Donets'k (Донецьк)
Donetsk (Доне́цк)
The Kalmius River flows through Donetsk.


Coat of arms
Map of Ukraine with Donetsk highlighted.
Map of Donetsk's city centre.
Coordinates: 48°00′10″N 37°48′19″E / 48.00278°N 37.80528°E / 48.00278; 37.80528Coordinates: 48°00′10″N 37°48′19″E / 48.00278°N 37.80528°E / 48.00278; 37.80528
Country  Ukraine
Oblast  Donetsk Oblast
Raion Flag of Donetsk.svg Donetsk Municipality
Founded 18691
City rights 1917
 - Mayor Oleksandr Lukianchenko
 - City 358 km2 (138.2 sq mi)
Elevation 169 m (554 ft)
Population (2007)
 - City decrease975 959 (July 1, 2,011)
 - Density 2,960/km2 (7,666.4/sq mi)
 Metro 2,009,700
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 83000 — 83497
Area code(s) +380 622, 623
Licence plate АН
Sister cities Bochum, Charleroi, Kutaisi, Pittsburgh, Sheffield, Taranto, Moscow, Vilnius
1 Donetsk was founded in 1869 as Yuzovka.
²The population of the metropoliten area is as of 2004.

Donetsk (Ukrainian: Донецьк Ukrainian pronunciation: [doˈnɛt͡sʲk], translit. Donets’k; Russian: Доне́цк, translit. Donetsk; former names: Yuzovka, Staline, Stalino, see also: Cities' alternative names), is a large city in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius river. Administratively, it is a center of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the economic and cultural Donets Basin (Donbas) region.

The city was founded in 1869 by a Welsh businessman, John Hughes, who constructed a steel plant and several coal mines in the region; the town was thus named Yuzovka (Юзовка) in recognition of his role in its founding ("Yuz" being a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of Hughes). During Soviet times, the city's steel industry was expanded.

In 1924 at the plenum Yuzovsky executive committee had decided to rename the town from Yuzovka to Stalin (Сталiн). In 1929-1931 the town was renamed in Stalino (Сталино). In 1932 the city became the center of Donetsk region. In 1961, during the De-Stalinisation the city was again renamed to its modern name Donetsk[1] after the Seversky Donets river.[2] In addition, some sources state that the city was briefly called Trotsk—after Leon Trotsky—for a few months in 1923. Today, the city still remains an important industrial centre for coal and steel in Ukraine.

The city is currently home to two major professional football teams in Ukraine: Shakhtar Donetsk and Metalurh Donetsk, both of which currently play in the Ukrainian Premier League. Important attractions of the city include the Cathedral Transfiguration of Jesus, the Donetsk National University, and others.

Donetsk currently has a population of over 982,000 inhabitants (2010)[3] and has a metropolitan area of over 1,566,000 inhabitants (2004). According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Donetsk is the fifth-largest city in Ukraine.[4]


Geography and climate

The spoil tips near the Kalmius. On a foreground - Chervonogvardejskij raion of Makiivka

Donetsk lies in the steppe landscape of Ukraine, surrounded by scattered woodland, hills (spoil tips), rivers, and lakes. The northern outskirts of the city are mainly used for agriculture. The Azov Sea, 95 km south of Donetsk, is a popular recreational area for those living in Donetsk. A wide belt of farmlands surrounds the city.

The city stretches 28 km from north to south and 55 km from east to west. There are 2 nearby reservoirs: Nyzhnekalmius (60 ha), and the "Donetsk Sea" (206 ha). 5 rivers flow through the city, including the Kalmius, Asmolivka (13 km), Cherepashkyna (23 km), Skomoroshka, and Bakhmutka. The city also contains a total of 125 spoil tips.[5]

Donetsk's climate is moderate continental.[6] The average temperatures are −5 °C (23 °F) in January and 18 °C (64 °F) in June. The average number of rainfall per year totals 162 days and up to 556 millimetres per year.[6]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Ave. high °C (°F) -2 (27) -1 (29) 3 (39) 13 (57) 20 (68) 23 (74) 25 (77) 24 (76) 19 (67) 11 (53) 3 (39) 0 (32) 11 (53)
Ave. low °C (°F) -7 (18) -7 (19) -2 (28) 5 (41) 10 (51) 13 (57) 15 (60) 14 (58) 10 (50) 3 (39) -1 (30) -5 (23) 4 (40)
Source: Weatherbase[7]


