Intel 4004, the first general-purpose, commercial microprocessor

A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit,[1] (IC) or at most a few integrated circuits.[2] It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern society. General-purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation, text editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet. Many more microprocessors are part of embedded systems, providing digital control of a myriad of objects from appliances to automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process control.



During the 1960s, computer processors were constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs each containing from tens to a few hundred transistors. For each computer built, all of these had to be placed and soldered onto printed circuit boards, and often multiple boards would have to be interconnected in a chassis. The large number of discrete logic gates used more electrical power—and therefore, produced more heat—than a more integrated design with fewer ICs. The distance that signals had to travel between ICs on the boards limited the speed at which a computer could operate.

In the NASA Apollo space missions to the moon in the 1960's and 1970's, all onboard computations for primary guidance, navigation and control were provided by a small custom processor called "The Apollo Guidance Computer". It utilized a primitive gate array whose only logic elements were three-input NOR gates.[3]

The integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip or on a few chips greatly reduced the cost of processing power. The integrated circuit processor was produced in large numbers by highly automated processes, so unit cost was low. Single-chip processors increase reliability as there were many fewer electrical connections to fail. As microprocessor designs get faster, the cost of manufacturing a chip (with smaller components built on a semiconductor chip the same size) generally stays the same.

Microprocessors integrated into one or a few large-scale ICs the architectures that had previously been implemented using many medium- and small-scale integrated circuits. Continued increases in microprocessor capacity have rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers.

The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words. Other embedded uses of 4-bit and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc., followed soon after. Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general-purpose microcomputers from the mid-1970s on.

Since the early 1970s, the increase in capacity of microprocessors has followed Moore's law, which suggests that the number of transistors that can be fitted onto a chip doubles every two years. Although originally calculated as a doubling every year,[4] Moore later refined the period to two years.[5] It is often incorrectly quoted as a doubling of transistors every 18 months.

Embedded applications

Microprocessors make it possible to put a computer into thousands of items that were traditionally not computer-related. These include large and small household appliances, cars (and their accessory equipment units), car keys, tools and test instruments, toys, light switches/dimmers and electrical circuit breakers, smoke alarms, battery packs, and hi-fi audio/visual components (from DVD players to phonograph turntables.) Such products as cellular telephones, DVD video system and ATSC HDTV broadcast system fundamentally require consumer devices with powerful, low-cost, microprocessors. Increasingly stringent pollution control standards effectively require automobile manufacturers to use microprocessor engine management systems, to allow optimal control of emissions over widely varying operating conditions of an automobile. Non-programmable controls would require complex, bulky, or costly implementation to achieve the results possible with a microprocessor.

A microprocessor control program can be easily tailored to different needs of a product line, allowing upgrades in performance with minimal redesign of the product. Different features can be implemented in different models of a product line at negligible production cost.

Microprocessor control of a system can provide control strategies that would be impractical to implement using electromechanical controls or purpose-built electronic controls. For example, an engine control system in an automobile can adjust ignition timing based on engine speed, load on the engine, ambient temperature, and any observed tendency for knocking - allowing an automobile to operate on a range of fuel grades.


A block diagram of the internal architecture of a popular microprocessor, showing the arithmetic and logic section, register file, control logic section, and buffers to external address and data lines

The internal arrangement of a microprocessor varies depending on the age of the design and the intended purposes of the processor. The complexity of an integrated circuit is bounded by physical limitations of the number of transistors that can be put onto one chip, the number of package terminations that can connect the processor to other parts of the system, the number of interconnections it is possible to make on the chip, and the heat that the chip can dissipate. Advancing technology makes more complex and powerful chips feasible to manufacture.

A minimal hypothetical microprocessor might only include an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and a control logic section. The ALU performs operations such as addition, subtraction, and operations such as AND or OR. Each operation of the ALU sets one or more flags in a status register, which indicate the results of the last operation (zero value, negative number, overflow. or others). The logic section retrieves instruction operation codes from memory, and initiates whatever sequence of operations of the ALU required to carry out the instruction. A single operation code might affect many individual data paths, registers, and other elements of the processor.

As integrated circuit technology advanced, it was feasible to manufacture more and more complex processors on a single chip. The size of data objects became larger; allowing more transistors on a chip allowed word sizes to increase from 4- and 8-bit words up to today's 64-bit words. Additional features were added to the processor architecture; more on-chip registers speeded up programs, and complex instructions could be used to make more compact programs. Floating-point arithmetic, for example, was often not available on 8-bit microprocessors, but had to be carried out in software. Integration of the floating point unit first as a separate integrated circuit and then as part of the same microprocessor chip, speeded up floating point calculations.

