- Black Sea Fleet
Navies of Russia
Soviet Navy (1917–1991)
The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский Флот) is a large operational-strategic sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the late 18th century. It is based in various harbors of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.
It is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. It defeated the Turks in 1790, fought the Ottomans during World War I, the Romanians during World War II, and the Georgians during the 2008 South Ossetia war.
- 1 History
- 2 Incidents with Ukraine
- 3 Fleet Commanders
- 4 List of Black Sea Fleet ships
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
The Black Sea Fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. Formerly commanded by such legendary admirals as Dmitriy Senyavin and Pavel Nakhimov, it is a fleet of enormous historical and political importance for Russia. In 1790, Russian naval forces under the command of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Kerch Strait.
From 1841 onward, the fleet was confined to the Black Sea by the London Straits Convention.
As a result of the Crimean War, one provision of the Treaty of Paris was that the Black Sea was to be a demilitarized zone like the Island of Åland in the Baltic Sea, although Russia subsequently renounced the treaty and reconstituted its naval strength and fortifications in the Black Sea.
The crew of the battleship Potemkin revolted in 1905 soon after the Navy's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. Lenin wrote that the Potemkin uprising had had a huge importance in terms of being the first attempt at creating the nucleus of a revolutionary army.
During World War I, there were a number of encounters between the Russian and Ottoman navies in the Black Sea. The Ottomans initially had the advantage due to their having under command the German battleship SMS Goeben, but after the two modern Russian dreadnoughts Imperatritsa Mariya and Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya had been built in Nikolayev, the Russians took command of the sea until the Russian government collapsed in November 1917. German submarines of the Constantinople Flotilla and Turkish light forces would continue to raid and harass Russian shipping until the war's end.
During the Russian Civil War, the vast majority of the Black Sea Fleet was scuttled or interned by the Western Allies (see Wrangel's fleet). A few ships were salvaged in the 1920s and a large scale new construction programme began in the 1930s.
The Fleet was commanded by Vice Admiral F.S. Oktyabrskiy on the outbreak of war with Germany in June 1941. The Fleet gave a credible account of itself, along with the Red Army forces that fought alongside it, during the Siege of Odessa and the Battle of Sevastopol. (See Black Sea Campaigns (1941–44) for more details.)
In the later post-war period, along with the Northern Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet provided ships for the 5th Operational Squadron (ru:5-я Средиземноморская эскадра кораблей ВМФ) in the Mediterranean, which confronted the United States Navy during the Arab-Israeli wars, notably during the Yom Kippur War in 1973.
However, its military importance has degraded since the collapse of the Soviet Union, due to significant funding cuts and, to a degree, the loss of its major missions.
Earlier, Turkey's decision to join NATO (putting the Bosporus Strait under Western control) and the invention of long-range nuclear weapons had dramatically decreased the strategic value of any naval activity in the Black Sea. The fleet has been free of nuclear weapons since the early 1990s.
However, recent local conflicts in the Caucasus region (particularly in Georgia), which obliged Moscow to mobilise the Black Sea Fleet off the coast of Georgia, and the development of oil transit in the region are forcing Russia to support the fleet as much as possible.
Partition of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet
In 1992, the major part of the personnel, armaments and coastal facilities of the Fleet fell under formal jurisdiction of the newly independent Ukraine as they were situated on Ukrainian territory. Later, the Ukrainian government ordered the establishment of its own Ukrainian Navy based on the Black Sea Fleet; several ships and ground formations declared themselves Ukrainian.
However, this immediately led to conflicts with the majority of officers who appeared to be loyal to Russia. Simultaneously, pro-Russian separatist groups became active in the local politics of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol municipality where the major naval bases were situated, and started coordinating their efforts with pro-Moscow seamen.
Joint Fleet and its partition
To ease the tensions, the two governments signed an interim treaty, establishing a joint Russo-Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet under bilateral command (and Soviet Navy flag) until a full-scale partition agreement could be reached. Formally, the Fleet's Commander was to be appointed by a joint order of the two countries' Presidents. However, Russia still dominated the Fleet unofficially, and a Russian admiral was appointed as Commander; the majority of the fleet personnel adopted Russian citizenship. Minor tensions between the Fleet and the new Ukrainian Navy (such as electricity cut-offs and sailors' street-fighting) continued.