Donetsk was founded in 1869 when the Welsh businessman John Hughes built a steel plant and several coal mines in the southern part of Russian Empire at Aleksandrovka (Ukrainian: Олександрівка). The town initially was given the name Hughesovka (Yuzovka; Russian: Юзовка; Ukrainian: Юзівка).[8] By the beginning of the 20th century, Yuzovka had approximately 50,000 inhabitants,[9] and had attained the status of a city in 1917.[2]

In 1924, under the Soviet rule, the city's name was changed to Stalin. In that year, the city's population totaled 63,708, and in the next year — 80,085. In 1929-31 the city's name was changed to Stalino.[1] The city did not have a drinking water system until 1931, when a 55.3 km system was laid underground. In July 1933, the city became the administrative centre of the Donetsk Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR.[2] In 1933, the first 12 km sewer system was installed, and next year the first exploitation of gas was conducted within the city.

In the beginning of World War II, the population of Stalino consisted of 507,000, and after the war - only 175,000. The Nazi invasion during World War II almost completely destroyed the city, which was mostly rebuilt on a large scale at the war's end. It was occupied by Nazi Germany between 16 October 1941 and 5 September 1943.

A market on the main street of Novyi Svet section of Yuzovka. (1887)

The territory of Donetsk at the time of the Nazi German occupation consisted mainly of a Jewish ghetto, in which 3,000 Jews died, and a concentration camp in which 92,000 people were killed.[5] During the war, a collective responsibility system was enforced. For every killed German soldier, 100 inhabitants were killed, and one for every killed policeman.[citation needed]

In 1945 many forced laborers, young men and women aged 17 to 35, were interned into reparation servitude from the Danube Schwabian communities Schwowe of Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Roumania ( the Batschka, and Banat) and worked under extreme hardship to rebuild Stalino and to labor in its mines. Many died from disease and malnutrition.[10]

Although Stalino means Steel in Russian, during Nikita Khrushchev's second wave of destalinization in November 1961 the city was renamed Donetsh, after the Seversky Donets river, a tributary of the Don[2] in order to distance it from the former leader Joseph Stalin.

In 1965, the Donetsk Academy of Sciences was established as part of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1970, Donetsk was recognized by UNESCO as the cleanest industrial town of the world. Donesk was granted the Order of Lenin in 1979.

Local graffiti reflects that pro-Russian tendencies are partially political speculations over the pride of Donetsk residents for their city and the region. The script say: "Donbas is us" (Ukrainian).

Residents of the city tend to be pro-Russian in their political beliefs. This has been massively exploited during 2004 presidential election, in which the city mostly voted for candidate Viktor Yanukovych, which had been announced as the winner of the election by the Central Election Commission. The vote was later proven to have been falsified, with many of the falsified votes coming from the surrounding region. This led to an election re-run, thus making Yanukovych lose the election. During the 2006 Ukrainian parliamentary elections, the Yanukovych-led Party of Regions also won most of the votes from the region.

Government and administrative divisions

Raions of Donetsk on the territory of the Donetsk City Municipality:
  Bydionivskyi Raion
  Voroshylovskyi Raion
  Kalininskyi Raion
  Kyivskyi Raion
  Kirovskyi Raion
  Kuibyshevskyi Raion
  Leninskyi Raion
  Petrovskyi Raion
  Proletarskyi Raion

While Donetsk is the administrative center of the Donetsk Oblast (province), the city is the capital of the Donetsk City Municipality. However, Donetsk is a city of oblast subordinance, thus being subject directly to the oblast authorities rather to the Donetsk City Municipality housed in the city itself.

The territory of Donetsk is divided into 9 administrative raions (districts). In addition, every raion consists of raion councils, which are subordinate to the Donetsk City Council.