Occasionally the physical limitations of integrated circuits made such practices as a bit slice approach necessary. Instead of processing all of a long word on one integrated circuit, multiple circuits in parallel processed subsets of each data word. While this required extra logic to handle, for example, carry and overflow within each slice, the result was a system that could handle, say, 32-bit words using integrated circuits with a capacity for only 4 bits each.

With the ability to put large numbers of transistors on one chip, it becomes feasible to integrate memory on the same die as the processor. This CPU cache has the advantage of faster access than off-chip memory, and increases the processing speed of the system for many applications. Generally, processor speed has increased more rapidly than external memory speed, so cache memory is necessary if the processor is not to be delayed by slower external memory.


Three projects delivered a microprocessor at about the same time: Intel's 4004, Texas Instruments (TI) TMS 1000, and Garrett AiResearch's Central Air Data Computer (CADC).

Intel 4004

The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right)

The Intel 4004 is generally regarded as the first microprocessor,[6][7] and cost $60.[8] The first known advertisement for the 4004 is dated November 15, 1971 and appeared in Electronic News.[9] The project that produced the 4004 originated in 1969, when Busicom, a Japanese calculator manufacturer, asked Intel to build a chipset for high-performance desktop calculators. Busicom's original design called for a programmable chip set consisting of seven different chips. Three of the chips were to make a special-purpose CPU with its program stored in ROM and its data stored in shift register read-write memory. Ted Hoff, the Intel engineer assigned to evaluate the project, believed the Busicom design could be simplified by using dynamic RAM storage for data, rather than shift register memory, and a more traditional general-purpose CPU architecture. Hoff came up with a four–chip architectural proposal: a ROM chip for storing the programs, a dynamic RAM chip for storing data, a simple I/O device and a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU). Although not a chip designer, he felt the CPU could be integrated into a single chip, but as he lacked the technical know-how the idea remained just a wish for the time being.

While the architecture and specifications of the MCS-4 came from the interaction of Hoff with Stanley Mazor, a software engineer reporting to him, and with Busicom engineer Masatoshi Shima, during 1969, Mazor and Hoff moved on to other projects while in April 1970, Intel hired Federico Faggin as project leader, a move that ultimately made the single-chip CPU final design a reality (Shima instead designed the Busicom calculator firmware and assisted Faggin during the first six months of the implementation). Faggin, who originally developed the silicon gate technology (SGT) in 1968 at Fairchild Semiconductor[10] and designed the world’s first commercial integrated circuit using SGT, the Fairchild 3708, had the correct background to lead the project into what would become the first commercial general purpose microprocessor, since it was his very own invention, SGT in addition to his new methodology for random logic design, that made it possible to implement a single-chip CPU with the proper speed, power dissipation and cost. The manager of Intel's MOS Design Department was Leslie L. Vadász. at the time of the MCS-4 development, but Vadasz's attention was completely focused on the mainstream business of semiconductor memories and he left the leadership and the management of the MCS-4 project to Faggin, which was ultimately responsible for leading the 4004 project to its outcome. Production units of the 4004 were first delivered to Busicom in March 1971 and shipped to other customers in late 1971.

TMS 1000

The Smithsonian Institution says TI engineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran succeeded in creating the first microcontroller (also called a microcomputer) in 1971. The result of their work was the TMS 1000, which went commercial in 1974.[11]

TI developed the 4-bit TMS 1000 and stressed pre-programmed embedded applications, introducing a version called the TMS1802NC on September 17, 1971 which implemented a calculator on a chip.

TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor. Gary Boone was awarded U.S. Patent 3,757,306 for the single-chip microprocessor architecture on September 4, 1973. It may never be known which company actually had the first working microprocessor running on the lab bench. In both 1971 and 1976, Intel and TI entered into broad patent cross-licensing agreements, with Intel paying royalties to TI for the microprocessor patent. A history of these events is contained in court documentation from a legal dispute between Cyrix and Intel, with TI as intervenor and owner of the microprocessor patent.

A computer-on-a-chip combines the microprocessor core (CPU), memory, and I/O (input/output) lines onto one chip. The computer-on-a-chip patent, called the "microcomputer patent" at the time, U.S. Patent 4,074,351, was awarded to Gary Boone and Michael J. Cochran of TI. Aside from this patent, the standard meaning of microcomputer is a computer using one or more microprocessors as its CPU(s), while the concept defined in the patent is more akin to a microcontroller.

Pico/General Instrument

The PICO1/GI250 chip introduced in 1971. This was designed by Pico Electronics (Glenrothes, Scotland) and manufactured by General Instrument of Hicksville NY

In 1971 Pico Electronics[12] and General Instrument (GI) introduced their first collaboration in ICs, a complete single chip calculator IC for the Monroe/Litton Royal Digital III calculator. This chip could also arguably lay claim to be one of the first microprocessors or microcontrollers having ROM, RAM and a RISC instruction set on-chip. The layout for the four layers of the PMOS process was hand drawn at x500 scale on mylar film, a significant task at the time given the complexity of the chip.

