Infobox City
official_name = Simferopol
native_name = Сімферопoль
nickname = Город пользыspaces|2(Russian) "The City of usefulness"spaces|2(translation)

image_caption = The square in front of Simferopol's main railway station.

image_shield = Simferopol-COA.gif
shield_size = 110px

mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Simferopol on a map of Ukraine (blue) in Crimea (pink).

mapsize1 = 250px
map_caption1 = Simferopol (pink) on a map of Crimea (lime green).
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = Ukraine
subdivision_type1 = Subdivision
subdivision_name1 = Crimea
subdivision_type2 =
subdivision_name2 = Simferopol municipality
parts_type =
parts = List
p1 = Zaliznychnyi Raion
p2 = Tsentralnyi Raion
p3 = Kyivskyi Raion
leader_title = Head
leader_name = Henadiy Babenko
established_title = Foundedsmallsup|1
established_date = 1784
area_total_km2 = 107
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 340,600
population_metro =
population_density_km2 = 3183.17
timezone = EET
utc_offset = +2
timezone_DST = EEST
utc_offset_DST = +3
latd=44 |latm=56 |lats=53 |latNS=N
longd=34 |longm=6 |longs=15 |longEW=E
elevation_m = 350
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 95000—95490
area_code = +380 652
blank_name = Licence plate
blank_info = 01
blank1_name = Sister cities
blank1_info = Heidelberg, Kecskemét, Salem, Bursa, Eskişehir, Rousse
website =
footnotes = smallsup|1 Founded in 1784 as "Simferopol", previously known under the Crimean Tatar "Aqmescit".

Simferopol (English pronunciation IPAEng|ˌsɪmfəˈroʊpəl) ( _uk. Сімферополь; _ru. Симферополь; _cr. Aqmescit, literally: "The white mosque") is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in southern Ukraine. As the capital of Crimea, Simferopol is an important political, economic, and transport center of the peninsula. As of 2006, the city's population is 340,600.

Archaeological evidence in Simferopol indicates the existence of an ancient Scythian city, collectively known as the Scythian Neapol. The location was also home to a Crimean Tatar town, Aqmescit. After the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire, the city's name was changed to its present Simferopol.


Early history

Archaeological evidence in the Chokurcha cave shows the presence of ancient people living in the territory of modern Simferopol. The Scythian Neapol, known by its Greek name, is also located in the city, which is the remnants of an ancient capital of the Crimean Scythians who lived on the territory from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD. [cite web|url=|title=Simferopol|accessdate=2008-05-13|work=Encyclopædia Britannica Online]

Later, the Crimean Tatars founded the town of Aqmescit. The name "Aqmescit" literally translates as "the white mosque" (Aq—white, and mescit—mosque). For some time, Aqmescit served as the residence of the Qalğa-Sultan, the second important position in the Crimean Khanate after the Khan himself.cite web|url=|title=Simferopol|accessdate=2008-05-14|work=Vacation in Crimea|language=Russian]

multiple image
align = left
direction = vertical
width = 100

caption1 = Coat of arms from 1844-1920.

caption2 = Coat of arms during the Soviet period.

Russian Empire and Civil War

The city was renamed Simferopol in 1784 after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire by Catherine II of Russia. The name Simferopol is derived from the Greek, Συμφερόπολις ("Sympheropolis"), translated as "the city of usefulness." [cite news|title=Russian cities with Greek names|url=|work=Sevastopolskaya gazeta|date=July 20, 2006|accessdate=2008-05-14|language=Russian] In 1802, Simferopol became the administrative center of the Taurida Governorate. During the Crimean War of 1854-1856, the Russian Imperial Army reserves and a hospital were stationed in the city. After the war, more than 30,000 Russian soldiers were buried in the city's vicinity.