# Raions Ukrainian Area Population
1 Budionivskyi Raion Будьонівський район 25 km² 100,300
2 Voroshylovskyi Raion Ворошилівський район 10 km² 97,300
3 Kalininskyi Raion Калінінський район 19 km² 109,700
4 Kyivskyi Raion Київський район 33 km² 143,700
5 Kirovskyi Raion Кіровський район 68 km² 171,700
6 Kuibyshevskyi Raion Куйбишевський район 51 km² 120,800
7 Leninskyi Raion Ленінський район 37 km² 107,800
8 Petrovskyi Raion Петровський район 57 km² 88,600
9 Proletarskyi Raion Пролетарський район 58 km² 102,800


Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1897[11] 28,100
1926[12] 106,000 +277.2%
1939[13] 466,300 +339.9%
1959[14] 699,200 +49.9%
1970[15] 879,000 +25.7%
1979[16] 1,020,800 +16.1%
1989[17] 1,109,100 +8.7%
1998[18] 1,065,400 −3.9%
2006[19] 993,500 −6.7%

Donetsk currently has a population of over 982,000 inhabitants (2010)[3] and has a metropolitan area of over 1,566,000 inhabitants (2004). It is the fifth-largest city in Ukraine.[4]

While the majority of people in central and western Ukraine speak Ukrainian, the completer majority of the residents of Donetsk are Russian-speaking Ukrainians and ethnic Russians. According to 2001 population census,[20] Ukrainians are 56,9% of Donetsk oblast and Russians are 38,2%. The Russian language is dominant in Donbas: even the ethnic Ukrainians consider Russian as their first language. In 1989 there were no Ukrainian language schools in Donetsk.[21]

The actual nationality structure of the Donetsk City Municipality is as follows:[22]

  1. Russians: 493,392 people, 48.15%
  2. Ukrainians: 478,041 people, 46.65%
  3. Belarusians: 11,769 people, 1.15%
  4. Greeks: 10,180 people, 0.99%
  5. Jews: 5,087 people, 0.50%
  6. Tatars: 4,987 people, 0.49%
  7. Armenians: 4,050 people, 0.40%
  8. Azerbaijanis: 2,098 people, 0.20%
  9. Georgians: 2,073 people, 0.20%
  10. Other: 13,001 people, 1.27%
Total: 1,024,678 people, 100.00%

In 1991 one-third of the population described themselves as Russian, one-third as Ukrainian while the majority of the rest described themselves as Slav.[21]


Main Sights

Artema Street

The main part of Donetsk, this large avenue is the place to start for any tourist trip around the city. You'll see an interesting mix of new and old architecture together with small parks, stylish hotels, shopping centers and fine restaurants. The historical sites are the most amazing here and include Lenin Square, the Opera & Ballet Theater, Monument to Coalminers, and Donetsk Drama Theater.

Statue of Artem (Fyodor Sergeyev)

This imposing six meter statue on Artema Street is a tribute to one of the Soviet’s most celebrated politicians and adopted son of Joseph Stalin. He died in the Donets Basin in 1921.

Donetsk Opera & Ballet Theater

Built in 1936, this is a gem of a theater with an elegant exterior and world-class performances inside.

Pushkin Boulevard

A beautiful green walkway that takes you away from Donetsk city life for a 2 km (1.24 mi) stroll. Here you can enjoy peaceful fountains, al fresco cafes, and a number of interesting statues such as the monument o Taras Shevchenko.

Monument to John Hughes

This 2001 statue located in front of Donetsk National Technical University honors the hard work of Welsh city founder John James Hughes. He was responsible for the city’s Yuzovka Steel Plant that gave Donetsk its industrial history.

Lenin Square

This Square features the gigantic 42 meter Lenin Statue, one of Ukraine’s largest symbols of Lenin and a symbol of the importance of the city during the Soviet Union.


The hotel Great Britain is one of the oldest buildings in Donetsk, constructed in 1883.