Pico was a spinout by five GI design engineers whose vision was to create single chip calculator ICs. They had significant previous design experience on multiple calculator chipsets with both GI and Marconi-Elliott.[13] The key team members had originally been tasked by Elliott Automation to create an 8 bit computer in MOS and had helped establish a MOS Research Laboratory in Glenrothes, Scotland in 1967.

Calculators were becoming the largest single market for semiconductors and Pico and GI went on to have significant success in this burgeoning market. GI continued to innovate in microprocessors and microcontrollers with products including the CP1600, IOB1680 and PIC1650.[14] In 1987 the GI Microelectronics business was spun out into the Microchip PIC microcontroller business.


In 1968, Garrett AiResearch (which employed designers Ray Holt and Steve Geller) was invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy's new F-14 Tomcat fighter. The design was complete by 1970, and used a MOS-based chipset as the core CPU. The design was significantly (approximately 20 times) smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it competed against, and was used in all of the early Tomcat models. This system contained "a 20-bit, pipelined, parallel multi-microprocessor". The Navy refused to allow publication of the design until 1997. For this reason the CADC, and the MP944 chipset it used, are fairly unknown.[15] Ray Holt graduated California Polytechnic University in 1968, and began his computer design career with the CADC. From its inception, it was shrouded in secrecy until 1998 when at Holt's request, the US Navy allowed the documents into the public domain. Since then several[who?] have debated if this was the first microprocessor. Holt has stated that no one has compared this microprocessor with those that came later.[16] According to Parab et al. (2007), "The scientific papers and literature published around 1971 reveal that the MP944 digital processor used for the F-14 Tomcat aircraft of the US Navy qualifies as the first microprocessor. Although interesting, it was not a single-chip processor, and was not general purpose – it was more like a set of parallel building blocks you could use to make a special-purpose DSP form. It indicates that today’s industry theme of converging DSP-microcontroller architectures was started in 1971."[17] This convergence of DSP and microcontroller architectures is known as a Digital Signal Controller.[citation needed]

Gilbert Hyatt

Gilbert Hyatt was awarded a patent claiming an invention pre-dating both TI and Intel, describing a "microcontroller".[18] The patent was later invalidated, but not before substantial royalties were paid out.[19][20]

Four-Phase Systems AL1

The Four-Phase Systems AL1 was an 8-bit bit slice chip containing eight registers and an ALU.[21] It was designed by Lee Boysel in 1969.[22][23][24] At the time, it formed part of a nine-chip, 24-bit CPU with three AL1s, but it was later called a microprocessor when, in response to 1990s litigation by Texas Instruments, a demonstration system was constructed where a single AL1 formed part of a courtroom demonstration computer system, together with RAM, ROM, and an input-output device.[25]

8-bit designs

The Intel 4004 was followed in 1972 by the Intel 8008, the world's first 8-bit microprocessor. The 8008 was not, however, an extension of the 4004 design, but instead the culmination of a separate design project at Intel, arising from a contract with Computer Terminals Corporation, of San Antonio TX, for a chip for a terminal they were designing,[26] the Datapoint 2200 — fundamental aspects of the design came not from Intel but from CTC. In 1968, CTC's Austin O. “Gus” Roche developed the original design for the instruction set and operation of the processor. In 1969, CTC contracted two companies, Intel and Texas Instruments, to make a single-chip implementation, known as the CTC 1201.[27] In late 1970 or early 1971, TI dropped out being unable to make a reliable part. In 1970, with Intel yet to deliver the part, CTC opted to use their own implementation in the Datapoint 3300, using traditional TTL logic instead (thus the first machine to run “8008 code” was not in fact a microprocessor at all). Intel's version of the 1201 microprocessor arrived in late 1971, but was too late, slow, and required a number of additional support chips. CTC had no interest in using it. CTC had originally contracted Intel for the chip, and would have owed them $50,000 for their design work.[27] To avoid paying for a chip they did not want (and could not use), CTC released Intel from their contract and allowed them free use of the design.[27] Intel marketed it as the 8008 in April, 1972, as the world's first 8-bit microprocessor. It was the basis for the famous "Mark-8" computer kit advertised in the magazine Radio-Electronics in 1974.

The 8008 was the precursor to the very successful Intel 8080 (1974), which offered much improved performance over the 8008 and required fewer support chips, Zilog Z80 (1976), and derivative Intel 8-bit processors. The competing Motorola 6800 was released August 1974 and the similar MOS Technology 6502 in 1975 (designed largely by the same people). The 6502 rivaled the Z80 in popularity during the 1980s.

A low overall cost, small packaging, simple computer bus requirements, and sometimes the integration of extra circuitry (e.g. the Z80's built-in memory refresh circuitry) allowed the home computer "revolution" to accelerate sharply in the early 1980s. This delivered such inexpensive machines as the Sinclair ZX-81, which sold for US$99.