In the 20th century, Simferopol was once again was affected by wars and conflicts in the region. At the end of the Russian Civil War, the headquarters of General Pyotr Wrangel, leader of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, were located there. On November 13, 1920, the Red Army captured the city and on October 18, 1921, Simferopol became the capital of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

World War II

During World War II, Metropolitan was occupied by Nazi Germany from November 1, 1941 to April 13, 1944. Retreating NKVD police shot a number of prisoners on October 31, 1941 in the NKVD building and the city's prison. [cite web|url=|title=Complete Destruction of National Groups as Groups|accessdate=2008-05-13|last=Kirimal|first=Edige|work=International Committee for Crimea] Germans perpetrated one of the largest war-time massacres in Simferopol, killing in total over 22,000 locals—mostly Russians, Jews, Krymchaks, and Gypsies. [cite web|url=|title=Simferopol|accessdate=2008-05-13||language=Russian] On one occasion, on December 13, 1941, the Einsatzgruppen D under Otto Ohlendorf's command killed at least 14,300 Simferopol residents.

In April 1944, the Red Army liberated Simferopol. On May 18, 1944, the Crimean Tatar population of the city along with the whole Crimean Tatar nation of Crimea was forcibly deported to Central Asia in a form of collective punishment. On April 26, 1954, Simferopol, together with the rest of the Crimean Oblast, was transferred from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.

A minor planet 2141 Simferopol discovered in 1970 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova is named after the city. [cite book|last=Schmadel|first=Lutz D.|title=Dictionary of Minor Planet Names|pages=p. 174|edition=5th|year=2003|publisher=Springer Verlag|location=New York City|url=|id = ISBN 3540002383]

After Ukrainian independence

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Simferopol became the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within newly independent Ukraine. Today, the city has a population of 340,600 (2006) most of which are ethnic Russians, with the rest being Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar minorities.

After the Crimean Tatars were allowed to return from exile in the 1990s, several new Crimean Tatar suburbs were constructed, as many more Tatars returned to the city compared to number of exiled in 1944. Land ownership between the current residents and returning Crimean Tatars is a major area of conflict today with the Tatars requesting the return of lands seized after their deportation. [cite web|url=|title=Tatars push to regain their historic lands in Crimea|accessdate=2008-05-14|date=March 31, 2006|work=Today's Zaman]

Simferopol is currently twinned with: Heidelberg, Germany; Kecskemét, Hungary; Salem, United States, Bursa and Eskişehir Turkey; and Rousse, Bulgaria.

Geography and climate

Simferopol is located in the south-central portion of the Crimean peninsula. The city lies on the Salhir River and near the artificial Simferopol Reservoir, which provides the city with clean drinking water.

The city's climate is dry and warm, with soft winters. The average temperature in January is convert|-0.5|C|F|lk=on and convert|21.2|C|F| in July. The average rainfall is convert|509|mm|in|lk=on per year, and there is a total of 2,469 hours of sunlight per year.

Infobox Weather
metric_first= Yes
single_line= Yes
location = Simferopol
Jan_Hi_°C = 4 |Jan_REC_Hi_°C =
Feb_Hi_°C = 4 |Feb_REC_Hi_°C =
Mar_Hi_°C = 8 |Mar_REC_Hi_°C =
Apr_Hi_°C = 16 |Apr_REC_Hi_°C =
May_Hi_°C = 21 |May_REC_Hi_°C =
Jun_Hi_°C = 25 |Jun_REC_Hi_°C =
Jul_Hi_°C = 28 |Jul_REC_Hi_°C =
Aug_Hi_°C = 27 |Aug_REC_Hi_°C =
Sep_Hi_°C = 22 |Sep_REC_Hi_°C =
Oct_Hi_°C = 17 |Oct_REC_Hi_°C =
Nov_Hi_°C = 10 |Nov_REC_Hi_°C =
Dec_Hi_°C = 6 |Dec_REC_Hi_°C =
Year_Hi_°C = 17 |Year_REC_Hi_°C =
Jan_Lo_°C = -3 |Jan_REC_Lo_°C =
Feb_Lo_°C = -3 |Feb_REC_Lo_°C =
Mar_Lo_°C = -1 |Mar_REC_Lo_°C =
Apr_Lo_°C = 5 |Apr_REC_Lo_°C =
May_Lo_°C = 10 |May_REC_Lo_°C =
Jun_Lo_°C = 14 |Jun_REC_Lo_°C =
Jul_Lo_°C = 16 |Jul_REC_Lo_°C =
Aug_Lo_°C = 15 |Aug_REC_Lo_°C =
Sep_Lo_°C = 11 |Sep_REC_Lo_°C =
Oct_Lo_°C = 7 |Oct_REC_Lo_°C =
Nov_Lo_°C = 6 |Nov_REC_Lo_°C =
Dec_Lo_°C = -1 |Dec_REC_Lo_°C =
Year_Lo_°C = 6 |Year_REC_Lo_°C =

