Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial or gender separation from the larger group, often with demands for greater political autonomy and even for full political
secessionand the formation of a new state. [ [http://www.thefreedictionary.com/separatism Free Dictionary] ; [http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/separatism Merriam Webster dictionary] ; [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-separatist.html The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English 2008] .] Depending on their political situation and views, groups may refer to their organizing as independence, self-determination, partitionor decolonizationmovements instead of, or in addition to, automatic, separatist or secession movements. While some critics may equate separatism and religious segregation, racial segregationor sexual segregation, separatists argue that separation by choice is not the same as government enforced segregation and serves useful purposes. [John Leo, [http://www.city-journal.org/html/eon2007-06-13jl.html “Let the Segregation Commence, Separatist graduations proliferate at UCLA”] , City Journal (New York), June 13, 2007] [Nancy Levit, [http://home.law.uiuc.edu/lrev/publications/2000s/2005/2005_2/Levit.pdf Embracing Segregation: The Jurisprudence of Choice and Diversity in Race and Sex Separatism in Schools (PDF)] , University of IllinoisLaw Review, August 29, 2005, 455.] Karen W. Arenson, [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/19/education/19male.html CUNY Program to Help Black Men Is Called Discriminatory] , New York Times, April 19, 2006.] [Betty A. Dobratz, Stephanie L. Shanks-Meile, [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3719/is_200607/ai_n16855771 Strategy of White Separatism] , Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Summer 2006.] [Nancy B. Howell, [http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=2773 Radical Relatedness and Feminist Separatism.] ]
Motivations for separatism
Groups may have one or more motivations for separation, including:
* emotional resentment of rival communities
* protection from ethnic cleansing and genocide
* justified resistance by victims of oppression, including denigration of their language, culture or religion
* propaganda by those who hope to gain politically from intergroup conflict and hatred
* the economic and political dominance of one group that does not share power and privilege in an egalitarian fashion
* economic motivations of seeking to end economic exploitation by more powerful group or, conversely, to escape economic redistribution from a richer to a poorer group
* preservation of threatened religious, language or other cultural tradition
* destabilization from one separatist movement giving rise to others
* geopolitical power vacuum from breakup of larger states or empires
* continuing fragmentation as more and more states break up. [Metta Spencer, " [http://books.google.com/books?id=Dz6vDcL8Q90C Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration] ", Rowan & Littlefield, 1998, 4,5.]
How far separatist demands will go toward full independence, and whether groups pursue constitutional and nonviolent or armed violence, depend on a variety of economic, political and social factors, including movement leadership [ [http://www.allacademic.com/one/prol/prol01/index.php?click_key=1 Link to:] Chima, Jugdep. "Effects of Political Leadership on Ethnic Separatist Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, IL, Apr 12, 2007 (PDF); Chima, Jugdep. "How Does Political Leadership Affect the Trajectories of Ethnic Separatist Insurgencies?: Comparative Evidence from Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 (PDF).] and the government’s response. See D.L. Horowitz's “Patterns of Ethnic Separatism,” originally published in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1981, vol 23, 165-95. Republished in John A. Hall, " [http://books.google.com/books?id=9_matAX1z8cC The State: Critical Concepts] ", Routledge, 1994.] Governments may respond in a number of ways, some of which are mutually exclusive. These may have little effect, satisfy separatist demands or even increase them.
* accede to separatist demands
* improve the circumstances of disadvantaged minorities, be they religious, linguistic, territorial, economic or political
* adopt “asymmetric federalism” where different states have different relations to the central government depending on separatist demands or considerations
* allow minorities to win in political disputes about which they feel strongly, through parliamentary voting, referendum, etc.
* settle for a confederation or a commonwealth relationship where there are only limited ties among states. [Metta Spencer, 5-6.]
Types of separatist groups
Separatist groups practice a form of
identity politics- “political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups.” Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination. [ [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity-politics/ Identity Politics] , Stanford UniversityEncyclopedia of Philosophy, November 2, 2007.] However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements from less active identity movements.
Religious groups and sects believe they should interact primarily with co-religionists.
Christians in the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to separate from the Church of Englandand form independent local churches were influential politically under Oliver Cromwell, who was himself a Separatist. They were eventually called Congregationalists. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9042265/Separatist#277127.hook Encyclopedia Britannica on religious separatists.] ] The Pilgrimswho established the first successful colony in New England were separatists.
Zionismsought the creation of the state of Israelas a Jewishhomeland.
Muslimgroups may seek to separate from each other, especially the Sunniand Shiite sectsin Iraqand Lebanon.
* Russia, China, India and the Philippines have Muslim-separatist groups.