The Western Design Center, Inc. (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several firms. It was used as the CPU in the Apple IIe and IIc personal computers as well as in medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrillators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices. WDC pioneered the licensing of microprocessor designs, later followed by ARM and other microprocessor Intellectual Property (IP) providers in the 1990s. A variation of the 6502, the MOS Technology 6510 was used in the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 home computers.

Motorola introduced the MC6809 in 1978, an ambitious and thought-through 8-bit design source compatible with the 6800 and implemented using purely hard-wired logic. (Subsequent 16-bit microprocessors typically used microcode to some extent, as CISC design requirements were getting too complex for purely hard-wired logic only.)

Another early 8-bit microprocessor was the Signetics 2650, which enjoyed a brief surge of interest due to its innovative and powerful instruction set architecture.

A seminal microprocessor in the world of spaceflight was RCA's RCA 1802 (aka CDP1802, RCA COSMAC) (introduced in 1976), which was used onboard the Galileo probe to Jupiter (launched 1989, arrived 1995). RCA COSMAC was the first to implement CMOS technology. The CDP1802 was used because it could be run at very low power, and because a variant was available fabricated using a special production process (Silicon on Sapphire), providing much better protection against cosmic radiation and electrostatic discharges than that of any other processor of the era. Thus, the SOS version of the 1802 was said to be the first radiation-hardened microprocessor.

The RCA 1802 had what is called a static design, meaning that the clock frequency could be made arbitrarily low, even to 0 Hz, a total stop condition. This let the Galileo spacecraft use minimum electric power for long uneventful stretches of a voyage. Timers and/or sensors would awaken/improve the performance of the processor in time for important tasks, such as navigation updates, attitude control, data acquisition, and radio communication.

12-bit designs

The Intersil 6100 family consisted of a 12-bit microprocessor (the 6100) and a range of peripheral support and memory ICs. The microprocessor recognised the DEC PDP-8 minicomputer instruction set. As such it was sometimes referred to as the CMOS-PDP8. Since it was also produced by Harris Corporation, it was also known as the Harris HM-6100. By virtue of its CMOS technology and associated benefits, the 6100 was being incorporated into some military designs until the early 1980s.

16-bit designs

The first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor was the National Semiconductor IMP-16, introduced in early 1973. An 8-bit version of the chipset was introduced in 1974 as the IMP-8.

Other early multi-chip 16-bit microprocessors include one used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the LSI-11 OEM board set and the packaged PDP 11/03 minicomputer, and the Fairchild Semiconductor MicroFlame 9440, both of which were introduced in the 1975 to 1976 timeframe.

In 1975, National introduced the first 16-bit single-chip microprocessor, the National Semiconductor PACE, which was later followed by an NMOS version, the INS8900.

Another early single-chip 16-bit microprocessor was TI's TMS 9900, which was also compatible with their TI-990 line of minicomputers. The 9900 was used in the TI 990/4 minicomputer, the TI-99/4A home computer, and the TM990 line of OEM microcomputer boards. The chip was packaged in a large ceramic 64-pin DIP package, while most 8-bit microprocessors such as the Intel 8080 used the more common, smaller, and less expensive plastic 40-pin DIP. A follow-on chip, the TMS 9980, was designed to compete with the Intel 8080, had the full TI 990 16-bit instruction set, used a plastic 40-pin package, moved data 8 bits at a time, but could only address 16 KB. A third chip, the TMS 9995, was a new design. The family later expanded to include the 99105 and 99110.

The Western Design Center (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65816 16-bit upgrade of the WDC CMOS 65C02 in 1984. The 65816 16-bit microprocessor was the core of the Apple IIgs and later the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, making it one of the most popular 16-bit designs of all time.

Intel "upsized" their 8080 design into the 16-bit Intel 8086, the first member of the x86 family, which powers most modern PC type computers. Intel introduced the 8086 as a cost effective way of porting software from the 8080 lines, and succeeded in winning much business on that premise. The 8088, a version of the 8086 that used an 8-bit external data bus, was the microprocessor in the first IBM PC. Intel then released the 80186 and 80188, the 80286 and, in 1985, the 32-bit 80386, cementing their PC market dominance with the processor family's backwards compatibility. The 80186 and 80188 were essentially versions of the 8086 and 8088, enhanced with some onboard peripherals and a few new instructions; they were not used in IBM-compatible PCs because the built-in perpherals and their locations in the memory map were incompatible with the IBM design. The 8086 and successors had an innovative but limited method of memory segmentation, while the 80286 introduced a full-featured segmented memory management unit (MMU). The 80386 introduced a flat 32-bit memory model with paged memory management.

