well some governors were claiming for the liquidation of Ukraine.

 Serbia 1994-01-01 See Serbia–Ukraine relations
  • Serbia recognized Ukraine in December 1991 by the decision on the recognition of the former republics of the Soviet Union.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Kiev.
 Slovakia 1993-01-01 See Slovakia–Ukraine relations
 Slovenia 1992-03-10
 Spain See Foreign relations of Spain
 Sweden 1992-01-13 See Sweden–Ukraine relations
  • Sweden has an embassy in Kiev and an honorary consulate in Kakhovka.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Stockholm.
 Switzerland See Switzerland–Ukraine relations

Contacts between Switzerland and Ukraine go back to Tsarist times. Switzerland recognized Ukraine in 1991 and immediately opened an embassy in Kiev.[33] Ukraine has an embassy in Bern.[34][35]

 Turkey See Turkish–Ukrainian relations

Turkey and Ukraine have a long chronology of historical, geographic, and cultural contact. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in early 1990s when Turkey became one of the first states in the world to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Ukraine. Turkey has an embassy in Kiev and a consulate general in Odessa.[36] Ukraine has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul.[37]

 United Kingdom See Ukraine – United Kingdom relations


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia See Armenia–Ukraine relations
 Azerbaijan 1992 See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations

Azerbaijan plays an important role in the foreign policy of Ukraine due its strategic role. Both countries are among the founding members of GUAM and after the independence from Soviet Union, they've remained very close friendship. The relations of strategic cooperation, political, economical and cultural relations between two countries are at very high level. Azerbaijan has an embassy in Kiev.[41] Ukraine has an embassy in Baku.[42] There are about 32.000 Ukrainians live in Azerbaijan, while there are over 45,000 Azerbaijanis in Ukraine. The two countries support each other in entering international organizations. [43] Ukraine supports the peaceful resolution of the conflict of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict within the framework of Azerbaijan's territorial integrity and ready to take part in possible peacekeeping operation under the mandate of the United Nations. Azerbaijan also helped Ukraine in to shelter Chernobyl sarcophagus.

 Georgia See Georgia–Ukraine relations

Since their independence from the Soviet Union, both countries consider each other as strategic partners and have forged close political and cultural relations. During the Shevardnadze era, the Georgian government maintained its close relations with Ukraine. However, the relationship has further enhanced after Rose Revolution in Georgia and Orange Revolution in Ukraine. During the Orange Revolutions, many Georgians rallied in Kiev in support of Viktor Yushchenko. Both countries maintain pro-western political orientation and aspire to join NATO and the European Union. The close friendship between Presidents Mikheil Saakashvili and Viktor Yushchenko has also played an important role in recent political and cultural unity of the two countries. However, the cultural and political unity between two nations existed long ago. There are many cultural events in both courtiers, celebrating close relations between Georgian and Ukrainian people. In 2007, Georgians unveiled a statue to Taras Shevchenko in Tbilisi while Ukrainians erected the statue of Georgia’s epic poet Shota Rustaveli in Kiev.

 India See India–Ukraine relations

The Indian Embassy in Kiev was opened in May 1992 and Ukraine opened its Mission in New Delhi in February 1993. The Consulate General of India in Odessa functioned from 1962 till its closure in March 1999.

 Indonesia See Foreign relations of Indonesia
 Iraq See Iraq–Ukraine relations

Ukraine has an embassy in Baghdad and Iraq has an embassy in Kiev. A small contingent of Ukraine operated in Iraq in the wake of the invasion of Iraq mainly concerning police work and reconstruction.