* Some British Muslims seek to have
Sharialaw recognized in predominantly Muslim areas of Britain. [Patrick Hennessy and Melissa Kite, [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1510866/Poll-reveals-40pc-of-Muslims-want-sharia-law-in-UK.html Poll reveals 40pc of Muslims want sharia law in UK] , The Daily Telegraph, February 20, 2006; this is supported by the Archbishop of Canterbury.( [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/faith/article3328024.ece Archbishop of Canterbury argues for Islamic law in Britain] )]
Indonesiacurrently has both Christian and Muslim separatist groups. Predominantly Christian East Timorseparated from Indonesia in 2002. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1984604.stm Indonesian deputy steps into Moluccas row] , BBC, May 13, 2002.]
* Members of
animistand Christian tribes in Sudanseek to separate from the Muslim-dominated government. [Saberi Roy, [http://www.globalpolitician.com/22907-war An Analysis of Conflicts Around The World] , June 1, 2007.]
Sikhs in Indiasought an independent nation of Khalistanduring the 1970s and 1980s. The Khalistan movementinside India largely ended with the Inidan military Operation Blue Staragainst Sikh militants and the retaliatory assassination of the then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi. However, some outside India still support such a movement. [Blbir Punj, [http://www.sikhtimes.com/news_061605a.html The Ghost of Khalistan] , [http://sikhtimes.com SikhTimes.com] , June 16, 2006.]
Ethnicseparatism is based more on cultural and linguistic differences than religious or racial differences, which also may exist. Notable ethnic separatist movements include:
Kurdish peoplewhose lands and peoples were divided between Turkey, Syria, Iraq after World War I. Also the Kurdish region in Iran.
* Spain’s Basque, Catalan and Galician separatists.
* France's Basque, Catalan, Corsican and Breton separatists,
Soviet Union’s dissolution into its original ethnic groupings which formed their own nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
Czechoslovakia’s split into ethnic Czech and Slovakian republics in 1993.
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslaviadissolution into ethnic (and religious) based Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Serbiaand Kosovo.
Belgiumgranting Dutch-speaking Flandersand French-speaking Walloniagreater autonomy.
Switzerland’s division into cantons along geographical, religious and linguistic lines. [Harold E. Glass, [http://www.jstor.org/pss/3329496 Ethnic Diversity, Elite Accommodation and Federalism in Switzerland] , Publius, Vol. 7, No. 4, Federalism and Ethnicity (Autumn, 1977), 31-48. Oxford University Press.]
Quebecdebating and voting on separation from Canadaover several decades.
Africa’s hundreds of ethnic groups [ [http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/cm/africana/ethnicit.htm African Ethnicities] University of Floridaonline library.] are subsumed into 53 nation states, often leading to ethnic conflict and separatism, [ [http://web.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v3/v3i3a5.htm Excerpt from book Ethnic Conflicts in Africa, Okwudiba Nnoli, Distributed by African Books Collective, 1998, 417] , University of Florida online library.] including in Angola, Algeria, Burundi, Congo and The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ugandaand Zimbabwe.
Nigerian civil war(also known as the Biafran war) during the 1960s among Igbos, Hausa-Fulaniand Yoruba; today’s ethnic and oil-related conflict in the Niger Deltaof Nigeria.
* conflicts in
Liberiabetween African-Liberians and Americo-Liberians, Africans who immigrated from the Americas after being freed from slavery.
* conflicts between
Zulus and Xhosain South Africaduring and after apartheid. [Emmy Godwin Irobi, [http://www.beyondintractability.org/case_studies/nigeria_south-africa.jsp?nid=6720 Ethnic Conflict Management in Africa: A Comparative Case Study of Nigeria and South Africa] , May, 2005, Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder.]
* the 1994
Hutucampaign of genocideagainst minority Tutsis in Rwanda.
Indian and Pakistani ethnic and linguistic groups seeking greater autonomy. [S.D. Muini, [http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu12ee/uu12ee0j.htm Ethnic conflict, federalism, and democracy in India] , Chapter 10 of "Ethnicity and power in the contemporary world", Edited by Kumar Rupesinghe and Valery A. Tishkov, United Nations University Press, 1996.] [ [http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?is=1403971862 Reviews of Katharine Adeney Federalism and Ethnic Conflict Regulation in India and Pakistan] , Palgrame MacMillan, 2007.]
China’s Han majority dominance, including immigrationinto previously independent Tibet, Xinjiangor Uygurregions leading to renewed separatist efforts in those regions. [ [http://www.country-studies.com/china/ethnic-boundaries.html Ethnic Boundaries, China] , Country Studies program of United States Library of Congress.]
Yugoslavia's ethnic Albanian minority separatism in Kosovo.
* Separatism in
South Ossetiaseparatism in Georgia.