Donetsk, at the time Yuzovka, was divided into two parts: north and south. In the southern part were the city's factories, train depots, telegraph buildings, hospitals and schools.[23] Not far from the factories was the English colony where the engineers and the management lived. After the construction of the residence of John Hughes and the various complexes for the foreign workers, the city's southern portion was constructed mainly in the English style.

These buildings used rectangular and triangular shaped façades, green rooftops, large windows, which occupied a large portion of the building, and balconies.[23] In this part of the town, the streets were large and had sidewalks. A major influence on the formation of architecture in Donetsk was the official architect of a Novorossiya company — Moldingauyer.[23] Preserved buildings of the southern part of Yuzovka consisted of the residences of John Hughes (1891, partially preserved), Bolfur (1889) and Bosse.

In the northern part of Yuzovka, Novyi Svet, lived traders, craftsmen and bureaucrats.[23] Here were located the market hall, the police headquarters and the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of Jesus. The central street of Novyi Svet and the neighbouring streets were mainly edged by one- or two-story residential buildings, as well as markets, restaurants, hotels, offices and banks. A famous preserved building in the northern part of Yuzovka was the Hotel Great Britain.

The first general plan of Stalino was made in 1932 in Odessa by the architect P. Golovchenko. In 1937, the project was partly reworked. These projects were the first in the city's construction bureau's history.[23]

A large portion of the city's buildings from the second half of the 20th century were designed by the architect Pavel Vigdergauz, which was given the Government award of the USSR for architecture in the city of Donetsk in 1978.[23]


Sailboats on the Kalmius river, with Donetsk's spoil tips in the background.

Three major professional football clubs play in the city, which include two in the Ukrainian Premier League and one in the Ukrainian Second League: Shakhtar Donetsk, which plays at the Donbass Arena, Metalurh Donetsk, which plays at the Metalurh Stadium, and FC Olimpik Donetsk.

The MFC Shakhtar Donetsk won the Ukrainian futsal championship five times.

The VC Shakhtar Donetsk were the last team to win the Soviet Volleyball Championship, in 1992.

The city also has a team in the Ukrainian Basketball Super League, BC Donetsk.

In Donetsk, the USSR Tennis Championship took place within the city in 1978, 1979, and 1980 near the Donetsk Railroad tennis courts. Some tennis matches of the Davis Cup took place in Donetsk in 2005.

In Donetsk, the Soviet Championship on Light Athletics in Youth took place in 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1984. A monument to famous pole vault athlete Serhiy Bubka is installed in the city.

In the city, sailboat championships take place on the city's Kalmius river.

When the joint bid for the UEFA Euro 2012 was won by Poland and Ukraine, Donetsk's Donbass Arena was chosen as the location for 3 Group Matches, Quarter-Final, and Semi-Final matches.[24] The RSK Olimpiyskyi Stadium was chosen as a reserve stadium.[25]


The reconstructed Cathedral Transfiguration of Jesus in Donetsk.

Donetsk's residents belong to many different religious bodies: Eastern Orthodox[26] Greek Catholic, Protestant, and Roman Catholic, as well as Islamic Mosques and Judaic synagogues. The largest religious body with the most members is the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate).


Five television stations operate within Donetsk:

  • TRK Ukraina (Ukrainian: ТРК Україна)[27]
  • KRT, Kyivska Rus' (Ukrainian: КРТ, Київська Русь)[28]
  • First Municipal (Russian: Первый муниципальный)[29]
  • Kanal 27 (Russian: 27 канал)
  • TRK Donbass (Russian: ТРК Донбасс)

In Donetsk, there is the 360 metre tall TV tower, one of the tallest structures in the city, completed in 1992.

Famous people

Donetsk has been home to many people, including sportsmen, musicians, writers, businessmen, dissidents, and many others. The citizens of Donetsk are commonly called Donechyani (Ukrainian: Донеччани). The following is a list of famous people that were born or raised in the city:


Local transportation

A Donetsk trolley bus with the Cathedral Transfiguration of Jesus in Donetsk.
Tram LM-2008.