The Intel x86 processors up to and including the 80386 do not include floating-point units (FPUs). Intel introduced the 8087, 80287, and 80387 math coprocessors to add hardware floating-point and transcendental function capabilities to the 8086 through 80386 CPUs. The 8087 works with the 8086/8088 and 80186/80188,[28] the 80187 works with the 80186/80188, the 80287 works with the 80286 and 80386,[29] and the 80387 works with the 80386 (yielding better performance than the 80287). The combination of an x86 CPU and an x87 coprocessor forms a single multi-chip microprocessor; the two chips are programmed as a unit using a single integrated instruction set.[30] Though the 8087 coprocessor is interfaced to the CPU through I/O ports in the CPU's address space, this is transparent to the program, which does not need to know about or access these I/O ports directly; the program accesses the coprocessor and its registers through normal instruction opcodes. Starting with the successor to the 80386, the 80486, the FPU was integrated with the control unit, MMU, and integer ALU in a pipelined design on a single chip (in the 80486DX version), or the FPU was eliminated entirely (in the 80486SX version). An ostensible coprocessor for the 80486SX, the 80487, was actually a complete 80486DX which disabled and replaced the coprocessorless 80486SX that it was installed to upgrade.

32-bit designs

Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 die.

16-bit designs had only been on the market briefly when 32-bit implementations started to appear.

The most significant of the 32-bit designs is the MC68000, introduced in 1979. The 68K, as it was widely known, had 32-bit registers in its programming model but used 16-bit internal data paths, 3 16-bit Arithmetic Logic Units, and a 16-bit external data bus (to reduce pin count), and supported only 24-bit addresses. In PC-based IBM-compatible mainframes the MC68000 internal microcode was modified to emulate the 32-bit System/370 IBM mainframe.[31] Motorola generally described it as a 16-bit processor, though it clearly has 32-bit capable architecture. The combination of high performance, large (16 megabytes or 224 bytes) memory space and fairly low cost made it the most popular CPU design of its class. The Apple Lisa and Macintosh designs made use of the 68000, as did a host of other designs in the mid-1980s, including the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga.

The world's first single-chip fully 32-bit microprocessor, with 32-bit data paths, 32-bit buses, and 32-bit addresses, was the AT&T Bell Labs BELLMAC-32A, with first samples in 1980, and general production in 1982[32][33] After the divestiture of AT&T in 1984, it was renamed the WE 32000 (WE for Western Electric), and had two follow-on generations, the WE 32100 and WE 32200. These microprocessors were used in the AT&T 3B5 and 3B15 minicomputers; in the 3B2, the world's first desktop supermicrocomputer; in the "Companion", the world's first 32-bit laptop computer; and in "Alexander", the world's first book-sized supermicrocomputer, featuring ROM-pack memory cartridges similar to today's gaming consoles. All these systems ran the UNIX System V operating system.

Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor was the iAPX 432, which was introduced in 1981 but was not a commercial success. It had an advanced capability-based object-oriented architecture, but poor performance compared to contemporary architectures such as Intel's own 80286 (introduced 1982), which was almost four times as fast on typical benchmark tests. However, the results for the iAPX432 was partly due to a rushed and therefore suboptimal Ada compiler.[citation needed]

The ARM first appeared in 1985. This is a RISC processor design, which has since come to dominate the 32-bit embedded systems processor space due in large part to its power efficiency, its licensing model, and its wide selection of system development tools. Semiconductor manufacturers generally license cores such as the ARM11 and integrate them into their own system on a chip products; only a few such vendors are licensed to modify the ARM cores. Most cell phones include an ARM processor, as do a wide variety of other products. There are microcontroller-oriented ARM cores without virtual memory support, as well as SMP applications processors with virtual memory.

Motorola's success with the 68000 led to the MC68010, which added virtual memory support. The MC68020, introduced in 1985 added full 32-bit data and address buses. The 68020 became hugely popular in the Unix supermicrocomputer market, and many small companies (e.g., Altos, Charles River Data Systems) produced desktop-size systems. The MC68030 was introduced next, improving upon the previous design by integrating the MMU into the chip. The continued success led to the MC68040, which included an FPU for better math performance. A 68050 failed to achieve its performance goals and was not released, and the follow-up MC68060 was released into a market saturated by much faster RISC designs. The 68K family faded from the desktop in the early 1990s.

Other large companies designed the 68020 and follow-ons into embedded equipment. At one point, there were more 68020s in embedded equipment than there were Intel Pentiums in PCs.[34] The ColdFire processor cores are derivatives of the venerable 68020.