In 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed the Partition Treaty, establishing two independent national fleets and dividing armaments and bases between them. Ukraine also agreed to lease major parts of its new bases to the Russian Black Sea Fleet until 2017. However, the treaty appeared to be far from perfect: permanent tensions on the lease details (including often reported issue of lighthouses) control continued. The Fleet's main base is still situated in the Crimean port city of Sevastopol. However, the Yushchenko Ukrainian government declared that the lease will not be extended and that the fleet will have to leave Sevastopol by 2017.
Georgia in the Fleet partition
The newly independent nation of Georgia, which also hosted several bases of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet when it was the Georgian SSR, also claimed a share of the Fleet, including 32 naval vessels formerly stationed at Georgia's Black Sea port of Poti. Not a CIS member at that time, Georgia was not, however, included in the initial negotiations in January 1992. Additionally, some low-importance bases situated in the Russian-backed breakaway autonomy of Abkhazia soon escaped any Georgian control. In 1996, Georgia resumed its demands, and the Russian refusal to allot Georgia a portion of the ex-Soviet navy became another bone of contention in the progressively deteriorating Georgian-Russian relations. This time, Ukraine endorsed Tbilisi's claims, turning over several patrol boats to the Georgian Navy and starting to train Georgian crews, but was unable to include in the final fleet deal a transfer of the formerly Poti-based vessels to Georgia. Later, the rest of the Georgian share was decided to be ceded to Russia in return for diminution of debt.
Since the 2008 South Ossetia war Russian military officials refused to let the Black Sea Fleet take part in any joint naval exercises involving Georgian warships. However, such a statement has little meaning since the Georgian Navy has ceased to exist (early 2009 it was merged with the Georgian coast guard).
Russia is technically a member of the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group.
Russia mobilised part of the fleet during the 2008 Georgian conflict. Russian units operating off Georgia's separatist Abkhazia region resulted in a reported skirmish with the Georgian Navy unconfirmed by Georgia. As a result, Ukraine's President Viktor Yushchenko announced that the Black Sea Fleet would henceforth need permission to cross the Ukrainian border to enter and leave to Sevastopol, to which a Russian admiral retorted that the President of the Russian Federation and not Ukraine commands the Black Sea Fleet. Yushchenko's announcement was without force and deployed units of the Russian Black Sea Fleet returned to their home moorings without incident.
Black Sea Fleet and Ukraine
As a consequence of Ukraine's Yushchenko government announcing that the lease of Russian naval bases on the Crimea will not be extended beyond 2017, the Russian Black Fleet initiated the expansion of its base in Novorossiysk. In July 2007, the Navy Commander announced that the new base will be ready in 2012. Under the 1997 bilateral treaty, Russia paid $98 million annually and the treaty provided for an extension by mutual agreement. Russian officials have repeatedly said they would like to extend the lease.
In June 2009, the head of the Ukrainian Security Service said that after December 13, 2009, all officers from the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) represented at the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet must leave Ukraine, from then the Security Service of Ukraine will ensure the security of the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet and Russian sailors on Ukrainian territory. According to the Russian Foreign Ministry the employees of the FSB, who are working at the Black Sea Fleet facilities, are staying on the Ukrainian territory "in line with bilateral agreements".
In October–November 2009, the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet complained about inspection of (non-boat) transport vehicles owned by the fleet by the Sevastopol State Auto Inspectorate and Ukrainian security officers, calling them "disrespect for the status of the Russian military units and an unfriendly step aimed at worsening the Russian-Ukrainian relations".
On April 21, 2010, Ukrainian President Yanukovych and Russian President Medvedev reached an agreement whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea would be extended beyond 2017 by 25 years with an additional 5 year renewal option (to 2042–47) in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas. This deal is controversial in Ukraine.
While a Yushchenko administration minister said that Russia cannot unilaterally replace its Black Sea Fleet ships without Ukraine's consent, the recent lease extension also revalidated the agreements of 1997. Those agreements stipulate that the Russian Black Sea Fleet can maintain the same numbers and types of ships that it had based in Sevastopol as a result of the 1997 fleet division without approval by Ukraine. This stipulation permits Russia to increase the current current size of the fleet which has fallen below those numbers.
Additions of ships to the Fleet
Repeated and sometimes contradictory announcements have been made claiming that new ships will join the fleet. On December 3, 2009, First Vice Mayor of Sevastopol Vladimir Kazarin stated that Russia's Black Sea Fleet could lose its combat capability, given a small number of ships and the absence of new ones. Similar doubts has given by the Russian media. The Gazeta newspaper notes that by 2015 the majority of the warships would no longer be fit for duty.