The main forms of transport within Donetsk are: trams, electric trolley buses, buses and marshrutkas (private minibuses). The city public transportation system is controlled by the united Dongorpastrans municipal company. The city has 12 tram lines (~130 km), 17 trolley bus lines (~188 km), and about 115 bus lines.[30] Both the tram and trolley bus systems in the city are served by 2 depots each.[30] Another method of transport within the city is taxicab service, of which there are 32 in Donetsk.

The city also contains autostations located within the city and its suburbs: autostation Yuzhny (South), which serves mainly transport lines to the south, hence its name; autostation Tsentr (Centre), which serves transport in the direction of Marinka and Vuhledar as well as intercity transport; the autostation Krytyi rynok (Indoor market), which serves mainly transport in the north and east directions; and the autostation Putilovsky, which serves mainly the north and northwest transport directions.

There is currently a metro system under construction in Donetsk,[31] with the first stage totaling 6 stations to open by 2012.


Donetsk's Main Railway Station, located in the North of the city.

Donetsk's Main Railway Station, which serves about 7 million passengers annually,[30] is located in the northern part of the city. There is a museum near the main station, dealing with the history of region's railroads. Other railway stations are: Rutchenkovo, located in the Kyivskyi Raion; Mandrykino (Petrovskyi Raion), and Mushketovo (Budionivskyi Raion). Some passenger trains avoid Donetsk station and serve the station Yasynuvata, located outside the city limits. Although not used for regular transportation, the city also has a children's railway. (As of September 2009) a new railway terminal facility that will comply with UEFA requirements (since Donetsk is one of the host city's for UEFA EURO 2012) is planned.[32]

As the Donetsk Oblast is an important transportation hub in Ukraine, so is its center Donetsk. The Donetsk Railways, based in Donetsk, is one of the largest railway divisions in the country. It serves the farming and industrial businesses of the area, and the populations of the Donetsk, Luhansk, partly the Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhia and Kharkiv oblasts.

Road transport

The reconstructed terminal of the Donetsk International Airport.

The Tabliczka E50.svg highway, part of the International E-road network, runs through the city en route to Rostov-on-Don in Russia.

In addition, another international road runs through the city: the M 04. Also, three national Ukrainian roads ( N 15, N 20, and N 21) pass through the city.

Air travel

In addition to public and rail transport, Donetsk has an international airport.[33] It was constructed in the end of the 1940s to the beginning of the 1950s. The whole airport complex was finished in 1973. The city-based DonbassAero airline operates the airport.


Congress Hall.

Donetsk and the surrounding territories are heavily urbanized and agglomerated into conurbation. The workforce is heavily involved with heavy industry, especially coal mining. The city is an important center of heavy industry and coal mines in the Donets Basin (Donbas) and Ukraine. Directly under the city lie coal mines, which have recently seen an increase in mining accidents, the most recent accident being at the Zasyadko mine, which killed over 100 workers.[34]

Donetsk's economy consists of about 200 industrial organizations that have a total production output of more than 5 billion hryvnias per year and more than 20,000 medium-small sized organizations.[35] The city's coal mining industry comprises 17 coal mines and two concentrating mills; the metallurgy industry comprises 5 large metallurgical plants located throughout the city; the engineering market comprises 67 organizations, and the food industry — 32 organizations.[35]

After the fall of the Soviet Union, Donetsk and other neighbouring cities of the Donbas suffered heavily, as many factories were closed down and many inhabitants lost their jobs.[36] However, in spite of the difficult economic situation in Ukraine, Donetsk is a developing city.[35] About 412 thousand m² of living space, 7.9 km of gas networks, and 15.1 km of water supply networks were constructed in the city during 1998-2001.[35]

The city also houses the "Donetsk" special economic zone.[35][37] Donetsk currently has nine sister cities.[38] The German city of Magdeburg had economic partnerships with Donetsk during 1962-1996.

The airline Donbassaero has its head office on the property of Donetsk International Airport.[39]


Donetsk is a well-known educational location of the surrounding area, accompanied with several universities, which include 5 state universities, 11 institutes, 3 academies, 14 technicums, 5 private universities, and 6 colleges.