Rio Grande do Sul's separatism in Brazil
Some groups seek to separate from others along
racialistlines. They oppose inter-marriagewith other races and seek separate schools, businesses, churches and other institutions or even separate societies, territories and governments.
Black separatism(or black nationalism) is a reaction to slavery in the United states and has been advanced by black leaders like Marcus Garveyand the Nation of Islam. Critical race theorists like New York University's Derrick Belland University of Colorado's Richard Delgadoargue the American legal, education and political party systems are rife with racism. They support efforts like all-black schools and dorms and question the efficacy of government-enforced integration. [Franklin Foer, [http://www.slate.com/id/1080/ Racial Integration] , Slate Magazine, November 23, 1997.] In 2008 statements by Barack Obama’s former pastor Jeremiah Wright, Jr.revived the issue of the current relevance of black separatism. [Rich Barlow, [http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2008/04/26/theological_topic_turns_to_wright_case/Theological Topic turns to Wright case] , Boston Globe, April 26, 2008.]
Latinoseparatism, as embodied in the Chicano Movement(or Chicano nation) in the United States sought to recreate Aztlán, the mythical homeland of the Aztecs comprising the Southwestern United Stateswhich is home to the majority of Mexican Americans. They drew on the Latin Americanconcepts of racial identity such as the bronze raceand La Raza Cósmica. Today a small Raza Unida Partycontinues with similar goals. The Mexica Movementcalls for an ouster of all white Anglo and European Americans from North America.
White separatismin the United States and Western Europe seeks separation and survival of the white race and limits to immigrationby non-whites. Most separatists now reject any ideology of white supremacy, though most still are demonized by advocacy groups. [Betty A. Dobratz, Stephanie L. Shanks-Meile, " [http://books.google.com/books?id=r59bGyH4lOAC The White Separatist Movement in the United States: "White Power, White Pride!"] ", The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000, 1-3, 10.]
* Native American separatism is advocated by some members of the Canadian
First Nations, American Indian Movement, Republic of Lakotah( Lakota Siouxpeople in South Dakota), the Navajoor "Na-Dene" Nationalists in Arizona, tribal groups in Eastern Oklahoma.Fact|date=June 2008
* Other political groups and social organizations promoted many kinds of ethnic, religious and cultural separatism in the Jewish-, Muslim- and Asian-American communities, such as the
Black Muslims, the Jewish Defense Leagueand east Asian gangs on the West Coast.Fact|date=June 2008
Separatist feminismis women’s choosing to separate from male-defined, male-dominated institutions, relationships, roles and activities. [Marilyn Frye, "Some Reflections on Separatism and Power" in "Feminist Social Thought: A Reader", Diana Tietjens Meyers (ed.) Routledge, 1997, 406-414.] Lesbian separatismadvocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism. Some separatist feminists and lesbian separatists have chosen to live apart in intentional community, cooperativesand on land trusts. [Joyce Cheney, "Lesbian Land", Word Weavers Press, 1976.]
List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements
List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
List of unrecognized countries
List of ethnic groups
List of indigenous peoples
List of stateless ethnic groups
Ethnic autonomous regions
Kinship and Descent
* Graham K. Brown, [http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2005/papers/hdr2005_brown_graham_28.pdf “Horizontal Inequalities, Ethnic Separatism and Violent Conflict: The Case of Aceh, Indonesia”] , United Nations Human Development Report 2005 (PDF).
Anthony Cordesman, [http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/071009_pandorasbox.pdf “Pandora’s Box: Iraqi Federalism, Separatism, “Hard” Partitioning, and US Policy”] , Working Draft, Center for Strategic and International Studies, October 9, 2007 (PDF).
* James Millard, [http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/PS006.pdf “Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment”] ,
East-West Center[http://www.eastwestcenter.org/ewc-in-washington/] , 2004 (PDF).
* Ryan Griffiths, [http://www.allacademic.com/one/prol/prol01/index.php?cmd=prol01_search&offset=0&limit=5&multi_search_search_mode=publication&multi_search_publication_fulltext_mod=fulltext&textfield_submit=true&search_module=multi_search&search=Search&search_field=title_idx&fulltext_search=Globalization%2C+Development+and+Separatism%3A+The+Influence+of+External+and+Internal+Economic+Factors+on+the+Strategy+of+Separatism "Globalization, Development and Separatism: The Influence of External and Internal Economic Factors on the Strategy of Separatism"] Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th AAnnual Convention, Bridging Multiple Divides, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 (PDF).
*Pascal Boniface, [http://mondediplo.com/1999/01/19states “Ideals or Interest: 'Pandora’s box’"] ,
Le Monde Diplomatique, January 1999.
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