 Israel 1992 See Israel–Ukraine relations
 Japan See Japan–Ukraine relations

Japan extended diplomatic recognition to the Ukrainian state on December 28, 1991, immediately after the breakup of the Soviet Union and full diplomatic relations were established on January 26, 1992. Ukraine maintains an embassy in Tokyo,[46] and Japan maintains an embassy in Kiev.[47]

 Kazakhstan 1991 See Kazakhstan–Ukraine relations
 Malaysia 1992-03-03 See Malaysia–Ukraine relations
 Pakistan 1992 See Pakistan–Ukraine relations
  • Pakistan recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1991.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Kiev.[52]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Islamabad.[53]
  • Ukraine and Pakistan have been cooperating with each other in educational sector as well as cultural exchanges. Pakistan and Ukraine are also heavily cooperating with each other in aerospace engineering, aerospace technologies, bio-medical sciences and science and technology.
 People's Republic of China See People's Republic of China – Ukraine relations

China has an embassy in Kiev and a Consulate-General in Odessa. Ukraine has an embassy in Beijing and a Consulate-General in Shanghai. Chinese Ukrainian trade relations have intensified since 2008[54] and are growing, for instance various Chinese companies are interested in investing in the construction of a large orbital road around Kiev and in building a number of bridges across the Dnipro River.[55] China intends to provide a loan of 25 million yuan (about USD 3.7 million) to Ukraine.[56]

 Saudi Arabia 1993-04 See Saudi Arabia – Ukraine relations
  • Saudi Arabia recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1992.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Riyadh and an honorary consulate in Jeddah.[57]
  • In January 2003, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma made an official visit to Saudi Arabia.
 Singapore 1992-05-31 See Singapore–Ukraine relations
  • Singapore recognized Ukraine’s independence on January 2, 1992.
  • Singapore is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[58]
  • Since December 2002, Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Singapore.[59]
  • In 2007, the two countries commenced negotiations for a free trade agreement.[60] In 2006, Ukraine was Singapore's 55th largest trading partner last year, with total trade amounting to S$774 million [61]
  • In 2007, the two countries signed a double taxation agreement.[62]
 South Korea 1992-06-06 See Foreign relations of South Korea
 Thailand See Thailand–Ukraine relations
  • Thailand is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Bangkok.

Rest of world

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1993 See Algeria–Ukraine relations
  • Algeria recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1992.
  • Algeria has an embassy in Kiev.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Algiers (opened in 1999[63]).
  • Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in 1993. Soon (1993–1994), military and trade agreements between two countries were signed.[63]
 Argentina 1992-01-06
 Canada See Canada–Ukraine relations

Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on January 27, 1992.[68] Canada opened its embassy in Kiev[69] in April 1992, and the Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa opened in October of that same year, paid for mostly by donations from the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Ukraine opened a consulate general in Toronto in 1993 and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in 2008.[70] Canada also has a consulate in L'viv.

 Chile See Foreign relations of Chile
 Egypt See Foreign relations of Egypt
 Guinea Ukraine has shown support for military dictatorships in Guinea by supplying the militia of Moussa Dadis Camara.[71]
 Paraguay 1993-02-26 See Paraguay–Ukraine relations
  • Paraguay is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[72]
  • Ukraine is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and an honorary consulate in Asuncion.
  • There is an important community of people of Ukrainian origins in Paraguay (between 10,000 and 15,000 people), most of whom arrived at the beginning of the 20th century. (See also Ukrainians in Paraguay)
 South Africa See South Africa – Ukraine relations
  • South Africa established its Embassy in Kiev in October 1992.[73]
  • Ukraine established its Embassy in Pretoria in 1995.[74]
 United States See Ukraine – United States relations

The United States enjoys cordially friendly and strategic relations with Ukraine and attaches great importance to the success of Ukraine's transition to a democratic state with a flourishing free market economy.

  • Ukraine is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina).[75]
  • Uruguay is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and through an honorary consulate in Kiev.
  • There are around 10,000 peole of Ukrainian descent living in Uruguay.