Russian Navy sources say that up to four frigates and four diesel-electric submarines will be added to the Black Sea Fleet by 2015. Reportedly the lead ship of the Admiral Sergey Gorshkov class frigate class and the fourth Lada class submarine are planned to join the fleet. These vessels will partially replace the reported decommissioning of Kerch, Ochakov, several large support ships, and a diesel-electric submarine.
In June 2010, Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky announced that Russia was reviewing plans for the naval modernization of the Black sea fleet. The plans include 15 new warships and submarines by 2020.
Sources from Russian Navy HQ have said that by 2020 six frigates of Project 22350 Gorshkov-class, six submarines of Project 677 Lada class, two large landing ships of Project 11711 Ivan Gren-class and four unspecified ships of another project will be delivered. Due to the obsolescence of Beriev Be-12 by 2015 they will be replaced with Il-38s. Su-24M are planned be upgraded to Su-24M2 at the same time.
The Project 636.3 (Kilo-class) diesel-electric submarine Novorossiysk — the first of three such new submarines — laid down at Admiralty Wharves Shipyard, St. Petersburg, on August 20, 2010 is destined to serve in the Black Sea Fleet. Navy sources also say that Project 11356 Grigorovich class frigate will be despatched to the Black Sea.  Admiral Grigorovich, the lead ship of project, was laid down on December 18, 2010 and is expected to be in service 34 months from that date (Oct 2013). Three ships of this class are to be in service in the Black Sea Fleet before 2015.
Incidents with Ukraine
The Russian Black Sea Fleet's use of leased facilities in Sevastopol and the Crimea has been controversial. A number of incidents involving official and unofficial Ukrainian individuals and groups have taken place:
- A lighthouse is located on the headland, which from 2005, was the subject of a controversy between Ukraine and Russia. From August 3, 2005, the lighthouse is occupied by the Russian Army. Not paying attention to the ruling of the Government Court in Sevastopol on the subject of the return of 77 geographical objects to Ukraine (including the lighthouse on Sarych), Russian military officials referred to the fact that they only subordinate to the chief of the Russian Navy headquarters and no one else. The Ukrainian public activists state that Sarych is illegally occupied by the Russian Navy. As a military object, the territory around the Sarych headland is closed to trespassers with barbed wire with the Russian flag flying above Sarych.
- In 2006, Ukrainian officials prevented Russian workers from entering the Black Sea Fleet lighthouse in Yalta.
- During the 2008 South Ossetia War, the Ukrainian Navy was ordered to block the entrance of Russian vessels taking part in hostilities to Sevastopol. However, Russian Navy ships returned to base unimpeded.
- June 20, 2009 — In Sevastopol, an incident again took place involving the Black Sea Fleet. In 2007, the administration of this organization was contracted by some 200 citizens of Sevastopol to build four several stories residential buildings. The job was never finished although the financial aspect of the contract was fulfilled as it was a prepaid venture. At this time, there are only two buildings that are only finished at 95% as stated in the local newspaper Novyi Sevastopol. The protesters are being simply kicked out by force without any intention to regulate the conflict. The protesters also sent a letters to the President and the Prime-Minister of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Medvedev and Vladimir Putin, and also to the Minister of Defense of Russia, Anatoliy Serdyukov. Those attempts brought no results. UNIAN
- On August 27, 2009, Ukrainians identifying themselves as bailiffs were detained when they attempted to seize a Russian lighthouse. Russia states that Ukrainians may not step onto its bases without permission.