The most important and prominent educational institutions include the National Technical University[40] ("Donetsk Polytechnical Institute" in 1960-1993), as well as the Donetsk National University[41] which was founded in 1965. The National Technical University held close contacts with the University in Magdeburg. Since 1970, more than 100 students from Germany (East Germany) have completed their higher education at either one of the two main universities in Donetsk.

There are also several scientific research institutes, and an Islamic University within Donetsk.


Donetsk participates in international town twinning schemes to foster good international relations. Partners include:

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ a b The history of the city of Donetsk
  2. ^ a b c d "From the history of the city" (in Russian). Head of Donetsk City. Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ a b "Results / General results of the census / Number of cities". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 28 August 2006. 
  5. ^ a b "Was there a ghetto in Donetsk?" (in Russian). Newspaper "Gorod". Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  6. ^ a b "Weather in Donetsk" (in Russian). Retrieved 5 May 2007. 
  7. ^ "Historical Weather for Donetsk". Weatherbase. Retrieved 15 March 2007. 
  8. ^ Yuz is a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of Hughes
  9. ^ The population included mostly migrants from neighboring Russian territories
  10. ^
  11. ^ Statistics from the first All-Russian Empire Census, conducted on 28 January [O.S. 15 15 January] 1897.
  12. ^ Statistics from the First All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 17 December 1926.
  13. ^ Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 17 January 1939.
  14. ^ Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 15 January 1959.
  15. ^ Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 15 January 1970.
  16. ^ Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 17 January 1979.
  17. ^ Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 12 January 1989.
  18. ^ Statistics are from the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, conducted on 1 January 1998.
  19. ^ Statistics are from the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, conducted on 1 January 2006.
  20. ^ "Results / General results of the census / National composition of population / Donets'k region". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 28 August 2006. 
  21. ^ a b Eternal Russia:Yeltsin, Gorbachev, and the Mirage of Democracy by Jonathan Steele, Harvard University Press, 1988, ISBN 978-0674268371 (page 218)
  22. ^ "Ukrainian Census (Donetsk Oblast)" (in Ukrainian). Head of the Donetsk Oblast Statistics. Retrieved 5 May 2007. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Архитектура Донецка" (in Russian). Russian Wikipedia.Архитектура_Донецка. 
  24. ^ "Stadiums / Donetsk". UEFA Euro 2012. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  25. ^ "Stadiums / Introduction". UEFA Euro 2012. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  26. ^ "Main Page" (in Russian). Donbass Pravoslavnyi. Retrieved 12 May 2007. 
  27. ^ "Main Page" (in Russian). TRK Ukraina. 
  28. ^ "Main Page" (in Russian). Kievska Rus. 
  29. ^ "Main Page" (in Russian). Pervyi munitsipal'nyi kanal. 
  30. ^ a b c "Transport" (in Russian). Partner-Portal. Retrieved 11 May 2007. 
  31. ^ "Metro in Donetsk" (in Russian). Head of Donetsk City. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. 
  32. ^ Construction of railway terminal in Donetsk for UEFA EURO 2012 worth UAH 414mln, Ukrinform (23 September 2009)
  33. ^ "Service Center, International Airport "Donetsk"" (in Russian/English). VIP-Terminal. Retrieved 6 March 2007. 
  34. ^ "Another victim of Ukraine mine blast dies in hospital". RIA Novosti. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  35. ^ a b c d e "Donetsk Today" (in Russian). Donetsk City Hall. Retrieved 15 February 2007. 
  36. ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. pp. 613. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0. 
  37. ^ "Special Economic Zones and Special Regime of Investment Activities in Donetsk Oblast" (in Ukrainian). Order of Verhovna Rada. 14 January 1999. 
  38. ^ "Sister cities of Donetsk" (in Russian). Head of Donetsk City. Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007. 
  39. ^ "Contacts." Donbassaero. Retrieved on 27 April 2011. "Headquarter The headquarter of our company is located at international airport “Donetsk”. Address: DONBASSAERO, 1«V», Vzlyotnaya str., Donetsk, 83021, Ukraine"
  40. ^ "About DonNTU" (in Russian). Donetsk National Technical University (DonNTU). Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. 
  41. ^ "Main page". Donetsk National University. Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. 

External links




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