Jan_Precip_cm = |Jan_Precip_mm = 42
Feb_Precip_cm = |Feb_Precip_mm = 33
Mar_Precip_cm = |Mar_Precip_mm = 37
Apr_Precip_cm = |Apr_Precip_mm = 33
May_Precip_cm = |May_Precip_mm = 44
Jun_Precip_cm = |Jun_Precip_mm = 53
Jul_Precip_cm = |Jul_Precip_mm = 55
Aug_Precip_cm = |Aug_Precip_mm = 42
Sep_Precip_cm = |Sep_Precip_mm = 37
Oct_Precip_cm = |Oct_Precip_mm = 32
Nov_Precip_cm = |Nov_Precip_mm = 44
Dec_Precip_cm = |Dec_Precip_mm = 54
Year_Precip_cm = |Year_Precip_mm = 506
source = web|url=|title=Climate of Simferopol|accessdate=2008-05-13||language=Russian]
accessdate = 2008-05-13

Politics and administrative divisions

As the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Simferopol houses its political structure including the Parliament and Council of Ministers. Simferopol is also the administrative center of the Simferopolskyi Raion (district), however, it is directly subordinate to the Crimean authorities rather than to the raion authorities housed in the city itself.

The city of Simferopol is administratively divided into three raions (Zaliznychnyi, Tsentralnyi, and Kyivskyi), four urban-type settlements (Ahrarne, Aeroflotskyi, Hriesivskyi, Komsomolske) and one village (Bitumne). [cite web|url=|title=City of Simferopol Autonomous Republic of Crimea|accessdate=2008-05-14|work=Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine|language=Ukrainian] The city's mayor is Henadiy Babenko, from the Party of Regions. [cite web|url=|title=Simferopol City Rada|accessdate=2008-05-14|work=Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine|language=Ukrainian]


Simferopol has a main railway station, which serves millions of tourists each year. The city is also connected via the Simferopol International Airport, which was constructed in 1936. [cite web|url=|title=Welcome to the International Airport «Simferopol»|accessdate=2008-05-14|work=Simferopol International Airport]

The city also has several main bus stations, with routes towards many cities, including Sevastopol, Kerch, Yalta, and Yevpatoriya. The Crimean Trolleybus connects Simferopol to the city of Yalta on Crimea's Black Sea coast. The line is the longest trolleybus line in the world with a total length of convert|86|km|mi|lk=on.cite web|url=|title=The longest trolleybus line in the world!|accessdate=2008-05-14|]


As of the Ukrainian National Census, 2001, Simferopol's population is 363,600. According to the census, Russians constitute 66.7% of the total population, Ukrainians - 21.3%, Crimean Tatars - 7%, Belarusians - 1.1%, Poles - 0.2% and Moldovans - 0.1%.


The largest collection of higher education institutions in Crimea are located in Simferopol. Among them is the largest university in Simferopol and Crimea is the Taurida V.Vernadsky National University, which was founded in 1917. [cite web|url=|title=Main page|accessdate=2008-07-30|work=Vernadskiy Tavricheskiy National University]

Famous people from Simferopol


External links

* [ "What to Put on Crimea's Center Coat of Arms?"] 22 May, 2006 UNIAN report (in Ukrainian; includes images of suggested CoA versions)

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