See also

External links


  1. ^ a b (Ukrainian) The Empirial complex of Russians, Ukrayinska Pravda (July 3, 2008)
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Belarussian embassy in Kiev (in Russian only)
  5. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Minsk (in Russian and Ukrainian only)
  6. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Kiev (in Bulgarian only)
  7. ^ Cyprus honorary consulate in Kiev (in Ukrainian only)
  8. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Nicosia
  9. ^ German embassy in Kiev (in German and Ukrainian only)
  10. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Berlin (in German and Ukrainian only)
  11. ^ Latvian embassy in Kiev
  12. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Riga
  13. ^ Lithuanian embassy in Kiev (in Lithuanian and Ukrainian only)
  14. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Vilnius
  15. ^
  16. ^ Interfax-Ukraine news agency, Kiev – October 14, 2008
  17. ^ Dutch embassy in Kiev
  18. ^ Ukrainian embassy in The Hague
  19. ^ Norwegian embassy in Kiev
  20. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Oslo
  21. ^ Zajączkowski, 2005.
  22. ^ Copsey, 2006.
  23. ^ (Polish) Informacje o Polsce – informacje ogólne. Page gives Polish PWN Encyklopedia as reference.
  24. ^ Local Border Traffic Agreement With Poland Takes Effect, Ukrainian News Agency (July 1, 2009)
  25. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Lisbon (in Portuguese and Ukrainian only)
  26. ^ Russia: World watching for any change, BBC News (March 3, 2008)
  27. ^ The rifts behind Europe's gas row, BBC News (January 8, 2009)
  28. ^ Slovak embassy in Kiev
  29. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Bratislava
  30. ^ Serhy Yekelchyk "Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation", Oxford University Press (2007), ISBN 9780195305463 (page 128-130)
  31. ^ Slovenian embassy in Kiev
  32. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Ljubljana
  33. ^ Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Ukraine
  34. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Bern (in German only)
  35. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Bern (in English)
  36. ^ Turkish embassy in Kiev
  37. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Ankara
  38. ^ British embassy in Kiev
  39. ^ Ukrainian embassy in London
  40. ^ Present Ukrainian-Armenian relations and Ukrainian policy in the South Caucasus – Olexandr
  41. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ukraine
  42. ^ Embassy of Ukraine in Azerbaijan
  43. ^ Azerbaijan and Ukraine to support each other when entering into international standardization organizations
  44. ^ Israeli embassy in Kiev
  45. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Tel Aviv
  46. ^ "Ukrainian embassy in Tokyo". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Retrieved 2009-04-22. 
  47. ^ "Embassy of Japan in Ukraine". Embassy of Japan in Ukraine. Retrieved 2009-04-22. 
  48. ^ Kazakh embassy in Kiev
  49. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Astana
  50. ^ Malaysian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Malaysian embassy in Kiev
  51. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Kuala Lumpur
  52. ^ Pakistani embassy in Kiev
  53. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Islamabad
  54. ^ Ukraine hopes to step up trade, economic cooperation with China, says premier, Interfax-Ukraine (June 22, 2009)
  55. ^ China wants to invest in construction of large ring road around Kiev, says Tymoshenko, Interfax-Ukraine (June 22, 2009)
  56. ^ China To Provide Grant Of USD 3.7 Million To Ukraine, Ukrainian News Agency (July 2, 2009)
  57. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Riyadh
  58. ^ Singaporian embassy in Moscow (also accredited to Ukraine)
  59. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Singapore
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^ a b Ukrain-Algeria relations(At the site of the Ukrainian embassy in Israel; also at the Ukrainian Mission at the EU
  64. ^ Argentine embassy in Kiev (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)
  65. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Buenos Aires (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)
  66. ^ Ukrainian tourists now able to visit Argentina without visas, Kyiv Post (October 3, 2011)
  67. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Canberra
  68. ^ For a detailed discussion of Canada's early diplomatic engagement with Canada, see Bohdan Kordan, "Canadian Ukrainian Relations: Articulating the Canadian Interest," in L. Hajda, ed. (1996), Ukraine in the World: Studies in the International Relations and Security Structure of a Newly Independent State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  69. ^ The capital of Ukraine (commonly "Kiev" in English) is officially recognized by both the Canadian and Ukrainian governments as Kyiv in all English communications (although not in French).
  70. ^ Edmonton Journal
  71. ^
  72. ^ Paraguayan Ministry of Foreign Relations
  73. ^ South African Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Ukraine
  74. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Pretoria
  75. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Buenos Aires, also accredited to Uruguay (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)

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