During this time (early to mid-1980s), National Semiconductor introduced a very similar 16-bit pinout, 32-bit internal microprocessor called the NS 16032 (later renamed 32016), the full 32-bit version named the NS 32032. Later the NS 32132 was introduced which allowed two CPUs to reside on the same memory bus, with built in arbitration. The NS32016/32 outperformed the MC68000/10 but the NS32332 which arrived at approximately the same time the MC68020 did not have enough performance. The third generation chip, the NS32532 was different. It had about double the performance of the MC68030 which was released around the same time. The appearance of RISC processors like the AM29000 and MC88000 (now both dead) influenced the architecture of the final core, the NS32764. Technically advanced, using a superscalar RISC core, internally overclocked, with a 64 bit bus, it was still capable of executing Series 32000 instructions through real time translation.

When National Semiconductor decided to leave the Unix market, the chip was redesigned into the Swordfish Embedded processor with a set of on chip peripherals. The chip turned out to be too expensive for the laser printer market and was killed. The design team went to Intel and there designed the Pentium processor which is very similar to the NS32764 core internally The big success of the Series 32000 was in the laser printer market, where the NS32CG16 with microcoded BitBlt instructions had very good price/performance and was adopted by large companies like Canon. By the mid-1980s, Sequent introduced the first symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) server-class computer using the NS 32032. This was one of the design's few wins, and it disappeared in the late 1980s. The MIPS R2000 (1984) and R3000 (1989) were highly successful 32-bit RISC microprocessors. They were used in high-end workstations and servers by SGI, among others. Other designs included the interesting Zilog Z80000, which arrived too late to market to stand a chance and disappeared quickly.

In the late 1980s, "microprocessor wars" started killing off some of the microprocessors[citation needed]. Apparently[vague], with only one major design win, Sequent, the NS 32032 just faded out of existence, and Sequent switched to Intel microprocessors[citation needed].

From 1985 to 2003, the 32-bit x86 architectures became increasingly dominant in desktop, laptop, and server markets, and these microprocessors became faster and more capable. Intel had licensed early versions of the architecture to other companies, but declined to license the Pentium, so AMD and Cyrix built later versions of the architecture based on their own designs. During this span, these processors increased in complexity (transistor count) and capability (instructions/second) by at least three orders of magnitude. Intel's Pentium line is probably the most famous and recognizable 32-bit processor model, at least with the public at large.

64-bit designs in personal computers

While 64-bit microprocessor designs have been in use in several markets since the early 1990s, the early 2000s saw the introduction of 64-bit microprocessors targeted at the PC market.

With AMD's introduction of a 64-bit architecture backwards-compatible with x86, x86-64 (also called AMD64), in September 2003, followed by Intel's near fully compatible 64-bit extensions (first called IA-32e or EM64T, later renamed Intel 64), the 64-bit desktop era began. Both versions can run 32-bit legacy applications without any performance penalty as well as new 64-bit software. With operating systems Windows XP x64, Windows Vista x64, Windows 7 x64, Linux, BSD and Mac OS X that run 64-bit native, the software is also geared to fully utilize the capabilities of such processors. The move to 64 bits is more than just an increase in register size from the IA-32 as it also doubles the number of general-purpose registers.

The move to 64 bits by PowerPC processors had been intended since the processors' design in the early 90s and was not a major cause of incompatibility. Existing integer registers are extended as are all related data pathways, but, as was the case with IA-32, both floating point and vector units had been operating at or above 64 bits for several years. Unlike what happened when IA-32 was extended to x86-64, no new general purpose registers were added in 64-bit PowerPC, so any performance gained when using the 64-bit mode for applications making no use of the larger address space is minimal.

Multicore designs

A different approach to improving a computer's performance is to add extra processors, as in symmetric multiprocessing designs, which have been popular in servers and workstations since the early 1990s. Keeping up with Moore's Law is becoming increasingly challenging as chip-making technologies approach their physical limits.

In response, microprocessor manufacturers look for other ways to improve performance in order to hold on to the momentum of constant upgrades in the market.

A multi-core processor is simply a single chip containing more than one microprocessor core. This effectively multiplies the processor's potential performance by the number of cores (as long as the operating system and software is designed to take advantage of more than one processor core). Some components, such as bus interface and second level cache, may be shared between cores. Because the cores are physically very close to each other, they can communicate with each other much faster than separate processors in a multiprocessor system, which improves overall system performance.

In 2005, the first personal computer dual-core processors were announced. As of 2009, dual-core and quad-core processors are widely used in servers, workstations and PCs while six and eight-core processors will be available for high-end applications in both the home and professional environments.

Sun Microsystems has released the Niagara and Niagara 2 chips, both of which feature an eight-core design. The Niagara 2 supports more threads and operates at 1.6 GHz.

High-end Intel Xeon processors that are on the LGA771 socket are DP (dual processor) capable, as well as the Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9775 also used in the Mac Pro by Apple and the Intel Skulltrail motherboard. With the transition to the LGA1366 and LGA1156 socket and the Intel i7 and i5 chips, quad core is now considered mainstream, but with the release of the i7-980x, six core processors are now well within reach.