# Rank Name Year # VADM Fedot A. Klokachev 1783 # VADM Yakov F. Sukhotin 1784–1785 # RADM Nikolay Mordvinov 1785–1789 # RADM Marko I. Voynovich 1789–1790 # RADM Fyodor Ushakov 1790–1792 # ADM Nikolay Mordvinov 1792–1799 # ADM Vilim Fondezin 1799–1802 # ADM Ivan I. deTravers 1802–1811 # ADM Roman R. Gall 1811 # VADM Nikolay L. Yazykov 1811–1816 # ADM Aleksey S. Greyg 1816–1833 # ADM Mikhail Lazarev 1834–1851 # ADM Verkh 1851– # ADM Aleksandr Menshikov 1854–1855 # # ADM Nikolay A. Arkas 1871–1881 # ADM Mikhail P. Manganari 1881–1882 # VADM Aleksey A. Peshchurov 1882–1890 # RADM Roman A. Grenkvist 1890 # VADM Nikolay V. Kopytov 1891–1898 # VADM Evgeniy I. Alekseyev 1898 # VADM Sergey P. Tyrtov 1898–1903 # VADM Yakov A. Giltebrandt 1903 # VADM Nikolay I. Skrydlov 1903–1904 # VADM Aleksandr Kh. Kriger 1904 # VADM Grigoriy P. Chukhnin 1904–1906 # RADM Ivan K. Grigorovich 1906 # VADM Nikolay I. Skrydlov 1906–1907 # RADM Genrikh F. Tsyvinskiy 1907 # RADM Robert N. Viren 1907–1908 # VADM Ivan F. Bostrem 1908–1909 # VADM Vladimir S. Sarnavskiy 1909–1911 # VADM Ivan F. Bostrem 1911 # RADM Pavel I. Novitskiy 1911 # VADM Andrey A. Ehbergard 1911- Jun 1916 # VADM Aleksandr V. Kolchak Jun 1916 – Jun 1917 Acting RADM Veniamin K. Lukin Jun 1917 – Jul 1917 # RADM Aleksandr V. Nemitts Jul 1917 – Dec 1917 # # RADM Aleksey V. Dombrovskiy May 1920 – Oct 1920 # VADM Ehduard S. Pantserzhanskiy Nov 1920 – Nov 1921 # Ship Division Cmdr. Andrey S. Maksimov Nov 1921 – Jul 1922 # Ship Division Cmdr. Aleksandr Vekman Jul 1922 – May 1924 # Ship Division Cmdr. Mikhail V. Viktorov May 1924 – Dec 1924 # FLTCMDR Ehduard S. Pantserzhanskiy Dec 1924 – Oct 1926 # FLTCMDR Vladimir M. Orlov Oct 1926 – Jun 1931 # FLTCMDR Ivan K. Kozhanov Jun 1931 – Aug 1937 # FFO2 Petr I. Svetlovskiy (Smirnov) Aug 1937 – Dec 1937 # ADM Ivan S. Yumashev 1938 – Mar 1939 # VADM Filipp Oktyabrsky Mar 1939 – Apr 1943 # VADM Lev A. Vladimirskiy Apr 1943 – Mar 1944 # VADM Filipp Oktyabrsky Mar 1944 – Nov 1948 # ADM Nikolay E. Basistyy Nov 1948 – Aug 1951 # VADM Sergey G. Gorshkov Aug 1951 – Jul 1955 # VADM Viktor A. Parkhomenko Jul 1955 – Dec 1955 # ADM Vladimir Kasatonov Dec 1955 – Feb 1962 # ADM Serafim E. Chursin Feb 1962 – Dec 1968 # ADM Viktor Sysoyev Dec 1968 – Mar 1974 # ADM Nikolay Khovrin Mar 1974 – April 1983 # ADM Aleksey Kalinin Apr 1983 – Jul 1985 # ADM Mikhail Khronopulo Jul 1985 – Oct 1991 # ADM Igor Kasatonov Oct 1991 – Dec 1992 # ADM Ehduard Baltin Dec 1992 – Feb 1996 # ADM Viktor Kravchenko Feb 1996 – Jul 1998 # ADM Vladimir Komoyedov Jul 1998 – Oct 2002 # ADM Vladimir Masorin Oct 2002 – Feb 2005 # ADM Aleksandr Tatarinov Feb 2005 – Jul 2007 # VADM Aleksandr Kletskov Jul 2007 – Jul 2010 # VADM Vladimir Korolev Jul 2010 – Jun 2011 # RADM Aleksandr Fedotenkov Jun 2011 – present
List of Black Sea Fleet ships
30th Surface Ship Division
11th Anti-submarine Ship Brigade # Type Name Class Year Status 121 Guided Missile Cruiser Moskva Slava 1983 Active 713 Large ASW Ship Kerch Kara 1974 Scheduled to be decommissioned in 2010/2011 707 Large ASW Ship Ochakov Kara 1973 Not active, to be decommissioned in 2010 810 Guided Missile Destroyer Smetlivy Kashin 1969 Active as of 2011 801 Guided Missile Frigate Ladnyy Krivak-class frigate 1978 808 Guided Missile Frigate Pytlivyy Krivak-class frigate 1979 197th Assault Ship Brigade # Type Name Class Year 152 Landing Ship Nikolay Filchenkov Alligator 1975 148 Landing Ship Orsk Alligator 1968 150 Landing Ship Saratov Alligator 1966 151 Landing Ship Azov Ropucha-II 1990 142 Landing Ship Novocherkassk Ropucha-I 1987 158 Landing Ship Tsezar Kunikov Ropucha-I 1986 156 Landing Ship Yamal Ropucha-I 1988
247th Independent Submarine Division
# Type Name Class Year Base Status 554 Diesel Attack Submarine Alrosa (B-871) Kilo 1990 Sevastopol Active 572 Diesel Attack Submarine Svyatoy Knyaz Georgiy (B-380) Tango 1982 Sevastopol Out of service, will be decommissioned 
68th Coastal Defense Ship Brigade