In the mid-1980s to early-1990s, a crop of new high-performance Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) microprocessors appeared, influenced by discrete RISC-like CPU designs such as the IBM 801 and others. RISC microprocessors were initially used in special-purpose machines and Unix workstations, but then gained wide acceptance in other roles.

In 1986, HP released its first system with a PA-RISC CPU. The first commercial RISC microprocessor design was released either by MIPS Computer Systems, the 32-bit R2000 (the R1000 was not released) or by Acorn computers, the 32-bit ARM2 in 1987.[citation needed] The R3000 made the design truly practical, and the R4000 introduced the world's first commercially available 64-bit RISC microprocessor. Competing projects would result in the IBM POWER and Sun SPARC architectures. Soon every major vendor was releasing a RISC design, including the AT&T CRISP, AMD 29000, Intel i860 and Intel i960, Motorola 88000, DEC Alpha.

As of 2007, two 64-bit RISC architectures are still produced in volume for non-embedded applications: SPARC and Power ISA.

Special-purpose designs

A microprocessor is a general purpose system. Several specialized processing devices have followed from the technology. Microcontrollers integrate a microprocessor with periphal devices for control of embedded system. A digital signal processor (DSP) is specialized for signal processing. Graphics processing units may have no, limited, or general programming facilities. For example, GPUs through the 1990s were mostly non-programmable and have only recently gained limited facilities like programmable vertex shaders.

Market statistics

In 2003, about $44 billion (USD) worth of microprocessors were manufactured and sold.[35] Although about half of that money was spent on CPUs used in desktop or laptop personal computers, those count for only about 2% of all CPUs sold.[36]

About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers, over two billion of which were sold in 1997.[37]

As of 2002, less than 10% of all the CPUs sold in the world are 32-bit or more. Of all the 32-bit CPUs sold, about 2% are used in desktop or laptop personal computers. Most microprocessors are used in embedded control applications such as household appliances, automobiles, and computer peripherals. Taken as a whole, the average price for a microprocessor, microcontroller, or DSP is just over $6.[36]

About ten billion CPUs were manufactured in 2008. About 98% of new CPUs produced each year are embedded.[38]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Osborne, Adam (1980). An Introduction to Microcomputers. Volume 1: Basic Concepts (2nd ed.). Berkely, California: Osborne-McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-931988-34-9. 
  2. ^ Krishna Kant Microprocessors And Microcontrollers: Architecture Programming And System DesignPHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2007 ISBN 8120331915 page 61, describing the iAPX 432
  3. ^ Back to the Moon: The Verification of a Small Microprocessor's Logic Design - NASA Office of Logic Design
  4. ^ Moore, Gordon (19 April 1965). "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits" (PDF). Electronics 38 (8). ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Articles-Press_Releases/Gordon_Moore_1965_Article.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  5. ^ (PDF) Excerpts from A Conversation with Gordon Moore: Moore's Law. Intel. 2005. ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Video-Transcripts/Excepts_A_Conversation_with_Gordon_Moore.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  6. ^ Mack, Pamela E. (30 November 2005). "The Microcomputer Revolution". http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/micro.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  7. ^ (PDF) History in the Computing Curriculum. http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/CompHist_9812tla6.PDF. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  8. ^ Halfhill, Tom, "The Intel 4004's 35th Anniversary", Microprocessor Report, Dec. 18, 2006, www.MPRonline.com
  9. ^ Faggin, Federico; Hoff, Marcian E., Jr.; Mazor, Stanley; Shima, Masatoshi (December 1996). "The History of the 4004". IEEE Micro 16 (6): 10–20. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=546561. 
  10. ^ Faggin, F.; Klein, T.; L. (23 October 1968). "Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor Integrated Circuits with Silicon Gates" (JPEG image). International Electronic Devices Meeting. IEEE Electron Devices Group. http://www.intel4004.com/images/iedm_covart.jpg. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  11. ^ Augarten, Stan (1983). The Most Widely Used Computer on a Chip: The TMS 1000. New Haven and New York: Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 0-89919-195-9. http://smithsonianchips.si.edu/augarten/p38.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  12. ^ McGonigal, James (20 September 2006). "Microprocessor History: Foundations in Glenrothes, Scotland". McGonigal personal website accessdate=2009-12-23. http://www.spingal.plus.com/micro. 
  13. ^ Tout, Nigel. "ANITA at its Zenith". Bell Punch Company and the ANITA calculators. http://anita-calculators.info/html/anita_at_its_zenith.html. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  14. ^ 16 Bit Microprocessor Handbook by Gerry Kane, Adam Osborne ISBN 0079310435 (0-07-931043-5)
  15. ^ Holt, Ray M.. "World’s First Microprocessor Chip Set". Ray M. Holt website. Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20100725060322/http://www.microcomputerhistory.com/index.php. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  16. ^ Holt, Ray (27 September 2001). Lecture: Microprocessor Design and Development for the US Navy F14 FighterJet (Speech). Room 8220, Wean Hall, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, US. http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/SDI/2001/092701.html. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  17. ^ Parab, Jivan S.; Shelake, Vinod G.; Kamat, Rajanish K.; Naik, Gourish M. (2007) (PDF). Exploring C for Microcontrollers: A Hands on Approach. Springer. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4020-6067-0. http://ee.sharif.edu/~sakhtar3/books/Exploring%20C%20for%20Microcontrollers.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  18. ^ Hyatt, Gilbert P., "Single chip integrated circuit computer architecture", Patent 4942516, issued July 17, 1990
  19. ^ "The Gilbert Hyatt Patent". intel4004.com. Federico Faggin. http://www.intel4004.com/hyatt.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  20. ^ Crouch, Dennis (1 July 2007). "Written Description: CAFC Finds Prima Facie Rejection(Hyatt v. Dudas (Fed. Cir. 2007)". Patently-O blog. http://www.patentlyo.com/patent/2007/07/hyatt-v-dudas-f.html. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  21. ^ Basset, Ross (2003). "When is a Microprocessor not a Microprocessor? The Industrial Construction of Semiconductor Innovation". In Finn, Bernard. Exposing Electronics. Michigan State University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-87013-658-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=rsRJTiu1h9MC. 
  22. ^ "1971 - Microprocessor Integrates CPU Function onto a Single Chip". The Silicon Engine. Computer History Museum. http://www.computerhistory.org/semiconductor/timeline/1971-MPU.html. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  23. ^ Shaller, Robert R. (15 April 2004). "Dissertation: Technological Innovation in the Semiconductor Industry: A Case Study of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors" (PDF). George Mason University. Archived from the original on 2006-12-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20061219012629/http://home.comcast.net/~gordonepeterson2/schaller_dissertation_2004.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  24. ^ RW (3 March 1995). "Interview with Gordon E. Moore". LAIR History of Science and Technology Collections. Los Altos Hills, California: Stanford University. http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/histsci/silicongenesis/moore-ntb.html. 
  25. ^ Bassett 2003. pp. 115, 122.
  26. ^ Ceruzzi, Paul E. (May 2003). A History of Modern Computing (2nd ed.). MIT Press. pp. 220–221. ISBN 0262532034. 
  27. ^ a b c Wood, Lamont (August 2008). "Forgotten history: the true origins of the PC". Computerworld. Archived from the original on 2011-01-07. http://www.webcitation.org/5vZKtCs1r. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  28. ^ Intel 8087 datasheet, pg. 1
  29. ^ Intel387 DX MATH COPROCESSOR datasheet, pg. 1, March 1992 (Order Number: 240448-005)
  30. ^ "Essentially, the 80C187 can be treated as an additional resource or an extension to the CPU. The 80C186 CPU together with an 80C187 can be used as a single unified system." Intel 80C187 datasheet, p. 3, November 1992 (Order Number: 270640-004).
  31. ^ Priorartdatabase.com
  32. ^ "Shoji, M. Bibliography". Bell Laboratories. 7 October 1998. http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/bib/shoji.bib. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  33. ^ "Timeline: 1982–1984". Physical Sciences & Communications at Bell Labs. Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent. 17 January 2001. http://www.bell-labs.com/org/physicalsciences/timeline/span23.html. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  34. ^ Turley, Jim (July 1998). "MCore: Does Motorola Need Another Processor Family?". Embedded Systems Design. TechInsights (United Business Media). Archived from the original on 1998-07-02. http://web.archive.org/web/19980702003323/http://www.embedded.com/98/9807sr.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  35. ^ WSTS Board Of Directors. WSTS Semiconductor Market Forecast World Release Date: 1 June 2004 - 6:00 UTC. . Miyazaki, Japan, Spring Forecast Meeting 18–21 May 2004 (World Semiconductor Trade Statistics). Archived from the original on 2004-12-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20041207091926/http://www.wsts.org/press.html. 
  36. ^ a b Turley, Jim (18 December 2002). "The Two Percent Solution". Embedded Systems Design. TechInsights (United Business Media). http://www.embedded.com/shared/printableArticle.jhtml?articleID=9900861. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  37. ^ Cantrell, Tom (1998). "Microchip on the March". Archived from the original on 2007-02-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20070220134759/http://www.circuitcellar.com/library/designforum/silicon_update/3/index.asp. 
  38. ^ Barr, Michael (1 August 2009). "Real men program in C". Embedded Systems Design. TechInsights (United Business Media). p. 2. http://www.embedded.com/columns/barrcode/218600142?pgno=2. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  • Ray, A. K.; Bhurchand, K.M.. Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals. India: Tata McGraw-Hill. 

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