400th Antisubmarine Ship Division # Type Name Class Year 059 ASW Corvette Alexandrovets Grisha I 1982 053 ASW Corvette Povorino Grisha III 1989 071 ASW Corvette Suzdalets Grisha III 1983 064 ASW Corvette Muromets Grisha III 1983 060 ASW Corvette Vladimirets Project 11451 / Mukha-class 1984 418th Minesweeper Division # Type Name Class Year 913 Seagoing Minesweeper Kovrovets Natya I 1974 911 Seagoing Minesweeper Ivan Golubets Natya I 1973 912 Seagoing Minesweeper Turbinist Natya I 1972 909 Seagoing Minesweeper Vice Admiral Zhukov Natya I 1977
41st Missile Boat Brigade
166th Novorossiysk Small Missile Boat Division # Type Name Class Year 615 Guided Missile Corvette Bora Dergach 1988 616 Guided Missile Corvette Samum Dergach 1991 620 Guided Missile Corvette Shtyl Nanuchka-III 1976 617 Guided Missile Corvette Mirazh Nanuchka-III 1983 295th Sulinsk Missile Boat Division # Type Name Class Year 966 Missile Boat R-44 Matka Mod disc 955 Missile Boat R-60 Tarantul-III Mod 1985 962 Missile Boat R-71 Tarantul-II Mod 1985 952 Missile Boat R-109 Tarantul-III 1991 953 Missile Boat R-239 Tarantul-III 1991 954 Missile Boat Ivanovets Tarantul-III 1988
184th Novorossiysk Coastal Defense Brigade
# Type Name Class Year 054 Small Antisubmarine Ship Eysk Grisha-III 1987 055 Small Antisubmarine Ship Kasimov Grisha-III 1984 901 Seagoing Minesweeper Zheleznyakov Gorya-class 1988 770 Seagoing Minesweeper Valentin Pikul' Natya I Mod 2001 426 Base Minesweeper Mineralnyye Vody Sonya-class 1990 438 Base Minesweeper Leytenant Ilyin Sonya-class 1982
11th Independent Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade
Anapa, Krasnodar region
3x K-300P Bastion-P anti-ship missile system 
810th Naval Infantry Brigade
382nd Independent Naval Infantry Battalion
- Status in 2010 
- 25th Independent Anti-submarine Helicopter Regiment - HQ at Kacha, Crimea - ~20 helicopters of types Ka-27 and Mi-14
- 917th Independent Composite Air Regiment - HQ at Kacha, Crimea - ~10x Antonov transport aircraft of types An-2, An-12 and An-26; 4x Be-12; ~10x Mi-8
- 43rd Independent Naval Shturmovik (Assault) Air Squadron - HQ at Gvardeyskoye, Crimea - 18x Su-24M; 4x Su-24MR;
- ^ Black Sea Fleet (BSF) Morskoyo Flota (Naval Force)
- ^ John Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad, Cassel Military Paperbacks, 2003, p.205
- ^ On Airpower.org, Military Thought article on Soviet Mediterranean squadron air defence, accessed 30 May 2008
- ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 600. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
- ^ http://www.unian.net/eng/news/news-274818.html
- ^ Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's (opt, mozilla, unix,english,,new) Newsline. Vol. 1, No. 42, Part I, 30 May 1997
- ^ Russia's Black Sea Fleet rules out joint drills with Georgia, UNIAN (June 17, 2009)
- ^ Navy to Merge with Coast Guard, FINANCIAL (December 3, 2008)
- ^ Russia denies naval bases report, BBC News (January 16, 2009)
- ^ Yulia Tymoshenko: Russian Black Sea Fleet will not remain in Crimea, Personal web site of Yulia Tymoshenko (June 25, 2009)
- ^ Moscow News – News – Russia's New Black Sea Base Complete by 2012
- ^ Russia hopes to keep naval base in Ukraine, Reuters, (July 14, 2009)
- ^ Kremlin promises new Black Sea Fleet base by 2016, Reuters, (July 14, 2009)
- ^ Russia fleet 'may leave Ukraine', BBC News, (October 18, 2008)
- ^ All FSB officers working at Russian Black Sea Fleet must leave Ukraine –SBU, UNIAN (June 17, 2009)
- ^ Russia says FSB to stay in Crimea, UNIAN (June 18, 2009)
- ^ Black Sea Fleet: Black Sea Fleet concerned by checks by Ukrainian security agencies, Kyiv Post (October 14, 2009)
- ^ Russian Black See Fleet slams Ukraine authorities over trucks incident, Kyiv Post (November 3, 2009)
- ^ ITAR-TASS 21.04.2010 17:13
- ^ Deal Struck on Gas, Black Sea Fleet, The Moscow Times (April 21, 2010)
- ^ Russia, Ukraine agree on naval-base-for-gas deal, CNN (April 21, 2010)
- ^ Our Ukraine: Yanukovych should be impeached, Kyiv Post (April 21, 2010)
- ^ Ukrainian parliament ratifies agreement extending Russian Black Sea Fleet's presence in Crimea, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
- ^ Oppositional deputies throw eggs in Lytvyn, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
- ^ Police clash with protesters in front of Ukrainian parliament, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
- ^ "Russia and Ukraine resume joint naval exercises". Voice of Russia. 16 April 2010. http://english.ruvr.ru/2010/04/16/6503071.html. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- ^ Russian counterintelligence officers to return to Sevastopol, Kyiv Post (May 12, 2010)
- ^ Ukrainian minister: Russia cannot unilaterally replace Black Sea Fleet ships, Kyiv Post (April 28, 2010)
- ^ Russia-Ukraine Agreement on the Division of the Black Sea Fleet, May 1977
- ^ Sevastopol official: Black Sea Fleet risks to lose combat capability by 2017, Kyiv Post (December 3, 2009)
- ^ http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20100403/158417122.html
- ^ Globalsecurity.org, Russia plans to upgrade Black Sea Fleet with new warships, 13 April 2010
- ^ http://en.rian.ru/russia/20100623/159538260.html
- ^ http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20100625/159576417.html
- ^ a b http://flot.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=56395
- ^ http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=10637
- ^ http://www.deepstorm.ru/DeepStorm.files/on_1992/636/list.htm
- ^ http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=10703
- ^ "RIA Novosti: a new frigate is laid down in Kaliningrad for the Russian Navy (in Russian)". RIA Novosti. December 18, 2010. http://www.rian.ru/defense_safety/20101218/310453755.html.
- ^ "The owner of the "sarych" lighthouse came back with a blank document to the President of Ukraine" (in Ukrainian). CPCFPU. http://cpcfpu.org.ua/projects/foreignpolicy/headlines/security/internal/2302/. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- ^ "Access to Ukrainians is prohibited." (in Ukrainian). Zakryta Zona. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070310131212/http://www.zakrytazona.tv/ua/programs/pershiy-viddil/teksti/service/ukrayintsyam-vhid-zaboroneno/. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- ^ ""Sarych" was surrounded with a barbed wire and had a Russian flag flying above it" (in Ukrainian). Korrespondent. February 10 2006. http://www.korespondent.net/main/47225.
- ^ http://www.rt.com/Politics/2010-03-18/crimea-black-sea-fleet.html
- ^ http://www.rt.com/Top_News/2009-08-27/sevastopol-black-sea-fleet.html
- ^ http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=13499
- ^ Only submarine of Russian Black Sea Fleet to be repaired by late July, Kyiv Post (July 1, 2010)
- ^ http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=11270
- Simonsen, Sven Gunnar (June 2000). ""You take your oath only once:" Crimea, The Black Sea Fleet, and national identity among Russian officers". Nationalities Papers 28 (2): 289–316. doi:10.1080/713687467.
- Russia – Ukraine Lease agreement
- Unofficial site (English version)
- History of the Black Sea Fleet during WWII (in Russian)
- Narodny Oglyadach reports on morale situation in Russian naval base in Sevastopol
- (Ukrainian) KOРАБЛІ УKРАЇНСЬKOЇ ФЛOТИ (1917–1918 рр.) – Ukrainian Navy (1917–1918)
- Ukrainian Navy: ferial excursions into the past and present
- Ukraine – Historical Naval Flags (1918)
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